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  1. Anita L. Allen & Thaddeus Pope (2003). Social Contract Theory, Slavery, and the Antebellum Courts. In Tommy Lee Lott & John P. Pittman (eds.), A Companion to African-American Philosophy. Blackwell Pub..
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  2. Richard E. Ashcroft (2005). Access to Essential Medicines: A Hobbesian Social Contract Approach. Developing World Bioethics 5 (2):121–141.
  3. Cynthia B. Bryson (1998). Mary Astell: Defender of the "Disembodied Mind". Hypatia 13 (4):40 - 62.
    This paper demonstrates how Mary Astell's version of Cartesian dualism supports her disavowal of female subordination and traditional gender roles, her rejection of Locke's notion of "thinking matter" as a major premise for rejecting his political philosophy of "social contracts" between men and women, and, finally, her claim that there is no intrinsic difference between genders in terms of ratiocination, the primary assertion that grants her the title of the first female English feminist.
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  4. Christian Byk (1992). The Human Genome Project and the Social Contract: A Law Policy Approach. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 17 (4):371-380.
    For the first time in history, genetics will enable science to completely identify each human as genetically unique. Will this knowledge reinforce the trend for more individual liberties or will it create a ‘brave new world’? A law policy approach to the problems raised by the human genome project shows how far our democratic institutions are from being the proper forum to discuss such issues. Because of the fears and anxiety raised in the population, and also because of its wide (...)
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  5. Anita Cava (1995). Social Contract Theory and Gender Discrimination. Business Ethics Quarterly 5 (2):257-270.
    This paper relates Donaldson and Dunfee’s Integrative Social Contracts Theory to the problem of gender discrimination. We make the assumption that multinational managers might seek some guidance from ISCT to resolve ethical issues of gender discrimination in countries indifferent or hostile to gender equaIity. The role of Donaldson and Dunfee’s “hypernorms” seems especially cruciaI, and we find that, under their writings thus far, no “hypernorms” exist to make unethical the most blatant acts of sex discrimination in a host country whose (...)
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  6. John C. Christman (1999). Ideology and the Economic Social Contract in a Downsizing Environment. Business Ethics Quarterly 9 (4):659-672.
    By combining normative philosophy and empirical social science, we craft a research framework for assessing differential expectations embodied in normative conceptions of the economic social contract in the United States. We argue that there are distinctviews of such a contract grounded in individualist and communitarian philosophical ideologies. We apply this framework to organizational downsizing, postulating that certain human resource practices, in combination with the respective ideological orientations, will affect perceptions of the justice of downsizing policies.Living up to one’s word is (...)
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  7. Denis Collins (1988). Adam Smith's Social Contract. Business and Professional Ethics Journal 7 (3/4):119-146.
  8. Steven Collins (1996). The Lion's Roar on the Wheel-Turning King: A Response to Andrew Huxley's 'the Buddha and the Social Contract'. [REVIEW] Journal of Indian Philosophy 24 (4):421-446.
  9. Wesley Cragg (2000). Human Rights and Business Ethics: Fashioning a New Social Contract. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 27 (1-2):205 - 214.
    This paper argues that widely accepted understanding of the respective responsibilities of business and government in the post war industrialized world can be traced back to a tacit social contract that emerged following the second world war. The effect of this contract was to assign responsibility for generating wealth to business and responsibility for ensuring the equitable sharing of wealth to governments. Without question, this arrangement has resulted in substantial improvements in the quality of life in the industrialized world in (...)
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  10. David M. Craig (2008). Religious Health Care as Community Benefit: Social Contract, Covenant, or Common Good? Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 18 (4):pp. 301-330.
    The public responsibilities of nonprofit hospitals have been contested since the advent of the 1969 community benefit standard. The distance between the standard's legal language and its implementation has grown so large that the Internal Revenue Service issued a new reporting form for 2008 that is modeled on the Catholic Health Association's guidelines for its member hospitals. This article analyzes the appearance of an emerging moral consensus about community benefits to argue against a strict charity care mandate and in favor (...)
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  11. Edward Craig (1990). Knowledge and the State of Nature: An Essay in Conceptual Synthesis. Oxford University Press.
    In this illuminating study Craig argues that the standard practice of analyzing the concept of knowledge has radical defects--arbitrary restriction of the subject matter and risky theoretical presuppositions. He proposes a new approach similar to the "state-of-nature" method found in political theory, building the concept up from a hypothesis about its social function and the needs it fulfills. Shedding light on much that philosophers have written about knowledge, its analysis and the obstacles to its analysis, and the debate over skepticism, (...)
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  12. Richard L. Cruess & Sylvia R. Cruess (2008). Expectations and Obligations: Professionalism and Medicine's Social Contract with Society. Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 51 (4):579-598.
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  13. Thomas Donaldson (1986). Fact, Fiction, and the Social Contract. Business and Professional Ethics Journal 5 (1):40-46.
  14. Elisabeth Ellis (2008). Provisional Politics: Kantian Arguments in Policy Context. Yale University Press.
    True,Kant takes the conclusions of his ethical work for granted in his political theorizing; he treats corollaries of the categorical imperative as conclusive principles of political right.However,in his political theory his concern is not simply to lay ...
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  15. Elisabeth Ellis (2006). Citizenship and Property Rights: A New Look at Social Contract Theory. Journal of Politics 68 (3):544-555.
    Social contract thought has always contained multiple and mutually conflicting lines of argument; the minimalist contractarianism so influential today represents the weaker of two main constellations of claims. I make the case for a Kantian contract theory that emphasizes the bedrock principle of consent of the governed instead of the mere heuristic device of the exit from the state of nature. Such a shift in emphasis resolves two classic difficulties: tradi- tional contract theory’s ahistorical presumption of a pre-political settlement, and (...)
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  16. Simon Evnine (1993). Hume, Conjectural History, and the Uniformity of Human Nature. Journal of the History of Philosophy 31 (4):589-606.
    In this paper I argue that, in at least two cases - his discussions of the temporal precedence o f polytheism over monotheism and of the origins of civil society - we see Hume consigning to historical development certain aspects of reason which, as a comparison with Locke will show, have sometimes been held to be uniform. In the first of these cases Hume has recourse to claims about the general historical development of human thought. In the second case, the (...)
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  17. Why the international market for pharmaceuticals fails & What to Do About It : A. Comparison of Two Alternative Approaches to Global Ethics (2008). Reflecting the Impact of Ethical Theory : Contractarianism, Ethics, and Economics. Christoph Luetge / Civilising the Barbarians? : On the Apparent Necessity of Moral Surpluses; Soeren Buttkereit and Ingo Pies / Social Dilemmas and the Social Contract; Peter Koslowski / Ethical Economy as the Economy of Ethics and as the Ethics of the Market Economy; Ingo Pies and Stefan Hielscher. In Jesús Conill Sancho, Christoph Luetge & Tatjana Schó̈nwälder-Kuntze (eds.), Corporate Citizenship, Contractarianism and Ethical Theory: On Philosophical Foundations of Business Ethics. Ashgate Pub. Company.
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  18. Aleksandar Fatic (2013). Corruption, Corporate Character-Formation and 'Value-Strategy'. Filozofija I Drustvo (Philosophy and Society) 24 (1):60-80.
    While most discussions of corruption focus on administration, institutions, the law and public policy, little attention in the debate about societal reform is paid to the “internalities” of anti-corruption efforts, specifically to character-formation and issues of personal and corporate integrity. While the word “integrity” is frequently mentioned as the goal to be achieved through institutional reforms, even in criminal prosecutions, the specifically philosophical aspects of character-formation and the development of corporate and individual virtues in a rational and systematic way tend (...)
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  19. William C. Frederick (1995). Social Contract. The Ruffin Series in Business Ethics:224-226.
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  20. William C. Frederick (1995). The Social Contract Revisited. The Ruffin Series in Business Ethics:270-273.
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  21. Gerald Gaus (2012). Justification, Choice and Promise: Three Devices of the Consent Tradition in a Diverse Society. Critical Review of International Social and Political Philosophy 15 (2):109-127.
    The twin ideas at the heart of the social contract tradition are that persons are naturally free and equal, and that genuine political obligations must in some way be based on the consent of those obligated. The Lockean tradition has held that consent must be in the form of explicit choice; Kantian contractualism has insisted on consent as rational endorsement. In this paper I seek to bring the Kantian and Lockean contract traditions together. Kantian rational justification and actual choice are (...)
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  22. Russell Hardin (1982). Book Review:The New Social Contract: An Inquiry Into Modern Contractual Relations. Ian R. Macneil. [REVIEW] Ethics 93 (1):168-.
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  23. Sally Haslanger, Comments on Charles Mills' "Race and the Social Contract Tradition&Quot;.
    The framing question of Mills' important and thought-provoking paper is whether there is reason for political progressives and radicals to employ the notion of a social contract for either descriptive or normative purposes. In contrast to the common response that the social contract is a piece of "bourgeois mystification" he argues instead that a reformulated conception of the contract, one which he calls the..
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  24. Paul F. Hodapp (1990). Can There Be a Social Contract with Business? Journal of Business Ethics 9 (2):127 - 131.
    Professor Donaldson in his book Corporations and Morality has attempted to use a social contract theory to develop moral principles for regulating corporate conduct. I argue in this paper that his attempt fails in large measure because what he refers to as a social contract theory is, in fact, a weak functionalist theory which provides no independent basis for evaluating business corporations. I further argue that given the nature of a morality based on contract and the nature of the modern (...)
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  25. Nancy J. Holland (1988). Introduction to Kofman's “Rousseau's Phallocratic Ends”. Hypatia 3 (3):119-122.
  26. Graham Hubbs (2014). Transparency, Corruption, and Democratic Institutions. Les Ateliers de l'Éthique / the Ethics Forum 9 (1):65-83.
    This essay examines some of the institutional arrangements that underlie corruption in democracy. It begins with a discussion of institutions as such, elaborating and extending some of John Searle’s remarks on the topic. It then turns to an examination of specifically democratic institutions; it draws here on Joshua Cohen’s recent Rousseau: A Free Community of Equals. One of the central concerns of Cohen’s Rousseau is how to arrange civic institutions so that they are able to perform their public functions without (...)
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  27. Andrew Huxley (1996). The Buddha and the Social Contract. Journal of Indian Philosophy 24 (4):407-420.
  28. Bruce Jennings (2011). Nature as Absence : The Logic of Nature and Culture in Social Contract Theory. In Gregory E. Kaebnick (ed.), The Ideal of Nature: Debates About Biotechnology and the Environment. Johns Hopkins University Press. 29.
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  29. D. Bruce Johnsen (2009). The Ethics of "Commercial Bribery": Integrative Social Contract Theory Meets Transaction Cost Economics. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 88 (S4):791 - 803.
    This article provides an ISCT analysis of commercial bribery focused on transaction cost economics. In the language of Antitrust, commercial bribery is a form of vertical arrangement subject to the same efficiency analysis that has found other vertical arrangements potentially beneficial to consumers. My analysis shows that actions condemned as commerical bribery in the Honda case (1996) may well have benefited Honda's dealer network once promotional free riding and other forms of rent seeking by dealers are considered. I propose that (...)
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  30. Geoffrey Karabin (2006). The Jewish Social Contract. Journal for Peace and Justice Studies 16 (2):119-122.
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  31. Christine Keating (2007). Framing the Postcolonial Sexual Contract: Democracy, Fraternalism, and State Authority in India. Hypatia 22 (4):130-145.
    : This essay examines the reconfiguration of the racial and sexual contracts underpinning democratic theory and practice in the transition to independence in India. Drawing upon the work of Carole Pateman and Charles Mills, Keating argues that the racialized fraternal democratic order that they describe was importantly challenged by nationalist and feminist struggles against colonialism in India, but was reshaped into what she calls a postcolonial sexual contract by the framers of the Indian Constitution.
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  32. Michael Keeley (1995). Continuing the Social Contract Tradition. Business Ethics Quarterly 5 (2):241-255.
    Social contract theory has a rich history. It originated among the ancients with recognition that social arrangements were not products of nature but convention. It developed through the centuries as theorists sought ethical criteria for distinguishing good conventions from bad. The search for such ethical criteria continues in recent attempts to apply social contract theory to organizations. In this paper, I question the concept ofconsent as a viable ethical criterion, and I argue for an alternate principle of impartiality as a (...)
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  33. Ernest Kilzer (1958). The Social Contract. New Scholasticism 32 (4):513-515.
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  34. George A. Kimbrell (2009). Governance of Nanotechnology and Nanomaterials: Principles, Regulation, and Renegotiating the Social Contract. Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 37 (4):706-723.
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  35. Allan J. Kimmel, N. Craig Smith & Jill Gabrielle Klein (2011). Ethical Decision Making and Research Deception in the Behavioral Sciences: An Application of Social Contract Theory. Ethics and Behavior 21 (3):222 - 251.
    Despite significant ethical advances in recent years, including professional developments in ethical review and codification, research deception continues to be a pervasive practice and contentious focus of debate in the behavioral sciences. Given the disciplines' generally stated ethical standards regarding the use of deceptive procedures, researchers have little practical guidance as to their ethical acceptability in specific research contexts. We use social contract theory to identify the conditions under which deception may or may not be morally permissible and formulate practical (...)
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  36. Teodros Kiros (2011). Philosophical Essays. Red Sea Press.
    Introducing the Democracy Project -- From oligarchy to democracy -- From democracy to tyranny -- Revisiting classical democracy through Aristotle's eyes -- From the state of nature to society: the commonwealth -- John Locke and modern liberal democracy -- John Locke and the state of nature -- John Locke on government -- Jean Jacques Rousseau on the social contract -- The general will and the social contract -- The origin of inequalities -- David Hume on the social contract -- James (...)
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  37. Philip Kitcher (1999). Review: Games Social Animals Play: Commentary on Brian Skyrms's Evolution of the Social Contract. [REVIEW] Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 59 (1):221 - 228.
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  38. Thomas A. Kochan (2012). Building a New Social Contract at Work. Journal of Catholic Social Thought 9 (1):7-22.
  39. Randall G. Krieg (2003). A Social Contract for Deinstitutionalization. Journal of Social Philosophy 34 (3):475–486.
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  40. John Kultgen (1986). Donaldson's Social Contract for Business. Business and Professional Ethics Journal 5 (1):28-39.
  41. Jacob E. Kurlander, Karine Morin & Matthew K. Wynia (2004). The Social-Contract Model of Professionalism: Baby or Bath Water? American Journal of Bioethics 4 (2):33-36.
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  42. Eerik Lagerspetz (1984). Money as a Social Contract. Theory and Decision 17 (1):1-9.
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  43. John Laird (1931). The Social Contract of the Universe. By C. G. Stone M.A. (London: Methuen & Co. Pp. Vii+118. Price 6s. Net.). Philosophy 6 (21):138-.
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  44. Bill Lawson (1990). Crime, Minorities, and the Social Contract. Criminal Justice Ethics 9 (2):16-24.
  45. Aaron Lercher (2008). A Social Contract for Health Information. Journal of Information Ethics 17 (2):35-45.
    Electronic health records are likely to improve health care but in the U.S. they will also enable health insurers to be more selective in deciding to whom to deny coverage or whose premiums to increase. In a Rawlsian social contract (1971) the veil of ignorance does not conceal general scientific information from the hypothetical contracting parties. Nonetheless, this paper shows that social contract considerations rule out risk selection as morally impermissible. Since modern health care must in effect be paid for (...)
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  46. Leon Levitt (1986). Commentary on Donaldson's Social Contract for Business. Business and Professional Ethics Journal 5 (1):47-50.
  47. Kirsten E. Martin (2012). Diminished or Just Different? A Factorial Vignette Study of Privacy as a Social Contract. Journal of Business Ethics 111 (4):519-539.
    A growing body of theory has focused on privacy as being contextually defined, where individuals have highly particularized judgments about the appropriateness of what, why, how, and to whom information flows within a specific context. Such a social contract understanding of privacy could produce more practical guidance for organizations and managers who have employees, users, and future customers all with possibly different conceptions of privacy across contexts. However, this theoretical suggestion, while intuitively appealing, has not been empirically examined. This study (...)
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  48. Eduardo Mendieta (2007). 10. The Prison Contract and Abolition Democracy. Radical Philosophy Today 2007:209-217.
    This article discusses the fortuitous genesis of the book of my conversations with Angela Y. Davis, Abolition Democracy (Seven Stories, 2005) and traces some of the intellectual and philosophical sources that informed the specific questions and approaches that inform the dialogue. Davis’ relationships to Georg Rusche and Otto Kirchheimer, as well as to Foucault, are discussed. Similarly, Davis’ place within a critical black American political-philosophical tradition is analyzed. The essay focuses mainly, however, on the way in which Davis’ work on (...)
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  49. Thaddeus Metz (2001). Kant's Contractualism and Enlightenment Politics. In Volker Gerhardt (ed.), Proceedings of the Ninth International Kant Congress, Volume 4. Walter de Gruyter. 204-11.
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  50. Michael Moehler (2009). Why Hobbes' State of Nature is Best Modeled by an Assurance Game. Utilitas 21 (3):297-326.
    In this article, I argue that if one closely follows Hobbes' line of reasoning in Leviathan, in particular his distinction between the second and the third law of nature, and the logic of his contractarian theory, then Hobbes' state of nature is best translated into the language of game theory by an assurance game, and not by a one-shot or iterated prisoner's dilemma game, nor by an assurance dilemma game. Further, I support Hobbes' conclusion that the sovereign must always punish (...)
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