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Summary

Socialism is a political and economic order in which the means of production (e.g. land, factories, machinery, communication and transportation infrastructure, etc.) are subject to public control and the traditionally gendered and often unpaid labor of reproduction (e.g. child rearing, domestic labor, etc.) is compensated or socialized. While the structure of governance, use of markets, degree of cooperative labor, and kinds welfare guarantees may vary, socialism seeks to prioritize the satisfaction of human needs, while mitigating material inequality and social oppression. Karl Marx (1818-1883) and Friedrich Engels (1820-1895) argued that the objective possibility of socialism was immanent to capitalism. (Socialism supported by moral principles or human will alone, was critically referred to as utopian.) Immanent to socialism, in turn, is the objective possibility of communism, which entails the complete dissolution of the state, division of labor, and the value form associated with commodity production. Marxist socialism is thus a stage in the historical development of communism, whose defining characteristic is the overcoming of all internal contradictions and radical otherness (a characteristic it shares with Hegel’s notion of absolute spirit). Marxism, however, also refers to a systematic, dialectical, and historical analysis of capitalism; a reflexive form of critical social theory with an emancipatory intent; a historical materialist methodology; theories of class formation, conflict, and ideology; as well as to critiques of alienation, reification, and commodity fetishism. There are now several different schools of Marxist thought, from Humanist, Structuralist, and Autonomist Marxism, to Analytical, Feminist, and Cultural Marxism, among others.

Key works Major early works in socialist thought include Charles Fourier,

The Theory of the Four Movements

(1808), Robert Owen,

New View of Society

(1813), and Pierre-Joseph Proudhon, What Is Property? (1840). Major works by Marx and Engels include Karl Marx's Capital, Volumes 1-3, the Economic and Philosophic Manuscripts of 1844, “On the Jewish Question,” and The Eighteenth Brumaire; Engels' The Condition of the Working Class in England (1844) and The Origin of the Family, Private Property and the State (1884); as well as 

The Communist Manifesto

(1848) and the German Ideology (1845), which Marx and Engels authored together. The collected works of Marx and Engels in German are here (MEGA) and in English here (MECW). Other key texts in the Marxist tradition include Lenin, State and Revolution (1917); Antonio Gramsci, Prison Notebooks; Rosa Luxemburg, The Accumulation of Capital (1913), Georg (György) Lukács,

History and Class Consciousness (1923); Louis Althusser, For Marx (1965); and Jean-Paul Sartre, Critique of Dialectical Reason, 2 Volumes (1960, 1985).

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  1. Saroja åacåarya (1987). Saroja Åacåarya Racanåabalåi. Påarla Påabaliâsåarsa.
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  2. Nicola Abbagnano (1958). Four Kinds of Dialectics. Rivista di Filosofia 59 (3):123-133.
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  3. A. Abdel-Malek (1968). Marxism and the Sociology of Civilizations. Diogenes 16 (64):91-117.
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  4. Gasi Bekhbudovich Abdullaev, Baku Akademiia Nauk Azerbaidzhanskoi Ssr & Filosofskoe Obshchestvo Sssr (1976). Dialektika I Metodologicheskie Problemy Razvitiia Nauki [Sbornik Statei]. Elm.
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  5. Peter Abell (1995). Self‐Management: Is It Postmodernist? Critical Review 9 (3):341-348.
    Conceptions of self?management and the labor managed firm (LMF) have not been well received by economists. They have, however, proved to be a continuing (though minority) interest in the socialist movement from Marx onwards. Prychitko claims that by examining the humanist side of Marx, a socialist case can be made both for the LMF and markets in a postmodern world. Such a case rests upon an assumption that self?management confers competitive advantage by enhancing information sharing (increasingly important in (...)
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  6. Miguel Abensour (2009). Utopía: ¿Futuro y/o Alteridad? Daimon: Revista de Filosofia 46:15-32.
    Este artículo propone recorrer las diferentes perspectivas desde las que históricamente se ha pensado la utopía. En este recorrido Miguel Abensour subraya dos giros fundamentales. El primero sería la asignación de la utopía al tiempo por medio de su transferencia a una ontología dialéctica, operación llevada a cabo por Marx e identificada por Marc Bloch. El segundo, aún más importante en cuanto se trata de una tarea presente, sería la superación de los límites que la previsión dialéctica impone a la (...)
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  7. I. Abrahamovicova (1976). Needs and Interests and Their Influence Upon Development of Socialist Way of Life. Filosoficky Casopis 24 (6):919-925.
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  8. Merritt Abrash (1991). Looking Backward: Marxism Americanized. Utopian Studies 4:6-9.
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  9. John Abromeit (2010). Left Heideggerianism or Phenomenological Marxism? Reconsidering Herbert Marcuse's Critical Theory of Technology. Constellations 17 (1):87-106.
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  10. T. Abse (forthcoming). Mark Neocleous, Fascism. Radical Philosophy.
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  11. H. B. Acton (1967). Dialectical Materialism. In Paul Edwards (ed.), The Encyclopedia of Philosophy. New York, Macmillan. 2--389.
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  12. H. B. Acton (1957). The Illusion of the Epoch. Boston, Beacon Press.
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  13. H. B. Acton (1955/2004). The Illusion of the Epoch: Marxism-Leninism as a Philosophical Creed. Liberty Fund.
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  14. H. B. Acton (1947). The Marxist Outlook. Philosophy 22 (83):208 - 230.
    By a “world-outlook” I mean a systematic account of the nature of the world which claims, by showing the place of man in the scheme of things, to indicate the point and purpose of his life. The theory of the world is often called a metaphysical theory and the theory of conduct an ethical or moral theory. In my opinion the clarification and criticism of world-outlooks is a fundamental part of philosophy. Indeed, I hardly think that philosophy would have existed (...)
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  15. H. B. Acton & Z. A. Jordan (1965). Philosophy and Ideology: The Development of Philosophy and Marxism-Leninism in Poland Since the Second World War. Philosophical Quarterly 15 (58):90.
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  16. A. A. Adamian (1978). Voprosy Estetiki I Teorii Iskusstva. Iskusstvo.
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  17. Walter L. Adamson (1982). Jozef Wilczynski, An Encyclopedic Dictionary of Marxism, Socialism and Communism Reviewed By. Philosophy in Review 2 (1):36-37.
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  18. Laird Addis (1966). Freedom and the Marxist Philosophy of History. Philosophy of Science 33 (1/2):101-.
    Many believe that the Marxist philosophy of history entails that man is not free in a sense in which it seems obvious that he is. In particular it is held to be (1) materialistic, (2) holistic, (3) economistic, and (4) fatalistic. It is claimed, in short, that since the Marxist philosophy of history has these features, man is not capable of shaping his own (social) destiny if it is true. I show for each of these features either that it does (...)
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  19. Frederick J. Adelmann (1970). Freedom and Marxism. Studies in East European Thought 10 (1):1-12.
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  20. Frederick J. Adelmann (1969). Demythologizing Marxism a Series of Studies on Marxism. Boston College.
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  21. Hakim Adi (2006). Forgotten Comrade? Desmond Buckle: An African Communist in Britain. Science and Society 70 (1):22 - 45.
    Recognized at the end of his life as a "lifelong fighter for colonial freedom" and "one of the first African Marxists," the Ghanaian James Desmond Buckle's life and work is rarely mentioned in historical accounts of the British or international communist movements. The role of Buckle, a longtime member of the Communist Party of Great Britain (CPGB) is recovered by documenting his work as organizer, writer, and propagandist for the CPGB on international issues. Buckle's understanding of the British Party's engagement (...)
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  22. F. Adler (1979). Thalheimer, Bonapartism and Fascism. Telos: Critical Theory of the Contemporary 1979 (40):95-108.
    It is not at all surprising that August Thalheimer's 1930 essay on fascism should have been so enthusiastically rediscovered, reprinted and widely discussed in left-wing European circles during the 1960's. Informed debate on fascism had reached a major theoretical impasse: factually, more was known than ever before, or, at any rate, enough to dismiss as “empirically inadequate” virtually all of the better known traditional interpretations; yet, conceptually, no new theoretical nets had been cast that might have better accounted for the (...)
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  23. Frank Adler (2001). Reconsidering Fascism. Telos: Critical Theory of the Contemporary 2001 (119):181-188.
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  24. Franklin Hugh Adler (1982). Book Review:Gramsci and Marxist Theory. Chantel Mouffe. [REVIEW] Ethics 92 (2):365-.
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  25. Max Adler (1964). Soziologie des Marxismus. Europa Verlag.
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  26. Paul S. Adler (2005). Market, Hierarchy, and Trust: The Knowledge Economy and the Future of Capitalism. In Critical Management Studies: A Reader. Oup Oxford.
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  27. V. G. Afanas'ev (1979). Lenin on Peaceful and Nonpeaceful Paths of the Socialist Revolution. Russian Studies in Philosophy 17 (4):21-43.
    The question of peaceful and nonpeaceful paths of the socialist revolution and the building of socialism is now the subject of the lively discussion in the international Communist and workers' movement. It is sometimes asserted that V. I. Lenin raised violence to an absolute, that he saw armed insurrection and civil war as virtually the only means of carrying out the socialist revolution. Inasmuch as under today's conditions, particularly in developed capitalist countries, seizure of power by the working class and (...)
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  28. Viktor Grigorʹevich Afanasʹev (1987). Dialectical Materialism. International Publishers.
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  29. Viktor Grigorʹevich Afanasʹev (1987). Historical Materialism. International Publishers.
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  30. Viktor Grigorʹevich Afanasʹev (1980). Marxist Philosophy. Progress Publishers.
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  31. Viktor Grigorʹevich Afanasʹev (1968). Marxist Philosophy: A Popular Outline. Moscow, Progress.
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  32. Viktor Grigorʹevich Afanasʹev (1965). Marxist Philosophy. Moscow, Progress Publishers.
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  33. Ben Agger (1983). Marxism 'Or' the Frankfurt School? Philosophy of the Social Sciences 13 (3):347-365.
  34. Alf Ahlberg (1949). Eschatologische Motive des Marxismus. Theoria 15 (1-3):1-16.
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  35. Z. A. Ahmad (ed.) (1940). Philosophy of Socialism. Kitabistan.
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  36. Silin Ai (2011). Ai Silin Lun Wen Xuan. Zhonghua Shu Ju.
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  37. Ssu-ch I. Ai (1979). Ta Chung Che Hsüeh. Sheng Huo Tu Shu Hsin Chih San Lien Shu Tien : Hsin Hua Shu Tien Fa Hsing.
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  38. Jan Ajzner (2000). Marxist Axioms as Self-Contradictory Parsonian Statements in Sociology. Human Studies 23 (2):157-178.
    This paper examines the implicit foundations of several theoretical propositions characteristic of the Marxist tradition in sociology. It argues that these propositions derive from self-contradictory critical premises which are paradoxes of Action Theory. Implicit in these premises is an ideal picture of social reality quite different from the one analytically described by Parsons. I suggest that Action Theory can provide conceptual tools needed to address some specific issues characteristic of the Marxist perspective and, moreover, offers a solution to some epistemological (...)
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  39. T. A. Kyrgyz Respublikasy Ilimder Akademiiasy, Tuitu Dzhusupovich Abdyldaev & Karakeev (1974). Materialy Soveshchaniia Po Problemam Dialekticheskogo Materializma I Filosofskim Voprosam Estestvoznaniia. Izd-Vo Akademii Nauk Kirgizskoi Ssr.
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  40. E. L. Akopov & Kubanskii Gosudarstvennyi Universitet (1978). Dialektika Ob Ektivnogo I Sub Ektivnogo V Deiatel Nosti Liudei. Kubanskii Gos. Universitet.
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  41. Jamal A. Al-Khatib, Christopher J. Robertson & Dana-Nicoleta Lascu (2004). Post-Communist Consumer Ethics: The Case of Romania. Journal of Business Ethics 54 (1):81-95.
    In this paper we theorize that cognitive ethical orientations play an influential role in the beliefs of consumers when faced with different ranges of moral dilemmas. We examine this proposition in transitional Eastern Europe and results from a sample of 210 Romanian consumers suggest that Romanians are faced with a moral situation where low levels of Machiavellianism and high levels of idealism appear to relate to a higher ethical concern about passively benefiting at the expense of others.
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  42. Ruth Alas & Christopher J. Rees (2006). Work-Related Attitudes, Values and Radical Change in Post-Socialist Contexts: A Comparative Study. Journal of Business Ethics 68 (2):181 - 189.
    The study draws attention to the transfer of management theories and practices from traditional capitalist countries such as the USA and UK to post-socialist countries that are currently experiencing radical change as they seek to introduce market reforms. It is highlighted that the efficacy of this transfer of management theories and practices is, in part, dependent upon the extent to which work-related attitudes and values vary between traditional capitalist and former socialist contexts. We highlight that practices such as Human Resource (...)
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  43. Brander Alayo Alcántara (2008). Exclusión: (El Poder de la Palabra). Ornitorrinco.
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  44. Víctor Alba & Vincent G. Smith (1985). The Communist Party in Spain. Studies in Soviet Thought 29 (3):254-256.
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  45. Michael Albert & Robin Hahnel (1983). Marxism and Socialist Theory. Studies in Soviet Thought 25 (3):255-258.
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  46. R. Albritton (1989). Book Reviews : On the Formation of Marxism. By Jukka Gronow. Philadelphia: Coronet Books, 1986. Pp. 253. $28.50 (Paper. [REVIEW] Philosophy of the Social Sciences 19 (3):394-396.
  47. Robert Albritton (1992). Levels of Analysis in Marxian Political Economy: An Unoist Approach. Radical Philosophy 60 (Spring):16-21.
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  48. R. I. Aleksandrova (1990). Perestroika Dukhovno-Nravstvennyi Potentsial.
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  49. Dariusz Aleksandrowicz (1992). The Road to Emptiness (the Dynamics of Polish Marxism). Studies in East European Thought 43 (2):101-115.
  50. B. T. Alekseev (1981). Filosofskie Problemy Formalizatsii Znaniia. Izd-Vo Leningradskogo Universiteta.
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