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Summary

Socialism is a political and economic order in which the means of production (e.g. land, factories, machinery, communication and transportation infrastructure, etc.) are subject to public control and the traditionally gendered and often unpaid labor of reproduction (e.g. child rearing, domestic labor, etc.) is compensated or socialized. While the structure of governance, use of markets, degree of cooperative labor, and kinds welfare guarantees may vary, socialism seeks to prioritize the satisfaction of human needs, while mitigating material inequality and social oppression. Karl Marx (1818-1883) and Friedrich Engels (1820-1895) argued that the objective possibility of socialism was immanent to capitalism. (Socialism supported by moral principles or human will alone, was critically referred to as utopian.) Immanent to socialism, in turn, is the objective possibility of communism, which entails the complete dissolution of the state, division of labor, and the value form associated with commodity production. Marxist socialism is thus a stage in the historical development of communism, whose defining characteristic is the overcoming of all internal contradictions and radical otherness (a characteristic it shares with Hegel’s notion of absolute spirit). Marxism, however, also refers to a systematic, dialectical, and historical analysis of capitalism; a reflexive form of critical social theory with an emancipatory intent; a historical materialist methodology; theories of class formation, conflict, and ideology; as well as to critiques of alienation, reification, and commodity fetishism. There are now several different schools of Marxist thought, from Humanist, Structuralist, and Autonomist Marxism, to Analytical, Feminist, and Cultural Marxism, among others.

Key works Major early works in socialist thought include Charles Fourier,

The Theory of the Four Movements

(1808), Robert Owen,

New View of Society

(1813), and Pierre-Joseph Proudhon, What Is Property? (1840). Major works by Marx and Engels include Karl Marx's Capital, Volumes 1-3, the Economic and Philosophic Manuscripts of 1844, “On the Jewish Question,” and The Eighteenth Brumaire; Engels' The Condition of the Working Class in England (1844) and The Origin of the Family, Private Property and the State (1884); as well as 

The Communist Manifesto

(1848) and the German Ideology (1845), which Marx and Engels authored together. The collected works of Marx and Engels in German are here (MEGA) and in English here (MECW). Other key texts in the Marxist tradition include Lenin, State and Revolution (1917); Antonio Gramsci, Prison Notebooks; Rosa Luxemburg, The Accumulation of Capital (1913), Georg (György) Lukács,

History and Class Consciousness (1923); Louis Althusser, For Marx (1965); and Jean-Paul Sartre, Critique of Dialectical Reason, 2 Volumes (1960, 1985).

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  1. A. Abdel-Malek (1968). Marxism and the Sociology of Civilizations. Diogenes 16 (64):91-117.
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  2. Peter Abell (1995). Self‐Management: Is It Postmodernist? Critical Review 9 (3):341-348.
    Conceptions of self?management and the labor managed firm (LMF) have not been well received by economists. They have, however, proved to be a continuing (though minority) interest in the socialist movement from Marx onwards. Prychitko claims that by examining the humanist side of Marx, a socialist case can be made both for the LMF and markets in a postmodern world. Such a case rests upon an assumption that self?management confers competitive advantage by enhancing information sharing (increasingly important in (...)
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  3. John Abromeit (2010). Left Heideggerianism or Phenomenological Marxism? Reconsidering Herbert Marcuse's Critical Theory of Technology. Constellations 17 (1):87-106.
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  4. H. B. Acton (1955/2004). The Illusion of the Epoch: Marxism-Leninism as a Philosophical Creed. Liberty Fund.
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  5. H. B. Acton (1947). The Marxist Outlook. Philosophy 22 (83):208 - 230.
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  6. Laird Addis (1966). Freedom and the Marxist Philosophy of History. Philosophy of Science 33 (1/2):101-.
    Many believe that the Marxist philosophy of history entails that man is not free in a sense in which it seems obvious that he is. In particular it is held to be (1) materialistic, (2) holistic, (3) economistic, and (4) fatalistic. It is claimed, in short, that since the Marxist philosophy of history has these features, man is not capable of shaping his own (social) destiny if it is true. I show for each of these features either that it does (...)
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  7. Frederick J. Adelmann (1970). Freedom and Marxism. Studies in East European Thought 10 (1):1-12.
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  8. Franklin Hugh Adler (1982). Book Review:Gramsci and Marxist Theory. Chantel Mouffe. [REVIEW] Ethics 92 (2):365-.
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  9. V. G. Afanas'ev (1979). Lenin on Peaceful and Nonpeaceful Paths of the Socialist Revolution. Russian Studies in Philosophy 17 (4):21-43.
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  10. Viktor Grigorʹevich Afanasʹev (1980). Marxist Philosophy. Progress Publishers.
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  11. Viktor Grigorʹevich Afanasʹev (1968). Marxist Philosophy: A Popular Outline. Moscow, Progress.
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  12. Viktor Grigorʹevich Afanasʹev (1965). Marxist Philosophy. Moscow, Progress Publishers.
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  13. Ben Agger (1983). Marxism 'Or' the Frankfurt School? Philosophy of the Social Sciences 13 (3):347-365.
  14. Alf Ahlberg (1949). Eschatologische Motive des Marxismus. Theoria 15 (1-3):1-16.
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  15. Z. A. Ahmad (ed.) (1940). Philosophy of Socialism. Kitabistan.
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  16. Silin Ai (2011). Ai Silin Lun Wen Xuan. Zhonghua Shu Ju.
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  17. Jan Ajzner (2000). Marxist Axioms as Self-Contradictory Parsonian Statements in Sociology. Human Studies 23 (2):157-178.
    This paper examines the implicit foundations of several theoretical propositions characteristic of the Marxist tradition in sociology. It argues that these propositions derive from self-contradictory critical premises which are paradoxes of Action Theory. Implicit in these premises is an ideal picture of social reality quite different from the one analytically described by Parsons. I suggest that Action Theory can provide conceptual tools needed to address some specific issues characteristic of the Marxist perspective and, moreover, offers a solution to some epistemological (...)
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  18. Jamal A. Al-Khatib, Christopher J. Robertson & Dana-Nicoleta Lascu (2004). Post-Communist Consumer Ethics: The Case of Romania. Journal of Business Ethics 54 (1):81-95.
    In this paper we theorize that cognitive ethical orientations play an influential role in the beliefs of consumers when faced with different ranges of moral dilemmas. We examine this proposition in transitional Eastern Europe and results from a sample of 210 Romanian consumers suggest that Romanians are faced with a moral situation where low levels of Machiavellianism and high levels of idealism appear to relate to a higher ethical concern about passively benefiting at the expense of others.
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  19. Ruth Alas & Christopher J. Rees (2006). Work-Related Attitudes, Values and Radical Change in Post-Socialist Contexts: A Comparative Study. Journal of Business Ethics 68 (2):181 - 189.
    The study draws attention to the transfer of management theories and practices from traditional capitalist countries such as the USA and UK to post-socialist countries that are currently experiencing radical change as they seek to introduce market reforms. It is highlighted that the efficacy of this transfer of management theories and practices is, in part, dependent upon the extent to which work-related attitudes and values vary between traditional capitalist and former socialist contexts. We highlight that practices such as Human Resource (...)
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  20. Brander Alayo Alcántara (2008). Exclusión: (El Poder de la Palabra). Ornitorrinco.
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  21. R. Albritton (1989). Book Reviews : On the Formation of Marxism. By Jukka Gronow. Philadelphia: Coronet Books, 1986. Pp. 253. $28.50 (Paper. [REVIEW] Philosophy of the Social Sciences 19 (3):394-396.
  22. Dariusz Aleksandrowicz (1992). The Road to Emptiness (the Dynamics of Polish Marxism). Studies in East European Thought 43 (2):101-115.
  23. P. V. Alekseev & A. Ia Il'in (1973). Lenin's Idea of the Union of Marxist Philosophy and Natural Science. Russian Studies in Philosophy 12 (1):86-98.
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  24. Hayward R. Alker (ed.) (1982). Dialectical Logics for the Political Sciences. Rodopi.
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  25. Derek P. H. Allen (1974). Is Marxism a Philosophy? Journal of Philosophy 71 (17):601-612.
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  26. Garland E. Allen (1991). Reply to Lansanna Keita on “Marxism and Human Sociobiology”. Biology and Philosophy 6 (4):453-456.
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  27. John Allett (2001). Bernard Shaw, the Doctor's Dilemma: Scarcity, Socialism, and the Sanctity of Life. [REVIEW] Journal of Value Inquiry 35 (2):227-245.
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  28. Louis Althusser (2006). Philosophy of the Encounter: Later Writings, 1978-87. Verso.
    From Althusser's most prolific period, this book is destined to become a classic.In the late 1970s and 1980s, Louis Althusser endured a period of intense mental ...
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  29. Louis Althusser (1972). Politics and History: Montesquieu, Rousseau, Hegel and Marx. London,Nlb.
  30. Louis Althusser (1969/2005). For Marx. Verso.
    A milestone in the development of post-war Marxist thought.
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  31. Abdrew Altman (1981). Is Marxism Utopia? Philosophy and Social Criticism 8 (4):388-403.
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  32. William Altman (2009). The Alpine Limits of Jewish Thought: Leo Strauss, National Socialism, and Judentum Ohne Gott. Journal of Jewish Thought and Philosophy 17 (1):1-46.
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  33. William H. F. Altman (2011). The German Stranger: Leo Strauss and National Socialism. Lexington Books, a Division of Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.
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  34. Antônio José Lopes Alves (2013). Modos E Formas: Dimensões Filosóficas da Crítica Marxiana da Economia Política. Kriterion: Revista de Filosofia 54 (127):125-140.
    O presente artigo se refere a uma parte integrante do projeto de pesquisa intitulado "A Cientificidade na Obra Marxiana de Maturidade" e pretende explicitar o estatuto categorial, determinativo, de dois dos principais conceitos que integram a crítica marxiana da economia política em sua versão madura: formas de ser e modos de produção. Tomados na linguagem corrente como praticamente sinônimos, as duas noções ganham no corpus científico-filosófico construído pela reflexão marxiana, cada qual, uma significação bastante precisa. Propomo-nos a esclarecer o conteúdo (...)
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  35. Kenneth Aman (1985). “Using” Marxism. International Philosophical Quarterly 25 (4):393-401.
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  36. Peter Amato (2011). Decentering and Refocusing Marx. Radical Philosophy Review 14 (2):217-221.
  37. Peter Amato (2006). Marxist Critique and Philosophical Hermeneutics. Radical Philosophy Today 2006:235-242.
    Philosophically robust conceptions of ethical life and moral critique would advance the struggle against capital. Marx can be read as implying that human life is irreducibly meaningful, linguistic, and cultural, but he often is not. Whether or not Marx recognized them himself, these dimensions of life have not been sufficiently thematized or developed by Marxists. I argue that we can move toward doing so with assistance from Hans-Georg Gadamer’s philosophical hermeneutics. A hermeneutical approach to historical materialism would help clarify and (...)
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  38. Samir Amin (2006). A Life Looking Forward: Memoirs of an Independent Marxist. Zed Books.
    Samir Amin depicts a world in which NATO has taken over the role of the United Nations, in which US hegemony is more or less complete, in which millions are condemned to die in order to preserve the social order of the US, Europe and Japan. Amin's analyses of the Gulf War, the wars in former Yugoslavia and the war in Central Asia reveal the scope of US strategic aims. He argues that the political and military dimension of US dominance (...)
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  39. Qinian An (ed.) (2006). Makesi Zhu Yi Zhe Xue Zhongguo Hua Yan Jiu. Zhongguo Ren Min da Xue Chu Ban She.
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  40. Charles W. Anderson (1981). Book Review:Welfare and Planning: An Analysis of Capitalism Versus Socialism. Heinz Kohler; The Discretionary Economy: A Normative Theory of Political Economy. Marc R. Tool; The Conservative Economic World View. Benjamin Ward; The Liberal Economic World View. Benjamin Ward; The Radical Economic World View. Benjamin Ward. [REVIEW] Ethics 91 (4):675-.
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  41. John Anderson (1937). Marxist Ethics. Australasian Journal of Philosophy 15 (2):98 – 117.
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  42. John Anderson (1935). Marxist Philosophy. Australasian Journal of Philosophy 13 (1):24 – 48.
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  43. Kevin Anderson (1992). Lenin, Hegel and Western Marxism: From the 1920s to 1953. Studies in East European Thought 44 (2):79-129.
  44. A. L. Andreev (1990). Socialist Realism and the Traditions of Soviet Art. Russian Studies in Philosophy 28 (4):71-78.
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  45. E. Benj Andrews (1892). Economic Reform Short of Socialism. International Journal of Ethics 2 (3):273-288.
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  46. Naomi J. Andrews (2002). La Mere Humanite" : Femininity in the Romantic Socialism of Pierre Leroux and the Abbe A.-L. Constant. Journal of the History of Ideas 63 (4):697-716.
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  47. Iu V. Andropov (1983). The Teachings of Karl Marx and the Problems of Socialist Construction in the USSR. Russian Studies in Philosophy 22 (2):3-27.
  48. Ian Angus (2009). Heideggerian Marxism. Symposium 13 (1):113-136.
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  49. Ian Angus (2005). Walking on Two Legs: On the Very Possibility of a Heideggerian Marxism. [REVIEW] Human Studies 28 (3):335 - 352.
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  50. S. F. Anisimov & B. O. Nikolaichev (1981). Moscow University's Department of Marxist-Leninist Ethics: A Decade of Teaching and Sociopolitical Activity. Russian Studies in Philosophy 19 (4):89-98.
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