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  1. Garland E. Allen (1991). Reply to Lansanna Keita on “Marxism and Human Sociobiology”. Biology and Philosophy 6 (4):453-456.
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  2. Scott Atran (2005). In Gods We Trust: The Evolutionary Landscape of Religion. OUP USA.
    This ambitious, interdisciplinary book seeks to explain the origins of religion using our knowledge of the evolution of cognition. A cognitive anthropologist and psychologist, Scott Atran argues that religion is a by-product of human evolution just as the cognitive intervention, cultural selection, and historical survival of religion is an accommodation of certain existential and moral elements that have evolved in the human condition.
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  3. Francisco J. Ayala (1987). Sociobiology and Ethics. [REVIEW] History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 9 (2):315 - 325.
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  4. E. B. (1998). Sociobiology, Sex, and Science - Holcomb, H. R., (Albany, NY: State University of New York Press, 1993), X+447 Pp., ISBN 0-7914-1260-1 Paperback. [REVIEW] Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C 29 (1):201-210.
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  5. Murat Bayar (2010). Science or Ideology? : Sociobiology and its Aftermath. In Howard J. Wiarda (ed.), Grand Theories and Ideologies in the Social Sciences. Palgrave Macmillan.
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  6. Tamas Bereczkei (1993). An Intellectual Legacy of the Past: The Reception of Sociobiology in the East-European Countries. [REVIEW] Biology and Philosophy 8 (4):399-407.
    Sociobiology has not been well received in Eastern Europe. Reasons for this are listed and discussed. It is suggested that times are changing and that sociobiology will have more success in the future.
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  7. Jonathan Birch (2013). Samir Okasha and Ken Binmore (Eds) Evolution and Rationality: Decisions, Cooperation, and Strategic Behaviour. [REVIEW] British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 64 (3):669-673.
  8. Jonathan Birch (2013). Explaining the Human Syndrome. [REVIEW] Metascience 22 (2):347-350.
  9. Jonathan Birch (2013). Hamilton's Rule and Its Discontents. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science:axt016.
    In an incendiary 2010 Nature article, M. A. Nowak, C. E. Tarnita, and E. O. Wilson present a savage critique of the best-known and most widely used framework for the study of social evolution, W. D. Hamilton’s theory of kin selection. More than a hundred biologists have since rallied to the theory’s defence, but Nowak et al. maintain that their arguments ‘stand unrefuted’. Here I consider the most contentious claim Nowak et al. defend: that Hamilton’s rule, the core explanatory principle (...)
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  10. Jonathan Birch (2012). Social Revolution. [REVIEW] Biology and Philosophy 27 (4):571-581.
    Andrew Bourke’s Principles of Social Evolution identifies three stages that characterize an evolutionary transition in individuality and deploys inclusive fitness theory to explain each stage. The third stage, social group transformation, has hitherto received relatively little attention from inclusive fitness theorists. In this review, I first discuss Bourke’s “virtual dominance” hypothesis for the evolution of the germ line. I then contrast Bourke’s inclusive fitness approach to the major transitions with the multi-level approach developed by Richard Michod, Samir Okasha and others. (...)
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  11. Jonathan Birch (2012). Collective Action in the Fraternal Transitions. Biology and Philosophy 27 (3):363-380.
    Inclusive fitness theory was not originally designed to explain the major transitions in evolution, but there is a growing consensus that it has the resources to do so. My aim in this paper is to highlight, in a constructive spirit, the puzzles and challenges that remain. I first consider the distinctive aspects of the cooperative interactions we see within the most complex social groups in nature: multicellular organisms and eusocial insect colonies. I then focus on one aspect in particular: the (...)
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  12. L. Boon & H. Smit (1989). Research Styles and the Reception of Sociobiology. Philosophy of the Social Sciences 19 (1):19-40.
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  13. Zhang Boshu (1987). Marxism and Human Sociobiology: A Comparative Study From the Perspective of Modern Socialist Economic Reforms. [REVIEW] Biology and Philosophy 2 (4):463-474.
    Modern socialist economic reforms which center on the establishment of a commodity based economic system, demand a reconsideration of human nature. Marxism and human sociobiology give different answers to questions about human nature, but neither is complete in itself. It seems timely, therefore, to suggest that a combination of biological understanding with a Marxist-based social understanding would produce a more adequate notion of human nature, thereby helping us to resolve a number of problems posed by reforms currently taking place in (...)
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  14. J. W. Bowker (1980). The Aeolian Harp: Sociobiology and Human Judgment. Zygon 15 (3):307-333.
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  15. Craig A. Boyd (2004). Was Thomas Aquinas a Sociobiologist? Thomistic Natural Law, Rational Goods, and Sociobiology. Zygon 39 (3):659-680.
  16. Ingo Brigandt (2001). The Homeopathy of Kin Selection: An Evaluation of van den Berghe’s Sociobiological Approach to Ethnic Nepotism. Politics and the Life Sciences 20:203–215.
    The present discussion of sociobiological approaches to ethnic nepotism takes Pierre van den Berghe ʼs theory as a starting point. Two points, which have not been addressed in former analyses, are considered to be of particular importance. It is argued that the behavioral mechanism of ethnic nepotism—as understood by van den Berghe—cannot explain ethnic boundaries and attitudes. In addition, I show that van den Bergheʼs central premise concerning ethnic nepotism is in contradiction to Hamiltonʼs formula, the essential principle of kin (...)
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  17. Jason M. Byron (2005). Sociobiology. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
    The term 'sociobiology' was introduced in E. O. Wilson's Sociobiology: The New Synthesis (1975) as the application of evolutionary theory to social behavior. Sociobiologists claim that many social behaviors have been shaped by natural selection for reproductive success, and they attempt to reconstruct the evolutionary histories of particular behaviors or behavioral strategies. This survey attempts to clarify and evaluate the aim of sociobiology. Given that a neutral account is impossible, this entry does the next best thing. It takes sociobiology as (...)
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  18. J. Baird Callicott (1996). Do Deconstructive Ecology and Sociobiology Undermine Leopold's Land Ethic? Environmental Ethics 18 (4):353-372.
    Recent deconstructive developments in ecology (doubts about the existence of unified communities and ecosystems, the diversity-stability hypothesis, and a natural homeostasis or “balance of nature”; and an emphasis on “chaos,” “perturbation,” and directionless change in living nature) and the advent of sociobiology (selfish genes) may seem to undermine the scientific foundations of environmental ethics, especially the Leopold land ethic. A reassessment of the Leopold land ethic in light of these developments (and vice versa) indicates that the land ethic is still (...)
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  19. Arthur Caplan (1976). Book Review:Sociobiology Edward O. Wilson. [REVIEW] Philosophy of Science 43 (2):305-.
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  20. Arthur L. Caplan (1984). Sociobiology as a Strategy in Science. The Monist 67 (2):143-160.
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  21. Arthur L. Caplan (1983). Book Review:Sociobiology and the Preemption of Social Science. Alexander Rosenberg; The Expanding Circle: Ethics and Sociobiology. Peter Singer. [REVIEW] Ethics 93 (3):603-.
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  22. Michael Cavanaugh (2000). A Retrospective on Sociobiology. Zygon 35 (4):813-826.
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  23. J. Chapman (1986). Human Sociobiology and Archaeology. In J. L. Bintliff & C. F. Gaffney (eds.), Archaeology at the Interface: Studies in Archaeology's Relationships with History, Geography, Biology, and Physical Science. B.A.R..
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  24. Stephen R. L. Clark (1985). The Expanding Circle: Ethics and Sociobiology By Peter Singer Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1981, Xiv+190 Pp., £6.95The Shaping of Man: Philosophical Aspects of Sociobiology By Roger Trigg Oxford: Blackwell, 1982, Xx+186 Pp., £12.50, £6.95 Paper. [REVIEW] Philosophy 60 (233):411-.
  25. Justin Clarke-Doane (2012). Morality and Mathematics: The Evolutionary Challenge. Ethics 122 (2):313-340.
    It is commonly suggested that evolutionary considerations generate an epistemological challenge for moral realism. At first approximation, the challenge for the moral realist is to explain our having many true moral beliefs, given that those beliefs are the products of evolutionary forces that would be indifferent to the moral truth. An important question surrounding this challenge is the extent to which it generalizes. In particular, it is of interest whether the Evolutionary Challenge for moral realism is equally a challenge for (...)
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  26. Randall Collins (1983). Upheavals in Biological Theory Undermine Sociobiology. Sociological Theory 1:306-318.
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  27. Paul Crook (1998). Human Pugnacity and War: Some Anticipations of Sociobiology, 1880–1919. [REVIEW] Biology and Philosophy 13 (2):263-288.
    Almost all of the themes contained in E.O.Wilson's sociobiological writing on war and human aggression were prefigured in Anglo-American bio-social discourse, c. 1880–1919. Instinct theory – stemming from animal psychology and the genetics revolution – encouraged the belief that pugnacity had been programmed into the ancient part of the human brain as a result of evolutionary pressures dating from prehistory. War was seen to be instinct-driven, and genocidal fighting postulated as a eugenic force in early human evolution. War was explained (...)
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  28. Wim E. Crusio (2004). The Sociobiology of Sociopathy: An Alternative Hypothesis. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 27 (1):154-155.
    Mealey argued that sociopathy is an evolutionary stable strategy subject to frequency-dependent selection – high levels of sociopathy being advantageous to the individual if population-wide frequencies of it are low, and vice versa. I argue that at least one alternative hypothesis exists that explains her data equally well. Alternative hypotheses must be formulated and tested before any theory can be validated.
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  29. Bernard D. Davis (1980). The Importance of Human Individuality for Sociobiology. Zygon 15 (3):275-293.
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  30. Ronald de Sousa (1990). The Sociology of Sociobiology. International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 4 (3):271 – 283.
    Abstract This paper turns the tables on the criticisms of sociobiology that stem from a sociological perspective; many of those criticisms lack cogency and coherence in such measure as to demand, in their turn, a psycho?sociological explanation rather than a rational justification. This thesis, after a brief exposition of the main ideas of sociobiology, is argued in terms of four of the most prominent complaints made against it. Far from embodying tired prejudices about the psychological and sociological implications of biology, (...)
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  31. Daniel R. DeNicola (1980). Sociobiology and Religion: A Discussion of the Issues. Zygon 15 (4):407-423.
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  32. John Dupré (1998). Against Reductionist Explanations of Human Behaviour: John Dupré. Aristotelian Society Supplementary Volume 72 (1):153–172.
    [John Dupré] This paper attacks some prominent contemporary attempts to provide reductive accounts of ever wider areas of human behaviour. In particular, I shall address the claims of sociobiology (or evolutionary psychology) to provide a universal account of human nature, and attempts to subsume ever wider domains of behaviour within the scope of economics. I shall also consider some recent suggestions as to how these approaches might be integrated. Having rejected the imperialistic ambitions of these approaches, I shall briefly advocate (...)
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  33. John Dupré (1983). Human Reproduction and Sociobiology. Analysis 43 (4):210 - 212.
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  34. Denis Dutton (1999). Sociobiology and Art. Philosophy and Literature 23 (2):451-457.
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  35. Jose Sanmartín Esplugues (1986). Somas Monos, Pero Menos. Theoria 2 (1):157-178.
    This paper is an extensive evaluation of the nowdays sociobiology and of the prominent subdiscipline that deals with humans. At the same time an interactional perspective is developed, according to which the relation between organism and environment is a dialectical development of organism and milieu in response to each other. Finally the relations between genetical memory and individual memory are examined. In this way, it attempts to provide an unitary, but nonreductionist account of the humans.
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  36. Antony Flew (1994). E. O. Wilson After Twenty Years: Is Human Sociobiology Possible? Philosophy of the Social Sciences 24 (3):320-335.
    The second word in the subtitle of this article is crucial. For there can be no doubt but that the possibility of sociobiology below the human level has already been abundantly realized in, for instance, the main body of E. O. Wilson's enormous and encyclopedic treatise Sociobiology: The New Synthesis. What may more reasonably be doubted, and what is in fact questioned here, is whether, as Wilson and others hope and believe, there is much room, or indeed any, for a (...)
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  37. Federico Focher (2001). The Control of Cultural Evolution has Been Tried, What's Next? Bioessays 23 (8):761-761.
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  38. Pedro Fonseca (2010). The Reception of the "New Synthesis" in Portugal: Germano da Fonseca Sacarrão on the Sociobiology Debate. Revista Portuguesa de Filosofia 66 (3):661 - 686.
    The object of study of the present is the critical reception of sociobiology and reflections on the sociobiology debate by one of Portugal's most notorious evolutionary thinkers, Germano da Fonseca Sacarrão (1914-1992). Our work starts with an extensive analysis of the vast literature concerning the emergence of sociobiology, the main criticisms it received, and the intense discussions (in and out of the academic circle) surrounding the new discipline's premises, framework, methodology, and ambitions, that took place in the years following the (...)
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  39. Charles Frankel (1980). Sociobiology and its Critics. Zygon 15 (3):255-273.
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  40. Bernard Gert (1984). Rationality and Sociobiology. The Monist 67 (2):216-228.
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  41. Fred Gifford (1988). Book Review:The Sociobiology of Ethnocentrism: Evolutionary Dimensions of Xenophobia, Discrimination, Racism and Nationalism. Vernon Reynolds, Vincent Fagler, Ian Vine. [REVIEW] Ethics 99 (1):183-.
  42. Paul Edmund Griffiths, Ethology, Sociobiology and Evolutionary Psychology.
    In the years leading up to the Second World War the ethologists Konrad Lorenz and Nikolaas Tinbergen, created the tradition of rigorous, Darwinian research on animal behavior that developed into modern behavioral ecology. At first glance, research on specifically human behavior seems to exhibit greater discontinuity that research on animal behavior in general. The 'human ethology' of the 1960s appears to have been replaced in the early 1970s by a new approach called ‘sociobiology’. Sociobiology in its turn appears to have (...)
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  43. Alan Gross (1992). The Battle Over Sociobiology. Social Epistemology 6 (2):165 – 174.
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  44. Paul Gross & Harmon Holcomb, Sociobiology.
    The term ‘sociobiology’ was introduced in E. O. Wilson's Sociobiology: The New Synthesis (1975) as the application of evolutionary theory to social behavior. Sociobiologists claim that many social behaviors have been shaped by natural selection for reproductive success, and they attempt to reconstruct the evolutionary histories of particular behaviors or behavioral strategies.
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  45. Philip Hefner (1984). Sociobiology, Ethics, and Theology. Zygon 19 (2):185-207.
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  46. Harmon Holcomb, Sociobiology. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
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  47. Harmon R. Holcomb (1998). Explaining World History: Marxism, Evolutionism, and Sociobiology. Biology and Philosophy 13 (4):597-618.
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  48. Harmon R. Holcomb (1987). Criticism, Commitment, and the Growth of Human Sociobiology. Biology and Philosophy 2 (1):43-63.
    The fundamental unit of assessment in the sociobiology debate is neither a field nor a theory, but a framework of group commitments. Recourse to the framework concept is motivated, in general, by post-Kuhnian philosophy of scientific change and, in particular, by the dispute between E. O. Wilson and R. C. Lewontin. The framework concept is explicated in terms of commitments about problems, domain, disciplinary relations, exemplars, and performance evaluations. One upshot is that debate over such charges as genetic determinism, reductionism, (...)
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  49. Hope Hollocher, Agustin Fuentes, Charles H. Pence, Grant Ramsey, Daniel John Sportiello & Michelle M. Wirth (2011). On the Origin of Stories: Evolution, Cognition, and Fiction. [REVIEW] Quarterly Review of Biology 86 (2):137-138.
  50. T. Hoquet (2010). Is Sociobiology Amendable? Feminist and Darwinian Women Biologists Confront the Paradigm of Sexual Selection. Diogenes 57 (1):113-126.
    Is it possible to be a socio-biologist and a feminist? Socio-biology has been accused of being a macho ideological arsenal, which seems to exclude in advance any possibility of amending it. However that was the project of several female researchers (in particular S. B. Hrdy and P. A. Gowaty), who suggested adopting the science’s theoretical framework in order to change it from within. This has been expressed in a change of focus: an appeal to take account of female strategies and (...)
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