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Sociology of Science

Edited by Markus Seidel (Westfälische Wilhelms Universität, Münster)
Assistant editor: Charlott Becker (Westfälische Wilhelms Universität, Münster)
About this topic
Summary Sociology of Science aims at an understanding of the social aspects of science. It comprises research about the social structure of the institutions of science and their relationship to other institutions as well as the influence on and construction of scientific knowledge.
Key works Barnes et al 1996 states the prominent 'Strong programme', Collins 1985 presents the sociology of science of the so-called 'Bath school', Fleck 1979 is an early classic in sociology of science, In Latour & Woolgar 1986 a constructivist approach in the sociology of science is defended, Merton 1973 is a collection of key essays by probably the most prominent sociologist of science, De Solla Price is one of the founding fathers of scientometrics , In Shapin & Schaffer 1989, you find an influential case study
Introductions Barnes et al 1996 can be read as an introduction to the field, Helen Longino's article in the Stanford Encyclopedia provides introductory insight in the social dimensions of scientific knowledge
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  1. N. Abercrombie & B. Longhurst (1983). Interpreting Mannheim. Theory, Culture and Society 2 (1):5-15.
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  2. Stephen Acreman (2014). Show Us Your Traces: Traceability as a Measure for the Political Acceptability of Truth-Claims. Contemporary Political Theory 1 (1):01-01.
    This article considers some political potentialities of the post-constructivist proposal for substituting truth with traceability. Traceability is a measure of truthfulness in which the rationality of a truth-claim is found in accounting for the work done to maintain links back to an internal referent through a chain of mediations. The substitution of traceability for truth is seen as necessary to move the entire political domain towards a greater responsiveness to the events of the natural-social world. In particular, it seeks to (...)
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  3. Lord Mansfield'S. Advice (1982). David Bloor. In Barry Barnes & David O. Edge (eds.), Science in Context: Readings in the Sociology of Science. Mit Press.
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  4. Joseph Agassi (2009). Turner on Merton. Philosophy of the Social Sciences 39 (2):284-293.
    Stephen Turner complains about weaknesses of Robert K. Merton's teachings without noticing that these are common. He puts down Merton's ideas despite his innovations, on the ground that they are not successful and not sufficiently revolutionary. The criteria by which he condemns Merton are too vague and too high. Merton's merit is in his having put the sociology of science on the map and drawn attention to the egalitarianism that was prominent in classical science and that is now diminished. Key (...)
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  5. Joseph Agassi (2008). Nicholas Maxwell:Is Science Neurotic?:Is Science Neurotic? Philosophy of Science 75 (4):477-479.
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  6. Joseph Agassi (1989). Symposium on the Role of the Philosopher Among the Scientists: Nuisance or Necessity? A Reply to Baigrie. Social Epistemology 3 (4):319.
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  7. Joseph Agassi (1989). The Role of the Philosopher Among the Scientists: Nuisance or Necessity? Social Epistemology 3 (4):297 – 309.
    1. Where is the trouble? Let us take it for granted that a person can be interested in researches that go on in different fields, for example, in physics and in psychology. Undoubtedly, this will raise problems not shared by a person whose research is confined to one field only. There may be difficulty in deciding which of the two is that person's primary field of interest; members of his secondary field of interest may be flattered or feel slighted or (...)
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  8. Joseph Agassi (1981). Science and Society Studies in the Sociology of Science /Joseph Agassi. --. --. D. Reidel Pub. Co. Sold and Distributed in the U.S.A. And Canada by Kluwer Boston Inc., C1981.
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  9. Glen S. Aikenhead (1987). High‐School Graduates' Beliefs About Science‐Technology‐Society. III. Characteristics and Limitations of Scientific Knowledge. [REVIEW] Science Education 71 (4):459-487.
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  10. Max Albert (2011). Methodology and Scientific Competition. Episteme 8 (2):165-183.
    Why is the average quality of research in open science so high? The answer seems obvious. Science is highly competitive, and publishing high quality research is the way to rise to the top. Thus, researchers face strong incentives to produce high quality work. However, this is only part of the answer. High quality in science, after all, is what researchers in the relevant field consider to be high quality. Why and how do competing researchers coordinate on common quality standards? I (...)
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  11. Douglas Allchin (2004). Should the Sociology of Science Be Rated X? Science Education 88 (6):934-946.
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  12. Hanne Andersen (2013). The Second Essential Tension: On Tradition and Innovation in Interdisciplinary Research. Topoi 32 (1):3-8.
    In his analysis of “the essential tension between tradition and innovation” Thomas S. Kuhn focused on the apparent paradox that, on the one hand, normal research is a highly convergent activity based upon a settled consensus, but, on the other hand, the ultimate effect of this tradition-bound work has invariably been to change the tradition. Kuhn argued that, on the one hand, without the possibility of divergent thought, fundamental innovation would be precluded. On the other hand, without a strong emphasis (...)
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  13. Hanne Andersen (2010). Joint Acceptance and Scientific Change: A Case Study. Episteme 7 (3):248-265.
    Recently, several scholars have argued that scientists can accept scientific claims in a collective process, and that the capacity of scientific groups to form joint acceptances is linked to a functional division of labor between the group members. However, these accounts reveal little about how the cognitive content of the jointly accepted claim is formed, and how group members depend on each other in this process. In this paper, I shall therefore argue that we need to link analyses of joint (...)
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  14. Elizabeth Anderson (2007). Feminist Epistemology and Philosophy of Science. In Edward N. Zalta (ed.), The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
    Feminist epistemology and philosophy of science studies the ways in which gender does and ought to influence our conceptions of knowledge, the knowing subject, and practices of inquiry and justification. It identifies ways in which dominant conceptions and practices of knowledge attribution, acquisition, and justification systematically disadvantage women and other subordinated groups, and strives to reform these conceptions and practices so that they serve the interests of these groups. Various practitioners of feminist epistemology and philosophy of science argue that dominant (...)
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  15. Daniel Andler (2009). Naturalism and the Scientific Status of the Social Sciences. In M. Suarez, M. Dorato & M. Rédei (eds.), EPSA: Epistemology and Methodology of Science: Launch of the European Philosophy of Science Association. Springer.
    situation in the sciences of man and show it to be fallacious. On the view to be 6 rejected, the sciences of man are undergoing the first serious attempt in history to 7 thoroughly naturalize their subject matter and thus to put an end to their separate sta- 8 tus. Progress has (on this view) been quite considerable in the disciplines in charge 9 of the individual, while in the social sciences the outcome of the process is moot: 10 the (...)
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  16. Elena Aronova (2012). The Congress for Cultural Freedom, Minerva, and the Quest for Instituting “Science Studies” in the Age of Cold War. Minerva 50 (3):307-337.
    The Congress for Cultural Freedom is remembered as a paramount example of the “cultural cold wars.” In this paper, I discuss the ways in which this powerful transnational organization sought to promote “science studies” as a distinct – and politically relevant – area of expertise, and part of the CCF broader agenda to offer a renewed framework for liberalism. By means of its Study Groups, international conferences and its periodicals, such as Minerva, the Congress developed into an influential forum for (...)
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  17. Malcolm Ashmore (1989). The Reflexive Thesis: Wrighting Sociology of Scientific Knowledge. University of Chicago Press.
    This unusually innovative book treats reflexivity, not as a philosophical conundrum, but as a practical issue that arises in the course of scholarly research and argument. In order to demonstrate the concrete and consequential nature of reflexivity, Malcolm Ashmore concentrates on an area in which reflexive "problems" are acute: the sociology of scientific knowledge. At the forefront of recent radical changes in our understanding of science, this increasingly influential mode of analysis specializes in rigorous deconstructions of the research practices and (...)
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  18. Morris J. Augustine (1981). The Sociology of Knowledge and Buddhist-Christian Forms of Faith, Practice and Knowledge. Japanese Journal of Religious Studies 8 (34):237.
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  19. L. K. B. (1959). On the Epistemology of the Inexact Sciences. Review of Metaphysics 13 (1):188-188.
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  20. Zaheer Baber (2003). The Taming of Science and Technology Studies. Social Epistemology 17 (2 & 3):95 – 98.
    Discusses the use by several philosophers of the book "The Structure of Scientific Revolutions," by philosopher Thomas S. Kuhn, as an intellectual source for attacking the sociology of science proposed by Robert K. Merton and his students. Assertion by Kuhn that the philosophers attacking Merton had misconstructed his ideas; Sociology of Kuhnian sociology of science established by Steve Fuller.
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  21. Zaheer Baber (1992). Sociology of Scientific Knowledge. Theory and Society 21 (1):105-119.
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  22. Babette E. Babich (2003). From Fleck's Denkstil to Kuhn's Paradigm: Conceptual Schemes and Incommensurability. International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 17 (1):75 – 92.
    This article argues that the limited influence of Ludwik Fleck's ideas on philosophy of science is due not only to their indirect dissemination by way of Thomas Kuhn, but also to an incommensurability between the standard conceptual framework of history and philosophy of science and Fleck's own more integratedly historico-social and praxis-oriented approach to understanding the evolution of scientific discovery. What Kuhn named "paradigm" offers a periphrastic rendering or oblique translation of Fleck's Denkstil/Denkkollektiv , a derivation that may also account (...)
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  23. Maria Baghramian (2011). Constructed Worlds, Contested Truths. In Richard Schantz & Markus Seidel (eds.), The Problem of Relativism in the Sociology of (Scientific) Knowledge. Ontos.
  24. Brian S. Baigrie (1988). Philosophy of Science as Normative Sociology. Metaphilosophy 19 (3-4):237-252.
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  25. Wilhelm Baldamus (2011). Ludwik Fleck i rozwój socjologii nauki. Studia Philosophica Wratislaviensia:81-102.
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  26. Matthieu Ballandonne (2012). New Economics of Science, Economics of Scientific Knowledge and Sociology of Science: The Case of Paul David. Journal of Economic Methodology 19 (4):391-406.
    For a little more than twenty years, the terminology used in the economics of science has changed significantly with the development of expressions such as ?new economics of science? (NES) and ?economics of scientific knowledge? (ESK). This article seeks to shed light on the use of these different terminologies by studying the work of the economist of science Paul David. We aim to use his work as a case study in order to argue for a difference between NES and ESK (...)
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  27. B. Barber (1989). Talcott Parsons and the Sociology of Science: An Essay in Appreciation and Remembrance. Theory, Culture and Society 6 (4):623-635.
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  28. Bernard Barber (1978). The Sociology of Science. Greenwood Press.
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  29. Barry Barnes (1996). Scientific Knowledge: A Sociological Analysis. Athlone.
    Although science was once seen as the product of individual great men working in isolation, we now realize that, like any other creative activity, science is a highly social enterprise, influenced in subtle as well as obvious ways by the wider culture and values of its time. Scientific Knowledge is the first introduction to social studies of scientific knowledge. The authors, all noted for their contributions to science studies, have organized this book so that each chapter examines a key step (...)
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  30. Barry Barnes (1994). How Not to Do the Sociology of Knowledge. In Allan Megill (ed.), Rethinking Objectivity. Duke University Press. 31.
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  31. Barry Barnes (1977). Interests and the Growth of Knowledge. Routledge and K. Paul.
    THE PROBLEM OP KNOWLEDGE l CONCEPTIONS OF KNOWLEDGE An immediate difficulty which faces any discussion of the present kind is that there are so many ...
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  32. Barry Barnes (1972). Sociology of Science: Selected Readings. Harmondsworth,Penguin.
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  33. Barry Barnes & David Bloor (1982). Relativism, Rationalism and the Sociology of Knowledge. In Martin Hollis & Steven Lukes (eds.), Rationality and Relativism. Blackwell.
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  34. Barry Barnes, David Bloor & John Henry (1996). Scientific Knowledge: A Sociological Approach. University of Chicago Press.
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  35. Barry Barnes & David O. Edge (eds.) (1982). Science in Context: Readings in the Sociology of Science. Mit Press.
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  36. Martin W. Bauer, Rajesh Shukla & Nick Allum (eds.) (2011). The Culture of Science: How the Public Relates to Science Across the Globe. Routledge.
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  37. Seth D. Baum, Michelle Stickler, James S. Shortle, Klaus Keller, Kenneth J. Davis, Donald A. Brown, Erich W. Schienke & Nancy Tuana (2011). The Role of the National Science Foundation Broader Impacts Criterion in Enhancing Research Ethics Pedagogy. Social Epistemology 23 (3):317-336.
    The National Science Foundation's Second Merit Criterion, or Broader Impacts Criterion , was introduced in 1997 as the result of an earlier Congressional movement to enhance the accountability and responsibility as well as the effectiveness of federally funded projects. We demonstrate that a robust understanding and appreciation of NSF BIC argues for a broader conception of research ethics in the sciences than is currently offered in Responsible Conduct of Research training. This essay advocates augmenting RCR education with training regarding broader (...)
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  38. Michael Bavidge (2006). Getting Serious About the Second Person: Ziman's Project. Journal of Consciousness Studies 13 (5):80-87.
    Professor Ziman's project in his paper 'No man is an island' is to promote the understanding of science as a social enterprise. His main enemy is what he calls 'methodological solipsism' according to which 'the world of things and beings is surveyed and interpreted from the point of view of a single individual', and scientists think of themselves as lone explorers relying only on 'the evidence of their own eyes and their rational inferences concerning the hidden mechanisms by which these (...)
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  39. Howard Becker & Helmut Otto Dahlke (1942). Max Scheler's Sociology of Knowledge. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 2 (3):310-322.
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  40. H. Belt (2002). Ludwik Fleck and the Causative Agent of Syphilis: Sociology or Pathology of Science? A Rejoinder to Jean Lindenmann. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C 33 (4):733-750.
    In 1905 two different microbes were proposed to fill the vacant role of etiologic agent for syphilis, one, the Cytorrhyctes luis, by John Siegel, the other, Spirochaeta pallida, by Fritz Schaudinn. After gathering and reviewing the evidence the majority of medical scientists decided in favor of Schaudinn's candidate. In a previous issue Jean Lindenmann challenged Ludwik Fleck's suggestion that under suitable social conditions Siegel's candidate could just as well have won acceptance by the scientific community (). To refute this counterfactual (...)
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  41. Brigitte Berger (forthcoming). Vilfredo Pareto and the Sociology of Knowledge. Social Research.
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  42. P. Berger & H. Kellner (1964). Marriage and the Construction of Reality: An Exercise in the Microsociology of Knowledge. Diogenes 12 (46):1-24.
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  43. Peter Berger & Thomas Luckmann (1966/1990). The Social Construction of Reality: A Treatise in the Sociology of Knowledge. Anchor Books.
    This book reformulates the sociological subdiscipline known as the sociology of knowledge. Knowledge is presented as more than ideology, including as well false consciousness, propaganda, science and art.
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  44. On Sociological Biographies (2008). Social Aspects of Science. Annals of Science 65 (3):453-455.
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  45. A. Bird (2012). The Structure of Scientific Revolutions and its Significance: An Essay Review of the Fiftieth Anniversary Edition. [REVIEW] British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 63 (4):859-883.
    Kuhn’s Structure of Scientific Revolutions is one of the most cited books of the twentieth century. Its iconic and controversial nature has obscured its message. What did Kuhn really intend with Structure and what is its real significance? -/- 1 Introduction -/- 2 The Central Ideas of Structure -/- 3 The Philosophical Targets of Structure -/- 4 Interpreting and Misinterpreting Structure -/- 4.1 Naturalism -/- 4.2 World-change -/- 4.3 Incommensurability -/- 4.4 Progress and the nature of revolutionary change -/- 4.5 (...)
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  46. Richard J. Blackwell (1983). Science and Society: Studies in the Sociology of Science. By Joseph Agassi. Modern Schoolman 60 (3):205-205.
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  47. D. Bloor (1999). Anti-Latour. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 30 (1):81-112.
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  48. David Bloor (2011). Relativism and the Sociology of Knowledge. In Steven Hales (ed.), A Companion to Relativism.
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  49. David Bloor (2008). Relativism at 30,000 Feet. In Massimo Mazzotti (ed.), Knowledge as Social Order: Rethinking the Sociology of Barry Barnes.
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  50. David Bloor (2007). Epistemic Grace. Antirelativism as Theology in Disguise. Common Knowledge 13 (2-3):250-280.
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