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  1. Ivan Aaen & Rikke Hagensby Jensen, Pragmatic Software Innovation.
    We understand software innovation as concerned with introducing innovation into the development of _software intensive systems_, i.e. systems in which software development and/or integration are dominant considerations. Innovation is key in almost any strategy for competitiveness in existing markets, for creating new markets, or for curbing rising public expenses, and software intensive systems are core elements in most such strategies. Software innovation therefore is vital for about every sector of the economy. Changes in software technologies over the last decades have (...)
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  2. Scott Aaronson, Evolution of Mutating Software.
    We propose using random walks in software space as abstract formal models of biological evolution. The goal is to shed light on biological creativity using toy models of evolution that are simple enough to prove theorems about them. We consider two models: a single mutating piece of software, and a population of mutating software. The fitness function is taken from a well known problem in computability theory that requires an unlimited amount of creativity, the Busy Beaver problem. (Talk given Friday (...)
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  3. Sulaiman Al-Rafee & Timothy Paul Cronan (2006). Digital Piracy: Factors That Influence Attitude Toward Behavior. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 63 (3):237 - 259.
    A new form of software piracy known as digital piracy has taken the spotlight. Lost revenues due to digital piracy could reach $5 billion by the end of 2005.Preventives and deterrents do not seem to be working – losses are increasing. This study examines factors that influence an individual’s attitude toward pirating digital material. The results of this study suggest that attitude toward digital pirating is influenced by beliefs about the outcome of behavior (cognitive beliefs), happiness and excitement (affective beliefs), (...)
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  4. Andoni Alonso & Carl Mitcham (2004). Software Libre 2004. Ethics and Information Technology 6 (1):65-67.
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  5. A. Amescua, J. Garcia, M. I. Sanchez-Segura & F. Medina-Dominguez (2006). Software Process Change, Ser. In O. Stock & M. Schaerf (eds.), Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer-Verlag
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  6. Carl Anderson (2000). Book and Software Reviews-The Extended Organism. Complexity 6 (2):58-58.
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  7. Nicola Angius (2014). Computational Idealizations in Software Intensive Science: A Comment on Symons’ and Horner’s Paper. Philosophy and Technology 27 (3):479-484.
    This commentary on John Symons’ and Jack Horner’s paper, besides sharing its main argument, challenges the authors’ statement that there is no effective method to evaluate software-intensive systems as a distinguishing feature of software intensive science. It is underlined here how analogous methodological limitations characterise the evaluations of empirical systems in non-software intensive sciences. The authors’ claim that formal methods establish the correctness of computational models rather than of the represented programme is here compared with the empirical adequacy problem typifying (...)
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  8. Nicola Angius (2014). The Problem of Justification of Empirical Hypotheses in Software Testing. Philosophy and Technology 27 (3):423-439.
    This paper takes part in the methodological debate concerning the nature and the justification of hypotheses about computational systems in software engineering by providing an epistemological analysis of Software Testing, the practice of observing the programs’ executions to examine whether they fulfil software requirements. Property specifications articulating such requirements are shown to involve falsifiable hypotheses about software systems that are evaluated by means of tests which are likely to falsify those hypotheses. Software Reliability metrics, used to measure the growth of (...)
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  9. S. Asiri (2003). Open Source. Acm Sigcas, Computers and Society 32 (5).
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  10. Sami Asiri (2003). Open Source Software. Acm Sigcas Computers and Society 33 (1):2.
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  11. O. O. Asukwo (2006). Caribbean Piracy and Youth Restiveness in Niger Delta: A Comparative Analysis. Sophia: An African Journal of Philosophy 8 (1).
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  12. Per Bak (2000). Books and Software Reviews-Multifractals and 1/F Noise-Wild Self-Affinity in Physics. Complexity 5 (3):46-46.
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  13. Renato Barilli (2005). Bergson: Il Filosofo Del Software. R. Cortina.
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  14. Tomasz Baumiller (1999). Book and Software Reviews-The Garden of Ediacara: Discovering the First Complex Life. Complexity 4 (3):39-40.
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  15. K. G. Beauchamp (1985). The Computer Comes of Age. The People, the Hardware, and the Software. [REVIEW] British Journal for the History of Science 18 (3):372-372.
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  16. Jesús Bermúdez, Alfredo Goñi, Arantza Illarramendi & Simone Santini (2007). Is an OWL Ontology Adequate for Foreign Software Agents Communication? Applied Ontology 2 (3):351-372.
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  17. Olivier Bernard, Zakaria Hadj-Sadok & Denis Dochain (2000). Software Sensors to Monitor the Dynamics of Microbial Communities: Application to Anaerobic Digestion. Acta Biotheoretica 48 (3-4):197-205.
    A mass balance based model has been derived to represent the dynamical behavior of the ecosystem contained in an anaerobic digester. The model considers two bacterial populations: acidogenic and methanogenic bacteria. It forms the basis for the design of a software sensor considering both a model of the biological system and on-line gaseous measurements. The software sensor computes the concentration of inorganic carbon and volatile fatty acids (VFA) in the digester. Another software sensor is dedicated to the estimation of the (...)
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  18. David M. Berry (2012). The Social Epistemologies of Software. Social Epistemology 26 (3-4):379-398.
    This paper explores the specific questions raised for social epistemology encountered in code and software. It does so because these technologies increasingly make up an important part of our urban environment, and stretch across all aspects of our lives. The paper introduces and explores the way in which code and software become the conditions of possibility for human knowledge, crucially becoming computational epistemes, which we share with non-human but crucially knowledge-producing actors. As such, we need to take account of this (...)
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  19. David M. Berry (2011). The Philosophy of Software: Code and Mediation in the Digital Age. Palgrave Macmillan.
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  20. Marco C. Bettoni (1995). Kant and the Software Crisis: Suggestions for the Construction of Human-Centred Software Systems. [REVIEW] AI and Society 9 (4):396-401.
    -/- In this article I deal with the question “How could we renew and enrich computer technology with Kant's help?”. By this I would like to invite computer scientists and engineers to initiate or intensify their cooperation with Kant experts. -/- What I am looking for is a better “method of definition” for software systems, particularly for the development of object-oriented and knowledge-based systems. -/- After a description of the “software crisis”, I deal first with the question why this crisis (...)
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  21. Kanika Tandon Bhal & Nivedita D. Leekha (2008). Exploring Cognitive Moral Logics Using Grounded Theory: The Case of Software Piracy. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 81 (3):635 - 646.
    The article reports findings of a study conducted to explore the cognitive moral logics used for considering software piracy as ethical or unethical. Since the objective was to elicit the moral logics from the respondents, semi-structured in-depth interviews of 38 software professionals of India were conducted. The content of the interviews was analyzed using the grounded theory framework which does not begin with constructs and their interlinkages and then seek proof instead it begins with an area of study and allows (...)
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  22. David K. Billings (1997). Book Review: The Future of Software. [REVIEW] Acm Sigcas Computers and Society 27 (1):22-23.
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  23. Viktor Binzberger (2009). Hermeneutic Practices in Software Development. Techne 13 (1):27-49.
    This paper shows the relevance of hermeneutic philosophy to understand how info­communication technologies frame our contemporary lifeworld. It demonstrates that the programming languages are the result of collective interpretations of the general lifeworld of programmers, management and political decision-makers. By having been inscribed into the processes of language use, this general interpretation permeates the particular practices of understanding that are possible within the language framework.
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  24. Wolf-Gideon Bleek & Matthias Finck (2005). Ensuring Transparency-Migrating a Closed Software Development to an Open Source Software Project. Iris 28:6-9.
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  25. Ned Block (2003). The Mind as Software in the Brain. In John Heil (ed.), Philosophy of Mind: A Guide and Anthology. OUP Oxford
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  26. Ned Block (1995). The Mind as the Software of the Brain. In Daniel N. Osherson, Lila Gleitman, Stephen M. Kosslyn, S. Smith & Saadya Sternberg (eds.), An Invitation to Cognitive Science. MIT Press 170--185.
    In this section, we will start with an influential attempt to define `intelligence', and then we will move to a consideration of how human intelligence is to be investigated on the machine model. The last part of the section will discuss the relation between the mental and the biological.
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  27. Bernhelm Booss-Bavnbek & Glen Pate (1989). Information Technology and Mathematical Modelling, the Software Crisis, Risk and Educational Consequences. Acm Sigcas Computers and Society 19 (3):4-22.
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  28. Jan Bosch (2006). Expanding the Scope of Software Product Families: Problems and Alternative Approaches. In O. Stock & M. Schaerf (eds.), Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer-Verlag 4034--4.
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  29. Frances Brazier, Anja Oskamp, Corien Prins, Maurice Schellekens & Niek Wijngaards (2004). Anonymity and Software Agents: An Interdisciplinary Challenge. [REVIEW] Artificial Intelligence and Law 12 (1-2):137-157.
    Software agents that play a role in E-commerce and E-government applications involving the Internet often contain information about the identity of their human user such as credit cards and bank accounts. This paper discusses whether this is necessary: whether human users and software agents are allowed to be anonymous under the relevant legal regimes and whether an adequate interaction and balance between law and anonymity can be realised from both the perspective of Computer Systems and the perspective of Law.
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  30. P. Brey, A. Briggle & K. Waelbers (eds.) (2008). Current Issues in Computing and Philosophy. IOS Press.
  31. Selmer Bringsjord, The Irrationality of the Free Software Movement.
    Approximately 48 hours ago, knowing that I would, Lord willing, be stand- ing here on this podium two days hence, I tapped http://www.fsf.org into Safari in order to begin learning at least something about the Free Software Movement (FSM). My online education has been augmented by many propo- nents of FSM in attendance at this conference, including Richard Stallman. What I have learned is that this movement is populated by a lot of seem- ingly well-intentioned people who are, at least (...)
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  32. Andreas Broeckmann (2003). Software Art. Potentials. Art Inquiry. Recherches Sur les Arts 5:69-74.
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  33. Vincent J. Calluzzo & Charles J. Cante (2004). Ethics in Information Technology and Software Use. Journal of Business Ethics 51 (3):301-312.
    The emerging concern about software piracy and illegal or unauthorized use of information technology and software has been evident in the media and open literature for the last few years. In the course of conducting their academic assignments, the authors began to compare observations from classroom experiences related to ethics in the use of software and information technology and systems. Qualitatively and anecdotally, it appeared that many if not most, students had misconceptions about what represented ethical and unethical behaviors in (...)
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  34. Jean Camp & K. Lewis (2001). Code as Speech: A Discussion of Bernstein V. USDOJ, Karn V. USDOS, and Junger V. Daley in Light of the U.S. Supreme Court's Recent Shift to Federalism. [REVIEW] Ethics and Information Technology 3 (1):21-33.
    The purpose of this paper is to address the question of whethercomputer source code is speech protected by the First Amendmentto the United States Constitution or whether it is merelyfunctional, a ``machine'', designed to fulfill a set task andtherefore bereft of protection. The answer to this question is acomplex one. Unlike all other forms of ``speech'' computer sourcecode holds a unique place in the law: it can be copyrighted, likea book and it can be patented like a machine or process.Case (...)
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  35. L. Jean Camp (2006). Varieties of Software and Their Implications for Effective Democratic Government. Proceedings of the British Academy 135:183-185.
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  36. David Harding Carey (1989). The Ethics of Software Ownership. Dissertation, University of Pittsburgh
    Scholar X, who would recoil at the thought of shoplifting a ballpoint pen from the campus bookstore, does not hesitate to copy software sold for thousands of dollars--without paying for it. Is there something morally wrong with X's action? If so, what is wrong, and why? This microcosmic moral problem has its counterparts on the level of billion-dollar industries, national defense, and international commerce. At stake is access to crucial information and technology, on the one hand, counterpoised against whatever incentives (...)
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  37. D. M. Carter (2007). Libronix Digital Library System, Liddell (H.G.), Scott (R.) A Greek–English Lexicon (9th Edition, Oxford 1996, Revised H.S. Jones and R. McKenzie, Revised Supplement P.G.W. Glare). Bellingham, WA: Logos Bible Software, 2003. CD-ROM, US$145. [REVIEW] The Classical Review 57 (01):228-.
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  38. Robert J. Cavalier (1985). They Review Software, Don't They? Teaching Philosophy 8 (3):242-244.
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  39. Paul E. Ceruzzi (2003). A History of Modern Computing. MIT.
    Ceruzzi pens a history of computing from the development of the first electronic digital computer to the Web and dot-com crash.
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  40. W. M. Chace (2014). Without Copyrights: Piracy, Publishing, and the Public Domain. Common Knowledge 20 (3):503-504.
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  41. Mei-Fang Chen, Ching-Ti Pan & Ming-Chuan Pan (2009). The Joint Moderating Impact of Moral Intensity and Moral Judgment on Consumer's Use Intention of Pirated Software. Journal of Business Ethics 90 (3):361 - 373.
    Moral issues have been included in the studies of consumer misbehavior research, but little is known about the joint moderating effect of moral intensity and moral judgment on the consumer’s use intention of pirated software. This study aims to understand the consumer’s use intention of pirated software in Taiwan based on the theory of planned behavior (TPB) proposed by Ajzen (Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 50, 179, 1991). In addition, moral intensity and moral judgment are adopted as a joint (...)
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  42. Jyh-Shen Chiou, Chien-yi Huang & Hsin-hui Lee (2005). The Antecedents of Music Piracy Attitudes and Intentions. Journal of Business Ethics 57 (2):161 - 174.
    Piracy is the greatest threat facing the music industry worldwide today. This study developed and empirically tested a model examining the antecedents of consumer attitude and behavioral intention toward music piracy behavior. Two types of music piracy behavior, unauthorized duplication/download and pirated music product purchasing, were examined. Based on a field survey in Taiwan, the results showed that attributive satisfaction, perceived prosecution risk, magnitude of consequence, and social consensus are very important in influencing customers attitude and behavioral intention toward two (...)
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  43. Hung-Chang Chiu, Yi-Ching Hsieh & Mei-Chien Wang (2008). How to Encourage Customers to Use Legal Software. Journal of Business Ethics 80 (3):583 - 595.
    This study attempts to identify customer retention strategies for legal software and discusses their effectiveness for three consumer groups (stayers, dissatisfied switchers, and satisfied switchers). Although previous studies propose several antipirating strategies, they do not discuss how to enhance customer intentions to use legal software, which is crucial for software companies. The authors provide four generic retention strategies developed from both antipiracy and customer loyalty literature. The results indicate lower-pricing, legal, communication, and product strategies all enhance customer purchase intentions toward (...)
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  44. Chong Ju Choi, Sae Won Kim & Shui Yu (2009). Global Ethics of Collective Internet Governance: Intrinsic Motivation and Open Source Software. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 90 (4):523 - 531.
    The ethical governance of the global Internet is an accelerating global phenomenon. A key paradox of the global Internet is that it allows individual and collective decision making to co-exist with each other. Open source software (OSS) communities are a globally accelerating phenomenon. OSS refers to groups of programs that allow the free use of the software and further the code sharing to the general and corporate users of the software. The combination of private provision and public knowledge and software, (...)
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  45. S. Chopra & S. Dexter (2011). Free Software and the Economics of Information Justice. Ethics and Information Technology 13 (3):173-184.
    Claims about the potential of free software to reform the production and distribution of software are routinely countered by skepticism that the free software community fails to engage the pragmatic and economic ‘realities’ of a software industry. We argue to the contrary that contemporary business and economic trends definitively demonstrate the financial viability of an economy based on free software. But the argument for free software derives its true normative weight from social justice considerations: the evaluation of the basis for (...)
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  46. S. Chopra & S. Dexter (2009). Free Software, Economic 'Realities', and Information Justice. Acm Sigcas Computers and Society 39 (3):12-26.
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  47. Samir Chopra, A Comparative Ethical Assessment of Free Software Licensing Schemes.
    Software is much more than sequences of instructions for a computing machine: it can be an enabler (or disabler) of political imperatives and policies. Hence, it is subject to the same assessment in a normative dimension as other political and social phenomena. The core distinction between free software and its proprietary counterpart is that free software makes available to its user the knowledge and innovation contributed by the creator(s) of the software, in the form of the created source code. From (...)
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  48. Samir Chopra & Scott Dexter, Decoding Liberation: The Promise of Free and Open Source Software.
    Routledge (New Media and Cyberculture Series), July 2007.
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  49. Samir Chopra & Scott Dexter (2009). The Freedoms of Software and its Ethical Uses. Ethics and Information Technology 11 (4):287-297.
    The “free” in “free software” refers to a cluster of four specific freedoms identified by the Free Software Definition. The first freedom, termed “Freedom Zero,” intends to protect the right of the user to deploy software in whatever fashion, towards whatever end, he or she sees fit. But software may be used to achieve ethically questionable ends. This highlights a tension in the provision of software freedoms: while the definition explicitly forbids direct restrictions on users’ freedoms, it does not address (...)
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  50. L. Jonathan Cohen (1987). A Note on the Evolutionary Theory of Software Development. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 38 (3):381-384.
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