About this topic
Summary Major Neo-Confucians in the Song-Ming period include Zhou Dunyi (1017-1073), Shao Yong (1011-1077), Zhang Zai (1020-1077), the Cheng brothers – Cheng Hao (1032-1085) and Cheng Yi (1033-1107), Lu Xiangshan (1139-1193), Zhu Xi (1130-1200), Wang Yangming (1472-1529), and Wang Fuzhi (1619-1692). Other than what is selected in Chan’s Source Book (Chan 1963, cited under *General Overviews*), there are scanty translations of Neo-Confucian works in English. The translations are of Zhu Xi (Chan 1967, Gardner 2003, Gardner 1990), Lu Xiangshan (Ivanhoe 2009) and Wang Yangming (Ivanhoe 2009, Henke 2012), but they are mere selections and far from complete in presenting the huge corpus of Neo-Confucian works.  
Key works Huang 1999 lists the first eight major philosophers and leaves out Wang Fuzhi, whose copious work and sophisticated philosophical views were not appreciated until of late. Chen 2005, written in Chinese, is a representative work of Chen Lai 陳來, a leading expert on the intellectual history of Neo-Confucianism in China today.  Angle 2009 focuses on the ethical teachings of two key neo-Confucians – Zhu Xi and Wang Yangming, and Keenan 2011 focuses on one key ethical theme: self-cultivation.  Among philosophical papers on general themes in neo-Confucianism, Peterson 1986 is an early work that has some impact in the West while Tang 1971 (Tang, Chun-I 唐君毅. “The Spirit and Development of Neo-Confucianism.” Inquiry14 (1-4): 56 – 83. 1971) represents a well-received Chinese perspective.  More recent works such as Liu 2005 takes on neo-Confucian metaphysics with the analytic approach, and Behuniak Jr 2009 gives the important concept Li 理a revolutionary analysis inspired by Plato’s day analogy in the Parmenides.

Introductions

Angle 2009 focuses primarily on two neo-Confucians – Zhu Xi and Wang Yangming. It analyzes the notion of sagehood as handled by these two philosophers and explicates their moral psychology, virtue ethics and their views on education. It renders the ethical teachings of Neo-Confucianism more engaging for contemporary readers.

How to analyze the concept of Li (translated as principle, order, coherence, pattern, etc.) has always been a challenging task for scholars on neo-Confucianism, and in Behuniak Jr 2009, the author offers an innovative interpretation using Plato’s analogy of day as the interpretative tool. It is a refreshing piece even if readers do not accept this interpretation.

Chen, Lai 陳來. Songming Lixue 宋明理學. Shanghai: East China Normal University Press, 2005. 2nd edition.

This Chinese book is the renowned Chinese scholar Chen Lai’s introduction to Song-Ming Neo-Confucianism. The analysis is of the more traditional style, focusing on conceptual analysis and historical lineage.

Huang, Siu-chi 黃秀璣. Essentials of Neo-Confucianism: Eight Major Philosophers of the Song and Ming Periods. Westport, CT: Greenwood, 1999.

This is a somewhat dated book in that the analysis is more traditional, but the explications of the eight philosophers selected here are useful as introductory pieces.

Keenan, Barry. Neo-Confucian Self-Cultivation. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 2011.

This small book focuses on the theme of self-cultivation in the Great Learning treated by the Cheng brothers and Zhu Xi. It also provides the background in the intellectual history of Neo-Confucianism.

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  1. Philip J. Ivanhoe (2000). Confucian Moral Self Cultivation, 2nd Ed. Hackett.
    A concise and accessible introduction to the moral philosophy of Kongzi (Confucius), Mengzi (Mencius), Xunzi, Zhu Xi, Wang Yangming, Yan Yuan and Dai Zhen.
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Zhou Dunyi
  1. Ming Dong Gu (2003). The Taiji Diagram: A Meta-Sign in Chinese Thought. Journal of Chinese Philosophy 30 (2):195–218.
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  2. Youngmin Kim (2008). Cosmogony as Political Philosophy. Philosophy East and West 58 (1):108-125.
    : This essay examines the Diagram of the Supreme Ultimate and its shifting interpretations—those of Zhu Xi (1130–1200) and Wang Tingxiang (1474–1544) in particular—and by doing so explores the significance of ‘‘cosmogony’’ in the Confucian tradition and its significance for the change of political philosophy from the Song dynasty through the Ming. First, through a close reading of Zhu Xi’s commentaries on the Diagram, it is argued that they should be interpreted primarily as a statement of political philosophy rather than (...)
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  3. JeeLoo Liu (2005). The Status of Cosmic Principle (Li) in Neo-Confucian Metaphysics. Journal of Chinese Philosophy 32 (3):391-407.
    In this paper, I attempt to make use of Western metaphysical taxonomy to explicate the cosmological variances in Chinese philosophical schools, especially with regard to the debates among the Neo-Confucian thinkers. While I do not presume that Chinese philosophers dealt with the same Western issues, I do believe that a comparative study of this nature can point to a new direction of thinking concerning the metaphysical debates in Neo-Confucianism. This paper is divided into three parts. In Part I, I employ (...)
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  4. Galia Patt-Shamir (2004). Moral World, Ethical Terminology: The Moral Significance of Metaphysical Terms in Zhou Dunyi and Zhu XI. Journal of Chinese Philosophy 31 (3):349–362.
  5. Robin Wang (2005). Zhou Dunyi's Diagram of the Supreme Ultimate Explained (Taijitu Shuo) : A Construction of the Confucian Metaphysics. Journal of the History of Ideas 66 (3):307-323.
  6. Xianglong Zhang (2006). Flowing Within the Text: A Discussion on He Lin's Explanation of Zhu XI's Method of Intuition. Frontiers of Philosophy in China 1 (1):60-65.
    The author examines He Lin's interpretation of Zhu Xi's method of intuition from a phenomenological-hermeneutical perspective and by exposing Zhu's philosophical presuppositions. In contrast with Lu Xiangshan's intuitive method, Zhu Xi's method of reading classics advocates "emptying your heart and flowing with the text" and, in this spirit, explains the celebrated "exhaustive investigation on the principles of things (ge wu qiong li)." "Text," according to Zhu, is therefore not an object in ordinary sense but a "contextual region" or "sensible pattern" (...)
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Shao Yong
  1. Anne D. Birdwhistell (1989). The Philosophical Concept of Foreknowledge in the Thought of Shao Yung. Philosophy East and West 39 (1):47-65.
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  2. Anne D. Birdwhistell (1989). Transition to Neo-Confucianism: Shao Yung on Knowledge and Symbols of Reality. Stanford University Press.
    Shao Yung1 Shao Yung (-77) was an extraordinary thinker who lived during an extraordinary age. Among the great thinkers of the Northern Sung (960-), ...
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  3. Anne D. Birdwhistell (1982). Shao Yung and His Concept of Fan Kuan. Journal of Chinese Philosophy 9 (4):367-394.
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  4. James A. Ryan (1996). Leibniz' Binary System and Shao Yong's "Yijing". Philosophy East and West 46 (1):59-90.
    The Yijing/Binary System Episode involved Leibniz' discovery of a de facto representation of the binary number system in the sixty-four-hexagram Fu Xi "Yijing." Scholars have left the match unexplained, since they have found no evidence of a forgotten binary number system in ancient China. The interesting similarities and differences are discussed between the thought of Leibniz and that of Shao Yong, both of whom, it is argued, understood and recognized the importance of the double geometric progression in the diagram.
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  5. James A. Ryan (1993). The Compatibilist Philosophy of Freedom of Shao Yong. Journal of Chinese Philosophy 20 (3):279-291.
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  6. Bernard Paul Sypniewski (1998). Don J. Wyatt, The Recluse of Loyang - Shao Yung and the Moral Evolution of Early Sung Thought. University of Hawaii Press, Honolulu, Hawaii. 248 + 92. Notes, Glossary, Bibliography, Index. [REVIEW] Journal of Chinese Philosophy 25 (2):263-267.
Zhang Zai
  1. Wing-Cheuk Chan (2011). Mou Zongsan and Tang Junyi on Zhang Zai's and Wang Fuzhi's Philosophies of Qi : A Critical Reflection. Dao: A Journal of Comparative Philosophy 10 (1):85-98.
    Fuzhi’s philosophies of qi. In this essay, both the strength and weakness of their interpretations will be critically examined. As a contrast, an alternative interpretation of the School of qi in Song-Ming Neo-Confucianism will be outlined. This new interpretation will uncover that, like Leibniz, Zhang Zai and Wang Fuzhi introduced a non-substantivalist approach in natural philosophy in terms of an innovative concept of force. This interpretation not only helps to show the limitations of Mou Zongsan’s and Tang Junyi’s understandings of (...)
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  2. Kai-wing Chow (1993). Ritual, Cosmology, and Ontology: Chang Tsai's Moral Philosophy and Neo-Confucian Ethics. Philosophy East and West 43 (2):201-228.
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  3. Tang Chün-I. (1956). Chang Tsai's Theory of Mind and its Metaphysical Basis. Philosophy East and West 6 (2):113-136.
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  4. David Elstein, Zhang Zai. Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
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  5. Ira E. Kasoff (1984). The Thought of Chang Tsai (1020-1077). Cambridge University Press.
    Chang Tsai is one of the three major Chinese philosophers who, in the eleventh century, revitalised Confucian thought after centuries of stagnation and formed the foundation for the neo-Confucian thinking that was predominant till the nineteenth century. The book analyses in depth Chang's views of man, his nature and endowments, the cosmos, heaven and earth, the problems of learning and self cultivation, the ideal of the sage - and how that ideal might be attained. It looks at the intellectual climate (...)
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  6. Jung-Yeup Kim (2011). A Revisionist Understanding of Zhang Zai's Development of Qi in the Context of His Critique of the Buddhist. Asian Philosophy 20 (2):111-126.
    In a comprehensive survey of contemporary scholarship on Zhang Zai's (1020-1077) development of the notion qi ( 'vital energy') in the context of his critique of the Buddhist, I observe that there is a prevalent imposition of a Western concept, namely, 'substance monism', on his understanding of qi . It is assumed that he posits that 'the myriad things ( wanwu )' and 'the vast emptiness ( taixu )' are simultaneously differentiated and unified in that they are but different manifestations (...)
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  7. JeeLoo Liu (2012). Moral Reason, Moral Sentiments and the Realization of Altruism: A Comparative Study of Nagel, ZHANG Zai and WANG FUZHI. Asian Philosophy 22 (2):93-119.
    This paper begins with Thomas Nagel’s investigation of the possibility of altruism.1 Altruism, by Nagel’s definition, is “merely a willingness to act in consideration of the interests of other persons, without the need of ulterior motives.” (Nagel: 79) The fundamental question Nagel investigates is: how is altruism possible? The reason why we need to investigate the possibility of altruism is exactly that an altruistic act is not readily exercised; it requires some effort on the part of the agent. Nagel discusses (...)
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  8. JeeLoo Liu (2011). Readings From the Lu-Wang School of Neo-Confucianism (Review). Philosophy East and West 61 (2):388-391.
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  9. JeeLoo Liu (2011). The Is-Ought Correlation in Neo-Confucian Qi-Realism. Contemporary Chinese Thought 43 (1):60-77.
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  10. JeeLoo Liu (2005). The Status of Cosmic Principle (Li) in Neo-Confucian Metaphysics. Journal of Chinese Philosophy 32 (3):391-407.
    In this paper, I attempt to make use of Western metaphysical taxonomy to explicate the cosmological variances in Chinese philosophical schools, especially with regard to the debates among the Neo-Confucian thinkers. While I do not presume that Chinese philosophers dealt with the same Western issues, I do believe that a comparative study of this nature can point to a new direction of thinking concerning the metaphysical debates in Neo-Confucianism. This paper is divided into three parts. In Part I, I employ (...)
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  11. Galia Patt-Shamir (2012). Filial Piety, Vital Power, and a Moral Sense of Immortality in Zhang Zai's Philosophy. Dao: A Journal of Comparative Philosophy 11 (2):223-239.
    The present article focuses on Zhang Zai’s 張載 attitude toward death and its moral significance. It launches with the unusual link between the opening statement of the Western Inscription 西銘 regarding heaven and earth as parents and the conclusion that serving one’s cosmic parents during life, one is peaceful in death. Through the analogy of human relations with heaven and earth as filial piety (xiao 孝), Zhang Zai sets a framework for an understanding that being filial through life eliminates the (...)
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  12. Elizabeth Woo Li (2010). Yang, Lihua 楊立華, Qi-Rooted and Shen-Transformed: Commentary on Zhang Zai's Philosophy 氣本與神化:張載哲學述評. Dao: A Journal of Comparative Philosophy 9 (4):487-489.
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  13. Shiling Xiang (2011). Between Mind and Trace — A Research Into the Theories on Xin 心 (Mind) of Early Song Confucianism and Buddhism. Frontiers of Philosophy in China 6 (2):173-192.
    From Han Yu’s yuan Dao 原道 (retracing the Dao) to Ouyang Xiu’s lun ben 论本 (discussing the root), the conflicts arising from Confucianists’ rejection of Buddhism were focused on one point, namely, the examination of zhongxin suo shou 中心所守 (something kept in mind). The attitude towards the distinction between mind and trace, and the proper approach to erase the gap between emptiness and being, as well as that between the expedient and the true, became the major concerns unavoidable for various (...)
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Cheng Hao
  1. John H. Berthrong (2002). Cheng-Zhu Confucianism in the Early Qing: Li Guangdi (1642-1718) and Qing Learning (Review). Philosophy East and West 52 (2):256-257.
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  2. A. C. Graham (1958). Two Chinese Philosophers: Chʻêng Ming-Tao and Chʻêng Yi-Chʼuan. London, Lund, Humphries.
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  3. Tze-ki Hon (2010). Guo, Xiaodong 郭曉東, Comprehending Benevolence and Controlling Human Proclivity : A Study of Cheng Mingdao's Philosophy From the Perspective of Moral Cultivation 識仁與定性 : 功夫論視域下的程明道哲學研究. Dao: A Journal of Comparative Philosophy 9 (1):113-114.
    Guo, Xiaodong 郭曉東, Comprehending Benevolence and Controlling Human Proclivity : A Study of Cheng Mingdao’s Philosophy from the Perspective of Moral Cultivation 識仁與定性 : 功夫論視域下的程明道哲學研究 Content Type Journal Article DOI 10.1007/s11712-009-9143-8 Authors Tze-ki Hon, State University of New York, SUNY-Geneseo History Department 1 College Circle Geneseo NY 14454 USA Journal Dao Online ISSN 1569-7274 Print ISSN 1540-3009 Journal Volume Volume 9 Journal Issue Volume 9, Number 1.
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  4. Yong Huang (2008). "WHY BE MORAL?" The Cheng Brothers' Neo-Confucian Answer. Journal of Religious Ethics 36 (2):321-353.
    In this article, I present a neo-Confucian answer, by Cheng Hao and Cheng Yi, to the question, "Why should I be moral?" I argue that this answer is better than some representative answers in the Western philosophical tradition. According to the Chengs, one should be moral because it is a joy to perform moral actions. Sometimes one finds it a pain, instead of a joy, to perform moral actions only because one lacks the necessary genuine moral knowledge—knowledge that is accessible (...)
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  5. Yong Huang (2007). The Cheng Brothers' Onto-Theological Articulation of Confucian Values. Asian Philosophy 17 (3):187 – 211.
    In this article, I attempt to provide a new interpretation of li (commonly translated as 'principle') in the neo-Confucian brothers Cheng Hao and Cheng Yi. I argue that (1) the two brothers' views on li are not as radically different as many scholars have made us to believe; (2) li in both brothers is a de-reified conception, referring not to some entity, including the entity with activity, but to activity, the life-giving activity of the ten thousand things; (...)
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  6. Yong Huang (2005). Confucian Love and Global Ethics: How the Cheng Brothers Would Help Respond to Christian Criticisms. Asian Philosophy 15 (1):35 – 60.
    There is an increasing awareness that we are living in a global village, which demands a global ethics. In this article, I shall explore what contributions Confucianism, particularly its conception of love, can make. It has often been claimed that Confucian love is love with distinction, as a natural feeling, and as merely human love and so it is inferior to the Christian love, which is universal, commanded, and based on divine love. Drawing on the resources of the Cheng brothers' (...)
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  7. Yong Huang (2003). Cheng Brothers' Neo‐Confucian Virtue Ethics: The Identity of Virtue and Nature. Journal of Chinese Philosophy 30 (3‐4):451-467.
    This article attempts to see whether value can be independent of fact. I argue that, in this regard, the two traditional models of ethics, Kant's deontology and Bentham/Mill's utilitarianism are both faulty. In comparison, while contemporary Aristotelian virtue ethics does seem more promising, I argue that such a version of virtue ethics is still deficient. The main purpose of this article is to develop an alternative version of virtue ethics, what I call neo-Confucian ontological virtue ethics, drawing on Cheng Hao (...)
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  8. Wai-ying Wong (2009). Morally Bad in the Philosophy of the Cheng Brothers. Journal of Chinese Philosophy 36 (1):141-156.
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Cheng Yi
  1. John H. Berthrong (2002). Cheng-Zhu Confucianism in the Early Qing: Li Guangdi (1642-1718) and Qing Learning (Review). Philosophy East and West 52 (2):256-257.
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  2. Wing-Tsit Chan (1978). Patterns forneo-confucianism: Why Chu Hsia differed from Ch'eng I. Journal of Chinese Philosophy 5 (2):101-126.
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  3. A. C. Graham (1958). Two Chinese Philosophers: Chʻêng Ming-Tao and Chʻêng Yi-Chʼuan. London, Lund, Humphries.
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  4. Yong Huang (2008). "WHY BE MORAL?" The Cheng Brothers' Neo-Confucian Answer. Journal of Religious Ethics 36 (2):321-353.
    In this article, I present a neo-Confucian answer, by Cheng Hao and Cheng Yi, to the question, "Why should I be moral?" I argue that this answer is better than some representative answers in the Western philosophical tradition. According to the Chengs, one should be moral because it is a joy to perform moral actions. Sometimes one finds it a pain, instead of a joy, to perform moral actions only because one lacks the necessary genuine moral knowledge—knowledge that is accessible (...)
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  5. Yong Huang (2007). The Cheng Brothers' Onto-Theological Articulation of Confucian Values. Asian Philosophy 17 (3):187 – 211.
    In this article, I attempt to provide a new interpretation of li (commonly translated as 'principle') in the neo-Confucian brothers Cheng Hao and Cheng Yi. I argue that (1) the two brothers' views on li are not as radically different as many scholars have made us to believe; (2) li in both brothers is a de-reified conception, referring not to some entity, including the entity with activity, but to activity, the life-giving activity of the ten thousand things; (...)
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  6. Yong Huang (2005). Confucian Love and Global Ethics: How the Cheng Brothers Would Help Respond to Christian Criticisms. Asian Philosophy 15 (1):35 – 60.
    There is an increasing awareness that we are living in a global village, which demands a global ethics. In this article, I shall explore what contributions Confucianism, particularly its conception of love, can make. It has often been claimed that Confucian love is love with distinction, as a natural feeling, and as merely human love and so it is inferior to the Christian love, which is universal, commanded, and based on divine love. Drawing on the resources of the Cheng brothers' (...)
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  7. Yong Huang (2003). Cheng Brothers' Neo‐Confucian Virtue Ethics: The Identity of Virtue and Nature. Journal of Chinese Philosophy 30 (3‐4):451-467.
    This article attempts to see whether value can be independent of fact. I argue that, in this regard, the two traditional models of ethics, Kant's deontology and Bentham/Mill's utilitarianism are both faulty. In comparison, while contemporary Aristotelian virtue ethics does seem more promising, I argue that such a version of virtue ethics is still deficient. The main purpose of this article is to develop an alternative version of virtue ethics, what I call neo-Confucian ontological virtue ethics, drawing on Cheng Hao (...)
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  8. Yong Huang (2000). Cheng Yi's Neo-Confucian Ontological Hermeneutics of Dao. Journal of Chinese Philosophy 27 (1):69-92.
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  9. Wai-ying Wong (2009). Morally Bad in the Philosophy of the Cheng Brothers. Journal of Chinese Philosophy 36 (1):141-156.
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Lu Xiangshan
  1. Julia Ching (1974). The Goose Lake Monastery Debate (1175). Journal of Chinese Philosophy 1 (2):161-178.
    The Goose Lake Monastery Debate was an important event in the history of Chinese thought, chiefly because it marked the differences between two of the greatest representatives of the movement of thought known in the West as Neo-Confucianism. In this article, it is my aim to offer a historical reconstruction of the events that took place, to give an exegetical analysis of the problems discussed, and to conclude with an interpretation that places these problems in a wider perspective. I hope (...)
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  2. Chin-hsing Huang (1995). Philosophy, Philology, and Politics in Eighteenth-Century China: Li Fu and the Lu-Wang School Under the Chʻing. Cambridge University Press.
    This book explains the general intellectual climate of the early Ch'ing period, and the political and cultural characteristics of the Ch'ing regime at the time. Professor Huang brings to life the book's central characters, Li Fu and the three great emperors - K'ang-hsi, Yung-cheng, and Chien-lung - whom he served. Although the author's main concern is to explain the contributions of Li Fu to the Lu-Wang school of Confucianism, he also gives a clearly written account of the Lu-Wang and Ch'eng-Chu (...)
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  3. Chin-Hsing Huang (1987). Chu Hsi Versus Lu Hsiang-Shan: A Philosophical Interpretation. Journal of Chinese Philosophy 14 (2):179-208.
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  4. Siu-chi Huang (1977). Lu Hsiang-Shan: A Twelfth Century Chinese Idealist Philosopher. Hyperion Press.
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  5. JeeLoo Liu (2011). Readings From the Lu-Wang School of Neo-Confucianism (Review). Philosophy East and West 61 (2):388-391.
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  6. Shu-Hsien Liu (2008). Song-Ming Neo-Confucianism (2) : From Lu Jiuyuan to Wang Yang-Ming. In Bo Mou (ed.), Routledge History of Chinese Philosophy. Routledge.
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  7. Justin Tiwald (2009). Review of Philip J. Ivanhoe, Readings From the Lu-Wang School of Neo-Confucianism. [REVIEW] Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews 9 (36).
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