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Space and Time, Misc

Edited by Virendra Tripathi (University of Nebraska, Lincoln, University of Nebraska, Omaha)
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  1. Frank Arntzenius (2012). Space, Time, & Stuff. Oxford Univ. Press.
    Frank Arntzenius presents a series of radical new ideas about the structure of space and time. Space, Time, and Stuff is an attempt to show that physics is geometry: that the fundamental structure of the physical world is purely geometrical structure. Along the way, he examines some non-standard views about the structure of spacetime and its inhabitants, including the idea that space and time are pointless, the idea that quantum mechanics is a completely local theory, the idea that antiparticles are (...)
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  2. Marcus Arvan (2014). A Unified Explanation of Quantum Phenomena? The Case for the Peer‐to‐Peer Simulation Hypothesis as an Interdisciplinary Research Program. Philosophical Forum 45 (4):433-446.
    In my 2013 article, “A New Theory of Free Will”, I argued that several serious hypotheses in philosophy and modern physics jointly entail that our reality is structurally identical to a peer-to-peer (P2P) networked computer simulation. The present paper outlines how quantum phenomena emerge naturally from the computational structure of a P2P simulation. §1 explains the P2P Hypothesis. §2 then sketches how the structure of any P2P simulation realizes quantum superposition and wave-function collapse (§2.1.), quantum indeterminacy (§2.2.), wave-particle duality (§2.3.), (...)
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  3. Mario Bacelar Valente (2011). The Relation Between Classical and Quantum Electrodynamics. Theoria 26 (70):51-68.
    In this article it is presented the idea that quantum electrodynamics has to be seen as a theoretical upgrade of classical electrodynamics and the theory of relativity, that permits an extension of classical theory in the description of phenomena, that while being clearly related to the conceptual framework of the classical theory – the description of matter, radiation, and their interaction – cannot be properly addressed from the classical theory. In this way quantum electrodynamics would not be a fundamental theory, (...)
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  4. Erik C. Banks (2014). The Realistic Empiricism of Mach, James, and Russell: Neutral Monism Reconceived. Cambridge University Press.
    The book revives the neutral monism of Mach, James, and Russell and applies the updated view to the problem of redefining physicalism, explaining the origins of sensation, and the problem of deriving extended physical objects and systems from an ontology of events.
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  5. Erik C. Banks (2013). Extension and Measurement: A Constructivist Program From Leibniz to Grassmann. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 44 (1):20-31.
    Extension is probably the most general natural property. Is it a fundamental property? Leibniz claimed the answer was no, and that the structureless intuition of extension concealed more fundamental properties and relations. This paper follows Leibniz's program through Herbart and Riemann to Grassmann and uses Grassmann's algebra of points to build up levels of extensions algebraically. Finally, the connection between extension and measurement is considered.
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  6. Erik C. Banks (2008). The Problem of Extension in Natural Philosophy. Philosophia Naturalis 45 (2):211-235.
    An overview of the problem of constructing extension combinatorially from qualities cum dispositional powers. In the model recommended here, Grassmann's algebra provides the combinatorial structure while Machian elements give the content.
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  7. Rodney Bartlett, STRINGS ARE BINARY DIGITS WHOSE CURRENTS IN TWO 2-D MOBIUS LOOPS PRODUCE A 4-D FIGURE-8 KLEIN BOTTLE THAT COMPOSES EACH OF THE SUBUNIVERSES IN THE ONE UNIVERSE. Vixra.Org (Category - Quantum Gravity and String Theory).
    The strings of physics’ string theory are the binary digits of 1 and 0 used in computers and electronics. The digits are constantly switching between their representations of the “on” and “off” states. This switching is usually referred to as a flow or current. Currents in the two 2-dimensional programs called Mobius loops are connected into a four-dimensional figure-8 Klein bottle by the infinitely-long irrational and transcendental numbers. Such an infinite connection translates - via bosons being ultimately composed of 1’s (...)
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  8. Luciano Boi (2012). Fondamenti geometrici e problemi filosofici dello spazio-tempo. Isonomía. Revista de Teoría y Filosofía Del Derecho:1-37.
    The answer to some of the longstanding issues in the 20th century theoretical physics, such as those of the incompatibility between general relativity and quantum mechanics, the broken symmetries of the electroweak force acting at the subatomic scale and the missing mass of Higgs particle, and also those of the cosmic singularity and the black matter and energy, appear to be closely related to the problem of the quantum texture of space-time and the fluctuations of its underlying geometry. Each region (...)
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  9. Claudio Borghi (2013). Tempo relativistico, tempo evolutivo e ritmo di marcia degli orologi reali. Isonomia: Online Philosophical Journal of the University of Urbino:1-23.
    This paper proposes a critical synthesis about different theories of time in physics and a new interpretation of its operational reality. We built it on two, deeply analyzed, fundamental ideas: the mathematical nature of Newtonian and relativistic time and the consequent need to build physical theories of time starting from the measurements obtained by real clocks. We observe that relativistic theories refer to axiomatic assumptions about clocks, probably not verified by experiments if we use clocks of different construction. We propose (...)
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  10. Claudio Borghi (2012). Effetto Orologi E Definizioni Operative di Tempo. Isonomia: Online Philosophical Journal of the University of Urbino:1-14.
    Starting from a critical analysis of the clock effect, this paper proposes to deduce different operational definitions of time from the different clocks that we can use to quantify durations. A new interpretation of thermodynamic time, as different from absolute and relativistic, is introduced. The analysis leads to infer the coexistence in physics of different incommensurable operational definitions of time and the need of discuss their coherence and reality.
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  11. G. Anthony Bruno (forthcoming). Varieties of Transcendental Idealism: Kant and Heidegger Thinking Beyond Life. Idealistic Studies.
  12. Edward P. Butler (2015). Universality and Locality in Platonic Polytheism. Walking the Worlds: A Biannual Journal of Polytheism and Spiritwork 1 (2).
    In a famous quote reported by his biographer Marinus, Proclus says that a philosopher should be like a “priest of the whole world in common”. This essay examines what this universality of the philosopher’s religious practice entails, first with reference to Marinus’ testimony concerning Proclus’ own devotional life, and then with respect to the systematic Platonic understanding of divine ‘locality’. The result is, first, that the philosopher’s ‘universality’ is at once more humble than it sounds, and more far-reaching; and second, (...)
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  13. Francisco Caruso & Roberto Moreira Xavier, ON KANT'S FIRST INSIGHT INTO THE PROBLEM OF SPACE DIMENSIONALITY AND ITS PHYSICAL FOUNDATIONS.
    In this article it is shown that a careful analysis of Kant's Gedanken von der wahren Schatzung der lebendigen Krafte und Beurtheilung der Beweise leads to a conclusion that does not match the usually accepted interpretation of Kant's reasoning in 1747, according to which the young Kant supposedly establishes a relationship between the tridimensionality of space and Newton's law of universal gravitation. Indeed, it is argued that this text does not yield a satisfactory explanation of space dimensionality, actually restricting itself (...)
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  14. Roberto Casati & Achille C. Varzi (1999). I trabocchetti della rappresentazione spaziale. Sistemi Intelligent 11 (1):7–28.
    This is a position article summarizing our approach to the philosophy of space and spatial representation. Our concern is mostly methodological: above all, we argue that a number of philosophical puzzles that arise in this field—puzzles concerning the nature of spatial entities, their material and mereological constitution, their relationship with the space that they occupy—stem from a confusion between semantic issues and true metaphysical concerns.
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  15. Roberto Casati & Achille C. Varzi (1996). The Structure of Spatial Localization. Philosophical Studies 82 (2):205 - 239.
    What are the relationships between an entity and the space at which it is located? And between a region of space and the events that take place there? What is the metaphysical structure of localization? What its modal status? This paper addresses some of these questions in an attempt to work out at least the main coordinates of the logical structure of localization. Our task is mostly taxonomic. But we also highlight some of the underlying structural features and we single (...)
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  16. Timothy Crockett (2008). Space and Time in Leibniz's Early Metaphysics. The Leibniz Review 18:41-79.
    In this paper I challenge the common view that early in his career (1679-1695) Leibniz held that space and time are well-founded phenomena, entities on an ontological par with bodies and their properties. I argue that the evidence Leibniz ever held that space and time are well-founded phenomena is extremely weak and that there is a great deal of evidence for thinking that in the 1680s he held a position much like the one scholars rightly attribute to him in his (...)
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  17. Elaine Maria Paiva de Andrade, Jean Faber & Luiz Pinguelli Rosa (2013). A Spontaneous Physics Philosophy on the Concept of Ether Throughout the History of Science: Birth, Death and Revival. [REVIEW] Foundations of Science 18 (3):559-577.
    In the course of the history of science, some concepts have forged theoretical foundations, constituting paradigms that hold sway for substantial periods of time. Research on the history of explanations of the action of one body on another is a testament to the periodic revival of one theory in particular, namely, the theory of ether. Even after the foundation of modern Physics, the notion of ether has directly and indirectly withstood the test of time. Through a spontaneous physics philosophical analysis, (...)
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  18. Maurice A. De Gosson (2013). Quantum Blobs. Foundations of Physics 43 (4):440-457.
    Quantum blobs are the smallest phase space units of phase space compatible with the uncertainty principle of quantum mechanics and having the symplectic group as group of symmetries. Quantum blobs are in a bijective correspondence with the squeezed coherent states from standard quantum mechanics, of which they are a phase space picture. This allows us to propose a substitute for phase space in quantum mechanics. We study the relationship between quantum blobs with a certain class of level sets defined by (...)
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  19. Alfred Driessen (1997). The Question of the Existence of God in the Book of Stephen Hawking: A Brief History of Time. In Alfred Driessen & Antoine Suarez (eds.), Mathematical undecidability, quantum nonlocality, and the question of the existence of God. Springer
    The continuing interest in the book of S. Hawking "A Brief History of Time" makes a philosophical evaluation of the content highly desirable. As will be shown, the genre of this work can be identified as a speciality in philosophy, namely the proof of the existence of God. In this study an attempt is given to unveil the philosophical concepts and steps that lead to the final conclusions, without discussing in detail the remarkable review of modern physical theories. In order (...)
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  20. Alexander Egoyan, The Role of Physics in Science Integration. Albert Einstein Century International Conference.
    Special and General theories of relativity may be considered as the most significant examples of integrative thinking. From these works we see that Albert Einstein attached great importance to how we understand geometry and dimensions. It is shown that physics powered by the new multidimensional elastic geometry is a reliable basis for science integration. Instead of searching for braneworlds (elastic membranes - EM) in higher dimensions we will start by searching them in our 3+1 dimensional world. The cornerstone of the (...)
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  21. C. E. Emmer (2004). Representing Place. [REVIEW] Review of Metaphysics 57 (3):610-612.
  22. Andrew A. Fingelkurts & Alexander A. Fingelkurts (2013). Dissipative Many-Body Model and a Nested Operational Architectonics of the Brain. Physics of Life Reviews 10:103-105.
    This paper briefly review a current trend in neuroscience aiming to combine neurophysiological and physical concepts in order to understand the emergence of spatio-temporal patterns within brain activity by which brain constructs knowledge from multiple streams of information. The authors further suggest that the meanings, which subjectively are experienced as thoughts or perceptions can best be described objectively as created and carried by large fields of neural activity within the operational architectonics of brain functioning.
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  23. Sharon R. Ford (2011). Deriving the Manifestly Qualitative World From a Pure-Power Base: Light-Like Networks. Philosophia Scientiae 15 (3):155-175.
    Seeking to derive the manifestly qualitative world of objects and entities without recourse to fundamental categoricity or qualitativity, I offer an account of how higher-order categorical properties and objects may emerge from a pure-power base. I explore the possibility of ‘fields’ whose fluctuations are force-carrying entities, differentiated with respect to a micro-topology of curled-up spatial dimensions. Since the spacetime paths of gauge bosons have zero ‘spacetime interval’ and no time-like extension, I argue that according them the status of fundamental entities (...)
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  24. Mathias Frisch (2010). Does a Low-Entropy Constraint Prevent Us From Influencing the Past? In Andreas Hüttemann & Gerhard Ernst (eds.), Time, Chance, and Reduction: Philosophical Aspects of Statistical Mechanics. Cambridge University Press 13--33.
    David Albert (2000) and Barry Loewer (2007) have argued that the temporal asymmetry of our concept of causal influence or control is grounded in the statistical mechanical assumption of a low-entropy past. In this paper I critically examine Albert's and Loewer's accounts.
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  25. Shan Gao, Why Gravity is Not an Entropic Force.
    The remarkable connections between gravity and thermodynamics seem to imply that gravity is not fundamental but emergent, and in particular, as Verlinde suggested, gravity is probably an entropic force. In this paper, we will argue that the idea of gravity as an entropic force is debatable. It is shown that there is no convincing analogy between gravity and entropic force in Verlinde’s example. Neither holographic screen nor test particle satisfies all requirements for the existence of entropic force in a thermodynamics (...)
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  26. Amit Hagar, Thou Shalt Not Commute!
    For many among the scientifically informed public, and even among physicists, Heisenberg's uncertainty principle epitomizes quantum mechanics. Nevertheless, more than 86 years after its inception, there is no consensus over the interpretation, scope, and validity of this principle. The aim of this chapter is to offer one such interpretation, the traces of which may be found already in Heisenberg's letters to Pauli from 1926, and in Dirac's anticipation of Heisenberg's uncertainty relations from 1927, that stems form the hypothesis of finite (...)
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  27. Amit Hagar (forthcoming). Ed Fredkin and the Physics of Information - An Inside Story of an Outsider Scientist. Information and Culture.
    This article tells the story of Ed Fredkin, a pilot, programmer, engineer, hardware designer and entrepreneur, whose work inside and outside academia has influenced major developments in computer science and in the foundations of theoretical physics for the past fifty years.
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  28. Amit Hagar (2014). Squaring the Circle: Gleb Wataghin and the Prehistory of Quantum Gravity. Studies in the History and the Philosophy of Modern Physics 46 (2):217-227.
    The early history of the attempts to unify quantum theory with the general theory of relativity is depicted through the work of the under--appreciated Italo-Brazilian physicist Gleb Wataghin, who is responsible for many of the ideas that the quantum gravity community is entertaining today.
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  29. Stephan Hartmann (2001). Vacuum. In H. Gründer (ed.), Historisches Wörterbuch der Philosophie. Schwabe
    Vacuum (leer, frei) bezeichnete bis zum 19. Jahrhundert allein den körperlosen Raum. Unter dem Einfluss physikalischer (Feld-) Theorien meint der Terminus inzwischen diejenige residuale physische Entiät, die einen vorgegebenen Raum ausfüllt bzw. im Prinzip ausfüllen würde, nachdem alles, was mit physikalischen Mitteln entfernt werden kann, aus dem Raum entfernt wurde. Theorien über das V. sind daher eng mit Theorien über die Struktur des Raumes, die Bewegung, die physikalischen Gegenstände und deren Wechselwirkungen verbunden. In der Quantentheorie bezeichnet V. den Zustand niedrigster (...)
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  30. Mark Hogarth (1994). Non-Turing Computers and Non-Turing Computability. Psa 1994:126--138.
    A true Turing machine (TM) requires an infinitely long paper tape. Thus a TM can be housed in the infinite world of Newtonian spacetime (the spacetime of common sense), but not necessarily in our world, because our world-at least according to our best spacetime theory, general relativity-may be finite. All the same, one can argue for the "existence" of a TM on the basis that there is no such housing problem in some other relativistic worlds that are similar ("close") to (...)
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  31. Andrew Holster, The Time Flow Manifesto Chapter 5 Time Flow Physics.
    In this chapter, we see one way that time flow may force us to develop our physical theory if we add it back into physics proper. Now of course this is speculative in this context, and should be thought of as a model. The two following extracts are from introductions a more complete unified theory. They explain the basic mathematical models that are required to illustrate the point that such models may be plausible. The second extract, ‘the parable of the (...)
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  32. Andrew Holster, Time Flow Physics: Introduction to a Unified Theory Based on Time Flow.
    This is the original summary paper of the theory, unchanged, from 2003. I have now found a better and simpler model solution for the theory, very similar but a better starting point than the model in the present paper. The new model is given in: “A Geometric Model of the Universe with Time Flow”. [http://philpapers.org/rec/HOLAGM]. This paper summarises a novel approach to constructing a unified theory of fundamental physics, which I have called 'Time Flow Physics' (TFP). It is shown how (...)
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  33. C. A. Hooker (1981). Graham Nerlich: The Shape of Space. Dialogue 20 (04):783-798.
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  34. Nick Huggett & David R. Hilbert (2006). Groups in Mind. Philosophy of Science 73 (5):765-77.
    We consider the question of the manner of the internalization of the geometry and topology of physical space in the mind, both the mechanism of internalization and precisely what structures are internalized. Though we will not argue for the point here, we agree with the long tradition which holds that an understanding of this issue is crucial for addressing many metaphysical and epistemological questions concerning space.
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  35. Nick Huggett & Christian Wuthrich (2013). Emergent Spacetime and Empirical (in)Coherence. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B 44 (3):276-285.
    Numerous approaches to a quantum theory of gravity posit fundamental ontologies that exclude spacetime, either partially or wholly. This situation raises deep questions about how such theories could relate to the empirical realm, since arguably only entities localized in spacetime can ever be observed. Are such entities even possible in a theory without fundamental spacetime? How might they be derived, formally speaking? Moreover, since by assumption the fundamental entities cannot be smaller than the derived and so cannot ‘compose’ them in (...)
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  36. Véronique Izard, Pierre Pica, Elizabeth Spelke & Stanislas Dehaene (2008). The Mapping of Numbers on Space : Evidence for a Logarithmic Intuition. Médecine/Science 24 (12):1014-1016.
  37. Andrew J. Jaeger (2014). A Tale of Two Parts. Res Philosophica 91 (3):1-8.
    Joshua Spencer has recently used the problem of spatial intrinsics in conjunction with the possibility of extended atomic regions of space to argue against the possibility of extended heterogeneous simples. In part 1, I explain Spencer’s argument against the possibility of heterogeneous simples. In part 2, I argue that if his argument is sound, then a parody argument can be constructed showing that heterogeneous composite objects are also impossible. In part 3, I provide an objection to my parody argument. I (...)
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  38. Geert Keil (2011). Ich bin jetzt hier - aber wo ist das? In Siri Granum Carson, Jonathan Knowles & Bjørn K. Myskja (eds.), Kant: Here, Now, and How. Mentis 15-34.
  39. Carsten Klein & Steven Awodey (eds.) (2004). Carnap Brought Home - The View From Jena. Open Court.
    Recently he has been undergoing a reappraisal, and this book of essays by leading philosophers, logicians, and art historians attempts to return Carnap to his rightful place.
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  40. Helena Knyazeva (2005). Figures of Time in Evolution of Complex Systems. Journal for General Philosophy of Science / Zeitschrift für Allgemeine Wissenschaftstheorie 36 (2):289 - 304.
    Owing to intensive development of the theory of self-organization of complex systems called also synergetics, profound changes in our notions of time occur. Whereas at the beginning of the 20th century, natural sciences, by picking up the general spirit of Einstein's theory of relativity, consider a geometrization as an ideal, i.e. try to represent time and force interactions through space and the changes of its properties, nowadays, at the beginning of the 21st century, time turns to be in the focus (...)
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  41. Helena Knyazeva & Sergei Kurdyumov (2001). Nonlinear Synthesis and Co-Evolution of Complex Systems. World Futures 57 (3):239-261.
    Today a change is imperative in approaching global problems: what is needed is not arm-twisting and power politics, but searching for ways of co-evolution in the complex social and geopolitical systems of the world. The modern theory of self-organization of complex systems provides us with an understanding of the possible forms of coexistence of heterogeneous social and geopolitical structures at different stages of development regarding the different paths of their sustainable co-evolutionary development. The theory argues that the evolutionary channel to (...)
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  42. Douglas Kutach (2013). Time Travel and Time Machines. In Adrian Bardon & Heather Dyke (eds.), A Companion to the Philosophy of Time. Blackwell
    Thinking about time travel is an entertaining way to explore how to understand time and its location in the broad conceptual landscape that includes causation, fate, action, possibility, experience, and reality. It is uncontroversial that time travel towards the future exists, and time travel to the past is generally recognized as permitted by Einstein’s general theory of relativity, though no one knows yet whether nature truly allows it. Coherent time travel stories have added flair to traditional debates over the metaphysical (...)
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  43. Vincent Lam & Michael Esfeld (2013). A Dilemma for the Emergence of Spacetime in Canonical Quantum Gravity. Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics 44 (3):286-293.
    The procedures of canonical quantization of the gravitational field apparently lead to entities for which any interpretation in terms of spatio-temporal localization or spatio-temporal extension seems difficult. This fact is the main ground for the suggestion that can often be found in the physics literature on canonical quantum gravity according to which spacetime may not be fundamental in some sense. This paper aims to investigate this radical suggestion from an ontologically serious point of view in the cases of two standard (...)
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  44. Ignazio Licata (2014). Methexis, Mimesis and Self Duality: Theoretical Physics as Formal Systems. Versus 118.
    The naive idea of a mimesis between theory and experiments, a concept still lasing in many epistemologies, is here substituted by a more sophisticated mathematical methexis where theoretical physics is a system of production of formal structures under strong mathematical constraints, such as global and local symmetries. Instead of an ultimate “everything theory”, the image of physical theories here proposed is a totality of interconnected structures establishing the very conditions of its “thinkability” and the relations with the experimental domain.
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  45. Peter Lynds, Denying the Existence of Instants of Time and the Instantaneous.
    Extending on an earlier paper [Found. Phys. Ltt., 16(4) 343–355, (2003)], it is argued that instants of time and the instantaneous (including instantaneous relative position) do not actually exist. This conclusion, one which is also argued to represent the correct solution to Zeno’s motion paradoxes, has several implications for modern physics and for our philosophical view of time, including that time and space cannot be quantized; that contrary to common interpretation, motion and change are compatible with the “block” universe and (...)
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  46. David B. Malament (1995). Is Newtonian Cosmology Really Inconsistent? Philosophy of Science 62 (4):489-510.
    John Norton has recently argued that Newtonian gravitation theory (at least as applied to cosmological contexts where one envisions the possibility of a homogeneous mass distribution throughout all of space) is inconsistent. I am not convinced. Traditional formulations of the theory may seem to break down in cases of the sort Norton considers. But the difficulties they face are only apparent. They are artifacts of the formulations themselves, and disappear if one passes to the so-called "geometrized" formulation of the theory.
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  47. Jeff Malpas (1997). Space and Sociality. International Journal of Philosophical Studies 5 (1):53 – 79.
    To what extent is our being as social creatures dependent on our having a grasp of sociality? Is a purely solipsistic space, a space that can be grasped without any grasp of the existence of others, possible? These questions are examined and the possible connection between space and sociality explored. The central claim is that there is indeed an intimate relation between the concept of space and the idea of the social: that any creature that has a grasp of the (...)
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  48. William Hunter McCrea (1935). Relativity Physics. London, Methuen & Co. Ltd..
  49. Kris McDaniel (2007). Distance and Discrete Space. Synthese 155 (1):157 - 162.
    Let us say that space is discrete if and only if every finite extended region of space is composed of finitely many atomic regions of space. I assume here that regions of space are individuals rather than sets of points, and have mereological structure; their parts are all and only their sub-regions. A region of space is an atomic region if and only if it has no proper parts, i.e., if and only if it is a mereological atom. In what (...)
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  50. Stephen Mooney, The Ultimate Paradigm of Science.
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