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  1. Jonas Åkerman (2010). Communication and Indexical Reference. Philosophical Studies 149 (3):355 - 366.
    In the debate over what determines the reference of an indexical expression on a given occasion of use, we can distinguish between two generic positions. According to the first, the reference is determined by internal factors, such as the speaker’s intentions. According to the second, the reference is determined by external factors, like conventions or what a competent and attentive audience would take the reference to be. It has recently been argued that the first position is untenable, since there are (...)
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  2. William Alston (1999). Illocutionary Acts and Sentence Meaning. Cornell University Press.
    William P. Alston. difference in the scope of the rule reflects the fact that I-rules exist for the sake of making communication possible. Whereas their cousins are enacted and enforced for other reasons. We could distinguish I-rules just by this ...
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  3. Kent Bach, Regressions in Pragmatics (and Semantics).
    Influenced by the Wittgensteinian slogan “Don’t look for the meaning, look for the use,” ordinary language philosophers aimed to defuse various philosophical problems by analyzing key words in terms of what they are used to do or the conditions for appropriately using them. Although Moore, Grice and Searle exposed this error – mixing pragmatics with semantics – it still gets committed, now to a different end. Nowadays the aim is to reckon with the fact that the meanings of a great (...)
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  4. Kent Bach (1992). Paving the Road to Reference. Philosophical Studies 67 (3):295--300.
  5. Owen Barfield (1967). Speaker's Meaning. Barfield Press.
    The semantic approach to history and the historical approach to the study of meaning -- Imagery in language and metaphor in poetry -- The psychology of inspiration and of imaginationn -- Subject and object in the history of meaning.
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  6. Robert Briscoe (2006). Individualism, Externalism and Idiolectical Meaning. Synthese 152 (1):95-128.
    Semantic externalism in contemporary philosophy of language typically – and often tacitly – combines two supervenience claims about idiolectical meaning (i.e., meaning in the language system of an individual speaker). The first claim is that the meaning of a word in a speaker’s idiolect may vary without any variation in her intrinsic, physical properties. The second is that the meaning of a word in a speaker’s idiolect may vary without any variation in her understanding of its use. I here show (...)
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  7. Lajos L. Brons (2011). The Grammar of 'Meaning'. In S. Watanabe (ed.), CARLS Series of Advanced Study of Logic and Sensibility, volume 4. Keio University Press
    This paper analyzes some grammatical aspects of the English verb "to mean" and its nominalizations, and based on that, argues that meaning is something that people do rather than something that words have.
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  8. Richard Brown (2008). Language, Thought, Logic, and Existence. CALIPSO (Conference Addresses of the Long Island Philosophical Society Online) 1 (2):http://myweb.brooklyn.liu.edu/mc.
    As is well known, we can prove that everything that exists necessarily exists in S5. Perhaps as well known is Kripke’s two-part solution. First we forbid axioms with free variables and second we forbid the use of singular terms. One way to do the latter is via Nominal Description Theory (NDT): a name N is semantically equivalent to the description that mentions the name, e.g. ‘the-bearer-of-“N”’. But how do we reconcile NDT with the thesis of rigid designation? I argue that (...)
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  9. Ray Buchanan (2013). Reference, Understanding, and Communication. Australasian Journal of Philosophy (1):1-16.
    Brian Loar [1976] observed that, even in the simplest of cases, such as an utterance of (1): ‘He is a stockbroker’, a speaker's audience might misunderstand her utterance even if they correctly identify the referent of the relevant singular term, and understand what is being predicated of it. Numerous theorists, including Bezuidenhout [1997], Heck [1995], Paul [1999], and Récanati [1993, 1995], have used Loar's observation to argue against direct reference accounts of assertoric content and communication, maintaining that, even in these (...)
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  10. H. G. Callaway (1986). Beardsley on Metaphor. Restant 14, Text, Literature and Aesthetics 14:73-88.
    Monroe C. Beardsley has made seminal contributions to the on-going discussions of metaphor, contributions of continuing relevance and influence. His "Verbal Opposition Theory," like Max Black's "Interaction Theory," is a classic document of the contemporary semantic approach to metaphor, and has placed special emphasis upon the recognition of metaphor --the problem of the metaphorical warrant--which has lead to a deeper understanding of the complexities of this problem.
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  11. Elisabeth Camp (2015). Conventions’ Revenge: Davidson, Derangement, and Dormativity. Inquiry 59 (1):113-138.
    Davidson advocates a radical and powerful form of anti-conventionalism, on which the scope of a semantic theory is restricted to the most local of contexts: a particular utterance by a particular speaker. I argue that this hyper-localism undercuts the explanatory grounds for his assumption that semantic meaning is systematic, which is central, among other things, to his holism. More importantly, it threatens to undercut the distinction between word meaning and speaker’s meaning, which he takes to be essential to semantics. I (...)
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  12. Mihnea D. I. Capraru (2013). A New Source of Data About Singular Thought. Philosophia 41 (4):1159-1172.
    Philosophers have justified extant theories of singular thought in at least three ways: they have invoked wide-ranging theories motivated by data from other philosophical areas, they have elicited direct intuitions about which thoughts are singular, and they have subjected propositional attitude reports to tests such as Russellian substitution and Quinean exportation. In these ways, however, we haven’t yet been able to tell what it takes to have singular thoughts, nor have we been able to tell which of our thoughts they (...)
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  13. John R. Cook (2006). Review of Donald Davidson's Truth, Language, and History. [REVIEW] Philosophy in Review (6):399-401.
    Language, Truth, and History is an excellent volume of essays coming from one of the most important philosophers in the last fifty years. It would be of interest to anyone interested in the ways Davidson's philosophy evolved after the publication of the first two volumes, and it is essential reading for anyone working in philosophy of language or philosophy of mind.
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  14. Joshua Finnell (2011). Records Management Theory's Dilemma: What is a Record? Library Philosophy and Practice 2011:567.
    A familiar dialogue is taking place in the professional literature of records and information management. Since the early 1990s, the theoretical foundation of a records management theory has been constructed on convergence (Pemberton & Nugent, 1995; Walters, 1995; Zawiyah M Yusof & Robert W Chell, 2002). While certain concepts are shared across disciplines, arguably the most foundational definition is the most divergent: a record. Each discipline (Archival Science, Library Science, Computer Science) defines the term record in its own way. Records (...)
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  15. Peter A. French, Theodore Edward Uehling & Howard K. Wettstein (eds.) (1977). Studies in the Philosophy of Language. University of Minnesota, Morris.
  16. Christopher Gauker (2008). Zero Tolerance for Pragmatics. Synthese 165 (3):359–371.
    The proposition expressed by a sentence is relative to a context. But what determines the content of the context? Many theorists would include among these determinants aspects of the speaker’s intention in speaking. My thesis is that, on the contrary, the determinants of the context never include the speaker’s intention. My argument for this thesis turns on a consideration of the role that the concept of proposition expressed in context is supposed to play in a theory of linguistic communication. To (...)
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  17. Arnold Groh (2016). Culture, Language and Thought: Field Studies on Colour Concepts. Journal of Cognition and Culture 16:83–106.
    In a series of studies the assumption of a lack of colour concepts in indigenous societies, as proposed by Berlin & Kay (1969) and others, was examined. The research took place in the form of minimally invasive field encounters with indigenous subjects in South East Asia and in India, as well as in West, Central, and South Africa. Subjects were screened for colour blindness with Ishihara- and Pflüger-Trident-Test. Standardised colour tablets had to be designated in the indigenous languages; these terms (...)
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  18. Michael Haugh & Kasia M. Jaszczolt (2012). Speaker Intentions and Intentionality. In Keith Allan & Kasia Jaszczolt (eds.), Cambridge Handbook of Pragmatics. Cambridge University Press 87--112.
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  19. Ilhan Inan (2009). How Often Do We Use a Definite Description to Talk About its Semantic Referent? Kriterion: Journal of Philosophy 22 (1):7-12.
    In this paper I respond to the objections put forth by Kresimir Agbaba 22: 1-6) against my earlier paper 20: 7-13) in which I argue that given Donnellan's formulation|as well as Kripke's and Salmon's gen- eralized accounts|an attributive use of a denite description is a very rare linguistic phenomenon.
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  20. Eva Feder Kittay, T. N. Ward, S. M. Smith & J. Vaid (1997). Of “Men” and Metaphors: Shakespeare, Embodiment, and Filing Cabinets. In T. B. Ward, S. M. Smith & J. Viad (eds.), Creative Thought: An Investigation of Conceptual Structures and Processes. American Psychological Association
  21. Saul A. Kripke (1977). Speaker's Reference and Semantic Reference. In Peter A. French, Theodore E. Uehling Jr & Howard K. Wettstein (eds.), Studies in the Philosophy of Language. University of Minnesota Press 255-296.
    am going to discuss some issues inspired by a well-known paper ofKeith Donnellan, "Reference and Definite Descriptions,”2 but the interest—to me—of the contrast mentioned in my title goes beyond Donnellan's paper: I think it is of considerable constructive as well as critical importance to the philosophy oflanguage. These applications, however, and even everything I might want to say relative to Donnellan’s paper, cannot be discussed in full here because of problems of length. Moreover, although I have a considerable interest in (...)
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  22. Karen S. Lewis (2013). Speaker's Reference and Anaphoric Pronouns. Philosophical Perspectives 27 (1):404-437.
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  23. David Lumsden (1985). Does Speaker's Reference Have Semantic Relevance? Philosophical Studies 47 (1):15 - 21.
    My immediate conclusion, therefore, is a modest one. I only specifically rule out the semantic convention for definite descriptions in which the semantic referent just is the speaker's referent. In arguing for that I carefully avoided relying on the helpfulness assumption. But I did, implicitly, make use of the following procedure.In examining a claim that C is the semantic convention (or form of convention) for a term (or class of term), check to see that C is capable of being helpful (...)
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  24. John Michael McGuire (2001). Sentence Meaning, Speaker Meaning, and Davidson's Denial of Metaphorical Meaning. Dialogue 40 (03):443-.
  25. William D. Melaney (2011). Ricoeur’s Transcendental Concern: A Hermeneutics of Discourse. In Anna-Teresa Tymieniecka (ed.), Analecta Husserliana. Springer 495-513.
    This paper argues that Paul Ricoeur’s hermeneutical philosophy attempts to reopen the question of human transcendence in contemporary terms. While his conception of language as self-transcending is deeply Husserlian, Ricoeur also responds to the analytical challenge when he deploys a basic distinction in Fregean logic in order to clarify Heidegger’s phenomenology of world. Ricoeur’s commitment to a transcendental view is evident in his conception of narrative, which enables him to emphasize the role of the performative in literary reading. The meaning (...)
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  26. Adèle Mercier (1998). On Communication-Based De Re Thought, Commitments De Dicto and Word Individuation. In Robert Stainton & Kumiko Murasagi (eds.), Philosophy and Linguistics. Westview Press 85--111.
    Provides an account of how necessary subjective syntactic investments on the part of speakers affect the semantic contents of their words and the possibilities for their thought-contents.
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  27. Eliot Michaelson (2016). The Lying Test. Mind and Language 31 (4):470-499.
    As an empirical inquiry into the nature of meaning, semantics must rely on data. Unfortunately, the primary data to which philosophers and linguists have traditionally appealed—judgments on the truth and falsity of sentences—have long been known to vary widely between competent speakers in a number of interesting cases. The present article constitutes an experiment in how to obtain some more consistent data for the enterprise of semantics. Specifically, it argues from some widely accepted Gricean premises to the conclusion that judgments (...)
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  28. Andrei Moldovan (2016). An Assessment of the Argument From Convention. Discusiones Filosóficas 17 (28):15 - 34.
    This paper focuses on what is known in the literature on the semantics and pragmatics of definite descriptions as “the argument from convention”. This argument purports to show that referential uses of definite descriptions are a semantic phenomenon. A key premise of the argument is that none of the pragmatic alternatives (any one of a variety of Gricean accounts of referential uses) is successful. I argue that no good reason is offered to support this claim. I conclude that the argument (...)
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  29. Friederike Moltmann (forthcoming). Plural Reference and Reference to a Plurality. Linguistic Facts and Semantic Analyses. In Massimiliano Carrara, Alexandra Arapinis & Friederike Moltmann (eds.), Unity and Plurality. Logic, Philosophy, and Semantics. Oxford University Press
    This paper defends 'plural reference', the view that definite plurals refer to several individuals at once, and it explores how the view can account for a range of phenomena that have been discussed in the linguistic literature.
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  30. Carlo Penco, Truth, Charity and Assertion.
    In this paper [submitted in 2008] I discuss the relation between truth and assertion, starting from Linsky's example [her husband is kind to her], used in the debate on definite description by Keith Donnellan and Saul Kripke. To treat the problem of the referential use of definite descriptions we need not only to take into account the contest of utterance, but also the context of reception, or the cognitive context. If the cognitive context is given the right relevance we may (...)
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  31. Jessica Pepp (2012). Reference and Referring: A Framework. In William P. Kabasenche, Michael O'Rourke & Matthew H. Slater (eds.), Reference and Referring. MIT Press 1-32.
  32. François Recanati (2013). Reference Through Mental Files : Indexicals and Definite Descriptions. In Carlo Penco & Filippo Domaneschi (eds.), What Is Said and What Is Not. Stanford 159-173.
    Accounts for referential communication (and especially communication by means of definite descriptions and indexicals) in the mental file framework.
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  33. François Recanati (2001). What is Said. Synthese 128 (1-2):75--91.
  34. Francois Recanati (1998). Pragmatics. In Edward Craig (ed.), Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Routledge 620-633.
    1 Pragmatics and ordinary language philosophy 2 Speech acts 3 Contextual implications 4 Non-truth-conditional aspects of meaning 5 Indexicals 6 Levels of meaning 7 Open texture 8 The semantics/pragmatics distinction 9 Context and propositional attitudes 10 Presupposition 11 Interpretation and context-change 12 The strategic importance of conversational implicatures 13 Communicative intentions 14 The intentional-inferential model 15 Pragmatics and modularity 16 Cognitive science and contextualism.
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  35. Francois Recanati (1998). Meaning and Force: An Introduction. In Asa Kasher (ed.), Pragmatics: Critical Concepts. Routledge 126-143.
  36. Francois Recanati (1998). Primary Pragmatic Processes. In Asa Kasher (ed.), Pragmatics: Critical Concepts. Routledge 512-531.
  37. Francois Recanati (1998). Truth-Conditional Pragmatics. In Asa Kasher (ed.), Pragmatics: Critical Concepts. 509-511.
  38. François Recanati (1986). On Defining Communicative Intentions. Mind and Language 1 (3):213-41.
  39. J. P. Smit, The Quasi-Verbal Dispute Between Kripke and 'Frege-Russell'.
    Traditional descriptivism and Kripkean causalism are standardly interpreted as rival theories on a single topic. I argue that there is no such shared topic, i.e. that there is no question that they can be interpreted as giving rival answers to. The only way to make sense of the commitment to epistemic transparency that characterizes traditional descriptivism is to interpret Russell and Frege as proposing rival accounts of how to characterize a subject’s beliefs about what names refer to. My argument relies (...)
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  40. Isidora Stojanovic (2013). Prepragmatics: Widening the Semantics-Pragmatics Boundary. In Alexis Burgess & Brett Sherman (eds.), Metasemantics: New Essays on the Foundations of Meaning. Oxford University Press 311-326.
    One of the most important and, at the same time, most controversial issues in metasemantics is the question of what semantics is, and what distinguishes semantic elements (features, properties, phenomena, mechanisms, processes, or whatever) from the rest. The issue is tightly linked with the debate over the semantics-pragmatics distinction, which has been vibrant for a decade or two, but seems to be reaching an impasse. I suggest that this impasse may be due to the failure to recognize a distinct realm (...)
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  41. J. Thompson (2008). Grades of Meaning. Synthese 161 (2):283-308.
    In this paper, I lend novel support to H. P. Grice’s account of speaker meaning (GASM) by blunting the force of a significant objection. Stephen Schiffer has argued that in order to make GASM sufficient, one must add restrictions that are psychologically impossible to fulfill, thereby making GASM untenable. In what follows, I explain the elements of GASM that require it to invoke these psychologically unrealizable restrictions. I then accept Schiffer’s criticism, but modify its significance to GASM. I argue that (...)
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  42. Savas L. Tsohatzidis (1994). Speaker Meaning, Sentence Meaning, and Metaphor. In Foundations of Speech Act Theory: Philosophical and Linguistic Perspectives. Routledge
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  43. Elmar Unnsteinsson (forthcoming). A Gricean Theory of Malaprops. Mind and Language.
    Gricean intentionalists hold that what a speaker says and means by a linguistic utterance is determined by the speaker's communicative intention. On this view, one cannot really say anything without meaning it as well. Conventionalists argue, however, that malapropisms provide powerful counterexamples to this claim. I present two arguments against the conventionalist and sketch a new Gricean theory of speech errors, called the misarticulation theory. On this view malapropisms are understood as a special case of mispronunciation. I argue that the (...)
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  44. Elmar Unnsteinsson (2016). Confusion is Corruptive Belief in False Identity. Canadian Journal of Philosophy 46 (2):204-227.
    Speakers are confused about identity if they mistake one thing for two or two things for one. I present two plausible models of confusion, the Frege model and the Millikan model. I show how a prominent objection to Fregean models fails and argue that confusion consists in having false implicit beliefs involving the identity relation. Further, I argue that confused identity has characteristic corruptive effects on singular cognition and on the proper function of singular terms in linguistic communication.
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  45. Elmar Unnsteinsson (2014). Compositionality and Sandbag Semantics. Synthese 191 (14):3329-3350.
    It is a common view that radical contextualism about linguistic meaning is incompatible with a compositional explanation of linguistic comprehension. Recently, some philosophers of language have proposed theories of 'pragmatic' compositionality challenging this assumption. This paper takes a close look at a prominent proposal of this kind due to François Recanati. The objective is to give a plausible formulation of the view. The major results are threefold. First, a basic distinction that contextualists make between mandatory and optional pragmatic processes needs (...)
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  46. Frank Vlach (1981). Speaker's Meaning. Linguistics and Philosophy 4 (3):359 - 391.
    The strongest objection to (15) is that speaker's meaning is defined in terms of commitment, a notion which is itself something of a challenge and for which no definition has been given. This would be a strong reason to prefer a definition in terms of some more tractable concept, all things being equal; but it does not lessen the probability that commitment or some similar notion is indispensable to the definition of speaker's meaning.The philosophical writings discussed in this paper all (...)
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  47. Roger Wertheimer (1975). Review of Stephen Schiffer, Meaning. [REVIEW] Philosophical Review 84 (2):267-70.
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  48. Asa Maria Wikforss (1996). Linguistic Freedom: An Essay on Meaning and Rules. Dissertation, Columbia University
    The thesis examines a central and controversial question in the philosophy of mind and language: Is meaning normative? Are there rules we must follow for our words to have meaning? ;Philosophers are sharply divided over this question. One side, often associated with Wittgenstein and more recently Kripke, sees meaning as essentially normative. If a sign is to be meaningful, then surely, it is argued, there must be a distinction between the correct and incorrect use of that sign. The other side (...)
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