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  1. Laura Geuy Akers (2008). Lessons Learned From Yellowjackets. Environmental Philosophy 5 (2):35-46.
    Interactions with yellowjackets offer opportunities to reflect on what it is to encounter radical alterity and the conditions that are necessary for the limited empathy such encounters afford us. Effort must be made to set aside automatic judgments, and neither simulation nor theorizing can be sufficient to give us reliable insights, but mindful attentiveness can at least help us attend to the possibilities of interaction and tentative interpretation.
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  2. Samuel Alexander (2013). Infinite Graphs in Systematic Biology, with an Application to the Species Problem. Acta Biotheoretica 61 (2):181--201.
    We argue that C. Darwin and more recently W. Hennig worked at times under the simplifying assumption of an eternal biosphere. So motivated, we explicitly consider the consequences which follow mathematically from this assumption, and the infinite graphs it leads to. This assumption admits certain clusters of organisms which have some ideal theoretical properties of species, shining some light onto the species problem. We prove a dualization of a law of T.A. Knight and C. Darwin, and sketch a decomposition result (...)
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  3. Peter Beurton (2002). Ernst Mayr Through Time on the Biological Species Concept - a Conceptual Analysis. Theory in Biosciences 121:81-98.
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  4. Achim-Rüdiger Börner (1982). Der Artbegriff and Seine Bedeutung Fur Die Klassifikation der Echsen (Reptilia: Sauria). Acta Biotheoretica 31 (1).
    Several species concepts are generally discussed and evaluated. Then the new definition, the pheno-genetic species concept, is developed; it reads: a species is the largest possible, regional evolutionary unit of pheno-genetically equal (in the typical, specific characters), identically reproducing demes. It is separated from sympatric species by a reproductive isolation that guarantees a unique evolution, an evolution different from that of other species and sufficiently uninfluenced, and that is accompanied by another distinctive pheno-genetic gap. It is separated from allopatric species (...)
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  5. Ingo Brigandt (2003). Species Pluralism Does Not Imply Species Eliminativism. Philosophy of Science 70 (5):1305–1316.
    Marc Ereshefsky argues that pluralism about species suggests that the species concept is not theoretically useful. It is to be abandoned in favor of several concrete species concepts that denote real categories. While accepting species pluralism, the present paper rejects eliminativism about the species category. It is argued that the species concept is important and that it is possible to make sense of a general species concept despite the existence of different concrete species concepts.
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  6. C. Chung (2003). On the Origin of the Typological/Population Distinction in Ernst Mayr's Changing Views of Species, 1942-1959. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C 34 (2):277-296.
    Ernst Mayr's typological/population distinction is a conceptual thread that runs throughout much of his work in systematics, evolutionary biology, and the history and philosophy of biology. Mayr himself claims that typological thinking originated in the philosophy of Plato and that population thinking was first introduced by Charles Darwin and field naturalists. A more proximate origin of the typological/population thinking, however, is found in Mayr's own work on species. This paper traces the antecedents of the typological/population distinction by detailing Mayr's changing (...)
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  7. Joel Cracraft (1987). Species Concepts and the Ontology of Evolution. Biology and Philosophy 2 (3):329-346.
    Biologists and philosophers have long recognized the importance of species, yet species concepts serve two masters, evolutionary theory on the one hand and taxonomy on the other. Much of present-day evolutionary and systematic biology has confounded these two roles primarily through use of the biological species concept. Theories require entities that are real, discrete, irreducible, and comparable. Within the neo-Darwinian synthesis, however, biological species have been treated as real or subjectively delimited entities, discrete or nondiscrete, and they are often capable (...)
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  8. Joel Cracraft (1983). Species Concepts and Speciation Analysis. In R. F. Johnston (ed.), Current Ornithology. Plenum Press. 159-87.
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  9. Kevin De Queiroz & Michael J. Donoghue (1988). Phylogenetic Systematics and the Species Problem. Cladistics 4:317-38.
  10. Michael Devitt (2008). Resurrecting Biological Essentialism. Philosophy of Science 75 (3):344-382.
    The article defends the doctrine that Linnaean taxa, including species, have essences that are, at least partly, underlying intrinsic, mostly genetic, properties. The consensus among philosophers of biology is that such essentialism is deeply wrong, indeed incompatible with Darwinism. I argue that biological generalizations about the morphology, physiology, and behavior of species require structural explanations that must advert to these essential properties. The objection that, according to current “species concepts,” species are relational is rejected. These concepts are primarily concerned with (...)
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  11. Th Dobzhansky (1935). A Critique of the Species Concept in Biology. Philosophy of Science 2 (3):344-355.
  12. John Dupré (1999). On the Impossibility of a Monistic Account of Species. In Robert A. Wilson (ed.), Species: New Interdisciplinary Essays. Bradford Books. 3-22.
  13. John Dupré (1993). The Disorder of Things: Metaphysical Foundations of the Disunity of Science. Harvard University Press.
  14. Marc Ereshefsky (2010). Darwin's Solution to the Species Problem. Synthese 175 (3):405 - 425.
    Biologists and philosophers that debate the existence of the species category fall into two camps. Some believe that the species category does not exist and the term 'species' should be eliminated from biology. Others believe that with new biological insights or the application of philosophical ideas, we can be confident that the species category exists. This paper offers a different approach to the species problem. We should be skeptical of the species category, but not skeptical of the existence of those (...)
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  15. Marc Ereshefsky, Species. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
  16. Marc Ereshefsky (1989). Where's the Species? Comments on the Phylogenetic Species Concepts. Biology and Philosophy 4 (1):89-96.
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  17. Marc Ereshefsky & Mohan Matthen (2005). Taxonomy, Polymorphism, and History: An Introduction to Population Structure Theory. Philosophy of Science 72 (1):1-21.
    Homeostatic Property Cluster (HPC) theory suggests that species and other biological taxa consist of organisms that share certain similarities. HPC theory acknowledges the existence of Darwinian variation within biological taxa. The claim is that “homeostatic mechanisms” acting on the members of such taxa nonetheless ensure a significant cluster of similarities. The HPC theorist’s focus on individual similarities is inadequate to account for stable polymorphism within taxa, and fails properly to capture their historical nature. A better approach is to treat distributions (...)
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  18. L. R. Franklin (2007). Bacteria, Sex, and Systematics. Philosophy of Science 74 (1):69-95.
    Philosophical discussions of species have focused on multicellular, sexual animals and have often neglected to consider unicellular organisms like bacteria. This article begins to fill this gap by considering what species concepts, if any, apply neatly to the bacterial world. First, I argue that the biological species concept cannot be applied to bacteria because of the variable rates of genetic transfer between populations, depending in part on which gene type is prioritized. Second, I present a critique of phylogenetic bacterial species, (...)
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  19. MIchael Ghiselin (1987). Species Concepts, Individuality, and Objectivity. Biology and Philosophy 2:127-43.
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  20. Mark Greene (2011). On the Origin of Species Notions and Their Ethical Limitations. In Tom L. Beauchamp & R. G. Frey (eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Animal Ethics. Oxford University Press. 577-602.
    I argue that defenders of general duties of species preservation are faced with an impossible task. I distinguish derivative from non-derivative value and argue that the derivative value of species can yield only limited and contingent duties of preservation. There can be no general duty of species preservation unless all species have non-derivative value. Ongoing controversy over the ’species’ notion has not deterred some from claiming settled authority for whatever notion appears most conducive to their favored account of species value. (...)
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  21. Kent E. Holsinger (1987). Pluralism and Species Concepts, or When Must We Agree with One Another? Philosophy of Science 54 (3):480-485.
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  22. Christopher D. Horvath (1997). Discussion: Phylogenetic Species Concept: Pluralism, Monism, and History. [REVIEW] Biology and Philosophy 12 (2):225-232.
    Species serve as both the basic units of macroevolutionary studies and as the basic units of taxonomic classification. In this paper I argue that the taxa identified as species by the Phylogenetic Species Concept (Mishler and Brandon 1987) are the units of biological organization most causally relevant to the evolutionary process but that such units exist at multiple levels within the hierarchy of any phylogenetic lineage. The PSC gives us no way of identifying one of these levels as the privileged (...)
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  23. David Hull (1999). On the Plurality of Species: Questioning the Party Line. In R. Wilson (ed.), Species: New Interdisciplinary Essays. MIT Press. 23-48.
  24. David L. Hull (1965). The Effect of Essentialism on Taxonomy--Two Thousand Years of Stasis (II). British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 16 (61):1-18.
  25. Catherine Kendig (2014). Towards a Multidimensional Metaconception of Species. Ratio 27 (2):155-172.
    Species concepts aim to define the species category. Many of these rely on defining species in terms of natural lineages and groupings. A dominant gene-centred metaconception has shaped notions of what constitutes both a natural lineage and a natural grouping. I suggest that relying on this metaconception provides an incomplete understanding of what constitute natural lineages and groupings. If we take seriously the role of epigenetic, behavioural, cultural, and ecological inheritance systems, rather than exclusively genetic inheritance, a broader notion of (...)
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  26. Philip Kitcher (1984). Species. Philosophy of Science 51 (2):308-333.
    I defend a view of the species category, pluralistic realism, which is designed to do justice to the insights of many different groups of systematists. After arguing that species are sets and not individuals, I proceed to outline briefly some defects of the biological species concept. I draw the general moral that similar shortcomings arise for other popular views of the nature of species. These shortcomings arise because the legitimate interests of biology are diverse, and these diverse interests are reflected (...)
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  27. Gal Kober (2014). Richard A. Richards .The Species Problem: A Philosophical Analysis. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2010. Pp. X+236. $85.00 (Cloth). [REVIEW] Hopos: The Journal of the International Society for the History of Philosophy of Science 4 (1):169-172.
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  28. D. J. Kornet & James W. McAllister (2005). The Composite Species Concept: A Rigorous Basis for Cladistic Practice. In Thomas Reydon & Lia Hemerik (eds.), Current Themes in Theoretical Biology. Springer. 95--127.
  29. Malcolm J. Kottler (1978). Charles Darwin's Biological Species Concept and Theory of Geographic Speciation: The Transmutation Notebooks. Annals of Science 35 (3):275-297.
    Summary The common view has been that Darwin regarded species as artificial and arbitrary constructions of taxonomists, not as distinct natural units. However, in his transmutation notebooks he clearly subscribed to the reality of species, on the basis of the criterion of non-interbreeding. A consequence of this biological species concept was his identification of the acquisition of reproductive isolation as the mark of the completion of speciation. He developed in the notebooks a theory of geographic speciation on the grounds of (...)
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  30. Michael Lee & Mieczyslaw Wolsan (2002). Integration, Individuality and Species Concepts. Biology and Philosophy 17 (5):651-660.
    Integration (interaction among parts of an entity) is suggested to be necessary for individuality (contra, Metaphysics and the Origin of Species). A synchronic species is an integrated individual that can evolve as a unified whole; a diachronic lineage is a non-integrated historical entity that cannot evolve. Synchronic species and diachronic lineages are consequently suggested to be ontologically distinct entities, rather than alternative perspectives of the same underlying entity (contra Baum (1998), Syst. Biol. 47, 641–653; de Queiroz (1995), Endless Forms: Species (...)
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  31. James Maclaurin & Kim Sterelny (2008). What is Biodiversity? University of Chicago Press.
    What Is Biodiversity? is a theoretical and conceptual exploration of the biological world and how diversity is valued. Maclaurin and Sterelny explore not only the origins of the concept of biodiversity, but also how that concept has been shaped by ecology and more recently by conservation biology. They explain the different types of biodiversity important in evolutionary theory, developmental biology, ecology, morphology and taxonomy and conclude that biological heritage is rich in not just one biodiversity but many. Maclaurin and Sterelny (...)
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  32. D. Magnus (1996). Theory, Practice, and Epistemology in the Development of Species Concepts. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 27 (4):521-545.
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  33. Ernst Mayr (1970). Populations, Species and Evolution: An Abridgment of Animal Species and Evolution. Belknap Press of Harvard University Press.
    In the Preface of Animal Species and Evolution (1963), I wrote that it was "an attempt to summarize and review critically what we know about the biology and genetics of animal species and their role in evolution." The result was a volume of XIV ...
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  34. Ernst Mayr (1968). Illiger and the Biological Species Concept. Journal of the History of Biology 1 (2):163 - 178.
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  35. Ernst Mayr (1963). Animal Species and Evolution. Belknap of Harvard University Press.
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  36. Ernst Mayr (1942). Systematics and the Origin of Species From the Viewpoint of a Zoologist. Columbia University Press.
    WE HAVE LEARNED in the preceding chapter that a revolutionary change of the species concept is in the making, a change which not only affects taxonomic procedure, but which also contributes considerably toward a better understanding of ...
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  37. Ernst Mayr & Peter D. Ashlock (1991). Principles of Systematic Zoology. McGraw-Hill.
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  38. Brent D. Mishler & Robert N. Brandon (1987). Individuality, Pluralism, and the Phylogenetic Species Concept. Biology and Philosophy 2 (4):397-414.
    The concept of individuality as applied to species, an important advance in the philosophy of evolutionary biology, is nevertheless in need of refinement. Four important subparts of this concept must be recognized: spatial boundaries, temporal boundaries, integration, and cohesion. Not all species necessarily meet all of these. Two very different types of pluralism have been advocated with respect to species, only one of which is satisfactory. An often unrecognized distinction between grouping and ranking components of any species concept is necessary. (...)
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  39. Brent D. Mishler & M. J. Donoghue (1982). Species Concepts: A Case for Pluralism. Systematic Zoology 31:491-503.
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  40. Makmiller Pedroso (2014). Origin Essentialism in Biology. Philosophical Quarterly 64 (254):60-81.
    Kripke argues for origin essentialism, the view that the same individual cannot have multiple origins. Sober hypothesises that Kripke's origin essentialism applies to biological species. This paper shows that Sober's hypothesis fails. Because Kripke's original argument is invalid, it cannot vindicate Sober's proposal. Salmon offers an influential reformulation of Kripke's argument but his argument fails to extend to species: the notion of an individual's origin is too narrow to apply to species, and Salmon's argument rests on a thought experiment that (...)
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  41. Makmiller Pedroso (2013). The Species Problem: A Philosophical Analysis, by Richard Richards. [REVIEW] Mind 122 (488):1180-1182.
  42. Thomas Reydon (2002). Quentin D. Wheeler and Rudolf Meier (Eds.) (2000). Species Concepts and Phylogenetic Theory: A Debate. Acta Biotheoretica 50 (2).
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  43. Thomas A. C. Reydon (2009). Species and Kinds: A Critique of Rieppel’s “One of a Kind” Account of Species. Cladistics 25 (6):660-667.
    A major issue in philosophical debates on the species problem concerns the opposition between two seemingly incompatible views of the metaphysics of species: the view that species are individuals and the view that species are natural kinds. In two recent papers in this journal, Olivier Rieppel suggested that this opposition is much less deep than it seems at first sight. Rieppel used a recently developed philosophical account of natural kindhood, namely Richard Boyd’s “homeostatic property cluster” theory, to argue that every (...)
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  44. Mark Ridley (1989). The Cladistic Solution to the Species Problem. Biology and Philosophy 4 (1):1-16.
    The correct explanation of why species, in evolutionary theory, are individuals and not classes is the cladistic species concept. The cladistic species concept defines species as the group of organisms between two speciation events, or between one speciation event and one extinction event, or (for living species) that are descended from a speciation event. It is a theoretical concept, and therefore has the virtue of distinguishing clearly the theoretical nature of species from the practical criteria by which species may be (...)
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  45. Olivier Rieppel (2008). Origins, Taxa, Names and Meanings. Cladistics 24:598-610.
    In a recent contribution, Ereshefsky (2007a) maintained the following points against Nixon and Carpenter (2000), Keller et al. (2003), and Rieppel (2005a, 2006a,b): (1) that species and taxa are individuals, not natural kinds; (2) that “origin essentialism” conflates qualitative essentialism with genealogical connectedness; and (3) that rigid designation theory applies to taxon names. Here I argue that: (1) the conception of species as individuals or natural kinds is not mutually exclusive but rather context sensitive; species are best seen as spatio-temporally (...)
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  46. Matthew H. Slater (2013). Are Species Real? An Essay on the Metaphysics of Species. Palgrave Macmillan.
  47. Barry Smith (2009). Biometaphysics. In Robin Le Poidevin (ed.), The Routledge Companion to Metaphysics. Routledge.
    While Darwin is commonly supposed to have demonstrated the inapplicability of the Aristotelian ontology of species to biological science, recent developments, especially in the wake of the Human Genome Project, have given rise to a new golden age of classification in which ontological ideas -- as for example in the Gene Ontology, the Cell Ontology, the Protein Ontology, and so forth -- are once again playing an important role. In regard to species, on the other hand, matters are more complex. (...)
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  48. Laurance J. Splitter (1988). Species and Identity. Philosophy of Science 55 (3):323-348.
    The purpose of this paper is to test the contemporary concept of biological species against some of the problems caused by treating species as spatiotemporally extended entities governed by criteria of persistence, identity, etc. After outlining the general problem of symmetric division in natural objects, I set out some useful distinctions (section 1) and confirm that species are not natural kinds (section 2). Section 3 takes up the separate issue of species definition, focusing on the Biological Species Concept (BSC). Sections (...)
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  49. Roberto Torretti (2010). La proliferación de los conceptos de especie en la biología evolucionista (The proliferation of species concepts in evolutionary biology). Theoria 25 (3):325-377.
    RESUMEN: La biología evolucionista no ha logrado definir un concepto de especie que satisfaga a todos sus colaboradores. El presente panorama crítico de las principales propuestas y sus respectivas dificultades apunta, por un lado, a ilustrar los procesos de formación de conceptos en las ciencias empíricas y, por otro, a socavar la visión parateológica del conocimiento y la verdad que inspiró inicialmente a la ciencia moderna y prevalece aún entre muchas personas educadas. El artículo se divide en dos partes. La (...)
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  50. Leigh Van Valen (1976). Ecological Species, Multispecies, and Oaks. Taxon 25:233-239.
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