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Species

Edited by John Wilkins (University of Sydney, University of Melbourne)
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Summary The metaphysics and epistemology of species is a highly contested area in biology, from well before Darwin. Since the New Synthesis, however, philosophers have engaged in discussions regarding essentialism in biology, the role of cladistics and the Linnaean taxonomic methods, and the ontology of systematics. 
Key works Ereshefsky 2001: The Poverty of the Linnaean Hierarchy Wilkins 2009: Species: A History of the Idea Richards 2010: The Species Problem: A Philosophical Analysis
Introductions Wilkins 2011 Wilkins 2010
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  1. Richard Abel (1990). Reproduction of the Species Publicator Codex. Logos 1 (1):22-26.
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  2. Mortimer J. Adler (1941). Solution of the Problem of Species. The Thomist 3:279-379.
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  3. Mortimer J. Adler (1939). Problems for Thomists: I. - The Problem of Species. The Thomist 1:381.
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  4. Peter R. Anstey (2011). John Locke and Natural Philosophy. Oxford University Press.
    1. Natural philosophy -- 2. Corpuscular pessimism -- 3. Natural history -- 4. Hypothese and analogy -- 5. Vortices, the deluge, and cohesion -- 6. Mathematics -- 7. Demonstration -- 8. Explanation -- 9. Iatrochemistyr -- 10. Generation -- 11. Species.
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  5. Arnold Arb (1994). Sok. Il, RR 1973. The Species Problem Reconsidered. Syst. Zool 22: 360-374. Sokal, RR, and T.]. Crovello. 1970. The Biological Species Concept: A Critical Evaluation. Amer. Nat. 104: 127-153. Stace, CA 1978. Breeding Systems, Variation Patterns and Species Delimitation. Pp. 57-78, in Essays in Plant Taxonomy (HE Street, Ed.). Academic Press, New York. [REVIEW] In E. Sober (ed.), Conceptual Issues in Evolutionary Biology. The Mit Press. Bradford Books. 31--232.
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  6. Scott Atran (1985). Pre-Theoretical Aspects of Aristotelian Definition and Classification of Animals: The Case for Common Sense. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 16 (2):113-163.
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  7. Jacob N. Barney & Joseph M. Ditomaso (2008). Nonnative Species and Bioenergy: Are We Cultivating the Next Invader? BioScience 58 (1):64-70.
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  8. John W. Bickham (1995). The Birth of New Species Species Evolution: The Role of Chromosome Change Max King. BioScience 45 (10):725-727.
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  9. Lynda Birke & Mike Michael (1998). The Heart of the Matter: Animal Bodies, Ethics, and Species Boundaries. Society and Animals 6 (3):245-261.
    This article addresses some of the ways in which the development of xenotransplantation, the use of nonhuman animals as organ donors, are presented in media accounts. Although xenotransplantation raises many ethical and philosophical questions, media coverage typically minimizes these. At issue are widespread public concerns about the transgression of species boundaries, particularly those between humans and other animals. We consider how these are constructed in media narratives, and how those narratives, in turn, rely on particular scientific discourses that posit species (...)
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  10. Gary Borjesson (2011). Not for Their Own Sake. Review of Metaphysics 52 (4):867-896.
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  11. Peter J. Bowler & Toronto (1971). The Impact of Theories of Generation Upon the Concept of a Biological Species in the Last Half of the Eighteenth Century. The Author.
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  12. Geoff Boxshall, Rod Bray & Olive Heffernan (2004). New Species MarBEF. Complexity 2:101-109.
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  13. Bryson Brown (2004). David N. Stamos, The Species Problem: Biological Species, Ontology, and the Metaphysics of Biology Reviewed By. Philosophy in Review 24 (5):371-374.
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  14. Zdenka Brzović (2010). Richard A. Richards, The Species Problem: A Philosophical Analysis (Studies in Philosophy and Biology). Croatian Journal of Philosophy 30:124-128.
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  15. William Burt & Roland C. Clement (1999). Quantifying Species: A Lost Opportunity. BioScience 49 (2):92.
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  16. Arthur J. Cain & Michael T. Ghiselin (1994). Animal Species and Their Evolution. History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 16 (2):355.
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  17. J. Baird Callicott & William Grove-Fanning (2009). Should Endangered Species Have Standing? Toward Legal Rights for Listed Species. Social Philosophy and Policy 26 (2):317-352.
    The Endangered Species Act of 1973 (ESA) is America's strongest environmental law. Its citizen-suit provisionany personawards implicit intrinsic value, de facto standing, and operational legal rights (sensu Christopher D. Stone) to listed species. Accordingly, some cases had gone forward in the federal courts in the name of various listed species between 1979 (Palila v. Hawaii Dept. of Land & Natural Resources) and 2004 (Cetacean Community v. Bush), when the Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals ruled that animals could not sue in (...)
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  18. P. Cameron (1905). On Two Species of Ichneumonidæ Parasitic on the Codling Moth in Cape Colony. Transactions of the South African Philosophical Society 16 (1):337-339.
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  19. Arthur C. Caplan (1980). Have Species Become Declasse? Psa 1980:71-82.
    Traditionally, species have been treated as classes or kinds in philosophical discussions of systematics and evolutionary biology. Recently a number of biologists and philosophers have proposed a drastic revision of this traditional ontological categorization. They have argued that species ought be viewed as individuals rather than as classes or natural kinds. In this paper an attempt is made to show that (a) the reasons advanced in support of this new view of species are not persuasive, (b) a reasonable explication can (...)
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  20. Arthur L. Caplan (1981). Back to Class: A Note on the Ontology of Species. Philosophy of Science 48 (1):130-140.
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  21. Arthur L. Caplan (1980). Have Species Become Déclassé? PSA: Proceedings of the Biennial Meeting of the Philosophy of Science Association 1980:71 - 82.
    Traditionally, species have been treated as classes or kinds in philosophical discussions of systematics and evolutionary biology. Recently a number of biologists and philosophers have proposed a drastic revision of this traditional ontological categorization. They have argued that species ought be viewed as individuals rather than as classes or natural kinds. In this paper an attempt is made to show that (a) the reasons advanced in support of this new view of species are not persuasive, (b) a reasonable explication can (...)
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  22. Daniel Carey (2013). Locke's Species: Money and Philosophy in the 1690s. Annals of Science 70 (3):1-24.
    John Locke intervened in two major debates in which the issue of species featured: the question of whether species designations are based on real essences or only nominal essences , and the debate over the recoinage of English currency in the 1690s, in which Locke argued for a restoration of silver depleted by widescale clipping . This article investigates Locke's position on the recoinage and considers alternative proposals in the period, including those which advocated the introduction of a ‘new species’ (...)
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  23. William R. Catton (1987). The World's Most Polymorphic Species. BioScience 37 (6):413-419.
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  24. Geoff Chambers (2012). The Species Problem: Seeking New Solutions for Philosophers and Biologists. Biology and Philosophy 27 (5):755-765.
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  25. Michael F. Claridge (2010). Species Are Real Biological Entities. In Francisco José Ayala & Robert Arp (eds.), Contemporary Debates in Philosophy of Biology. Wiley-Blackwell Pub.. 91--109.
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  26. Ellen Clarke & Samir Okasha (2013). 3 Species and Organisms: What Are the Problems? In Philippe Huneman & Frédéric Bouchard (eds.), From Groups to Individuals. Evolution and Emerging Individuality. Mit Press. 55.
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  27. Keith A. Coleman & E. O. Wiley (2001). On Species Individualism: A New Defense of the Species-as-Individuals Hypothesis. Philosophy of Science 68 (4):498-517.
    We attempt to defend the species-as-individuals hypothesis by examining the logical role played by the binomials (e.g., "Homo sapiens," "Pinus ponderosa") in biological discourse about species. Those who contend that the binomials can be properly understood as functioning in biological theory as singular terms opt for an objectual account of species and view species as individuals. Those who contend that the binomials can in principle be eliminated from biological theory in favor of predicate expressions opt for a predicative account of (...)
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  28. Donald H. Colless (2006). Taxa, Individuals, Clusters and a Few Other Things. Biology and Philosophy 21 (3):353-367.
    The recognition of species proceeds by two fairly distinct phases: (1) the sorting of individuals into groups or basic taxa (‘discovery’) (2) the checking of those taxa as candidates for species-hood (‘justification’). The target here is a rational reconstruction of phase 1, beginning with a discussion of key terms. The transmission of ‘meaning’ is regarded as bimodal: definition states the intension of the term, and diagnosis provides a disjunction of criteria for recognition of its extension. The two are connected by (...)
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  29. John Collier, A Unified Approach to Species.
    There are a number of different species concepts currently in use. The variety results from differing desiderata and practices of taxonomists, ecologists and evolutionary theorists. Recently, arguments have been presented for pluralism about species. I believe this is unsatisfactory, however, because of the central role of species in biological theory. Taking the line that species are individuals, I ask what might individuate them. In other work I have argued that dynamical systems are individuated by their cohesion. I present here a (...)
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  30. Paul Copland (2004). On the Origin of Species: A Response to "Crossing Species Boundaries" by Jason Scott Robert and Francoise Baylis. American Journal of Bioethics 4 (1):35-35.
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  31. Edward C. Cox (1995). Recombination, Mutation and the Origin of Species. Bioessays 17 (9):747-749.
  32. Joel Cracraft (1994). Evolving Species Concepts Evolution and the Recognition Concept of Species: Collected Writings Hugh E. H. Paterson. BioScience 44 (1):41-42.
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  33. Joel Cracraft (1994). Evolving Species Concepts. BioScience 44 (1):41-42.
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  34. Judith K. Crane & Ronald Sandler (2011). 13 Species Concepts and Natural Goodness. In Joseph Keim Campbell, Michael O'Rourke & Matthew H. Slater (eds.), Carving Nature at its Joints: Natural Kinds in Metaphysics and Science. Mit Press. 289.
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  35. Peter R. Crane (2010). 3 Species-Identity. In Giselle Walker & E. S. Leedham-Green (eds.), Identity. Cambridge University Press. 21--59.
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  36. Jerrold I. Davis (forthcoming). Phylogenetics, Molecular Variation, and Species Concepts. BioScience.
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  37. Carlos Eduardo de Oliveira (2013). Ideias: formas, rationes e species. A Quaestio de ideis de Tomás de Aquino. Discurso 40 (40):95-122.
    Ideias: formas, rationes e species. A Quaestio de ideis de Tomás de Aquino.
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  38. Kevin de Queiroz (2005). Different Species Problems and Their Resolution. Bioessays 27 (12):1263-1269.
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  39. Ronald de Sousa (1989). Kinds of Kinds: Individuality and Biological Species. International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 3 (2):119 – 135.
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  40. Michael Devitt (2010). Species Have (Partly) Intrinsic Essences. Philosophy of Science 77 (5):648-661.
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  41. Christian Diehm (2012). Finding a Niche for Species inNature Ethics. Ethics and the Environment 17 (1):71-86.
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  42. John Doebley (1990). Molecular Evidence for Gene Flow Among Zea Species. BioScience 40 (6):443-448.
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  43. A. Dolezal (1979). Levels of Different Phylogenetic and Historical Age and Their Interrelations. Filosoficky Casopis 27 (6):806-823.
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  44. Travis Dumsday (2012). Is There Still Hope for a Scholastic Ontology of Biological Species? The Thomist 76 (3).
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  45. J. Dupre (1996). Promiscuous Realism: Reply to Wilson. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 47 (3):441-444.
    This paper presents a brief response to Robert A. Wilson's critical discussion of Promiscuous Realism [1996]. I argue that although convergence on a unique conception of species cannot be ruled out, the evidence against such an outcome is stronger than Wilson allows. In addition, given the failure of biological science to come up with a unique and privileged set of biological kinds, the relevance of the various overlapping kinds of ordinary language to the metaphysics of biological kinds is greater than (...)
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  46. Nick Dyer-Witheford (2004). Species-Being Resurgent. Constellations 11 (4):476-491.
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  47. Jason T. Eberl (2012). Ontological Kinds Versus Biological Species. American Journal of Bioethics 12 (9):32-34.
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  48. Theodor Eimer (1897). On Species-Formation, or the Segregation of the Chain of Living Organisms Into Species. The Monist 8 (1):97-122.
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  49. Crawford Elder (2007). Realism and the Problem of "Infimae Species". American Philosophical Quarterly 44 (2):111 - 127.
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  50. Crawford L. Elder (2008). Biological Species Are Natural Kinds. Southern Journal of Philosophy 46 (3):339-362.
    This paper argues that typical biological species are natural kinds, on a familiar realist understanding of natural kinds—classes of individuals across which certain properties cluster together, in virtue of the causal workings of the world. But the clustering is far from exceptionless. Virtually no properties, or property-combinations, characterize every last member of a typical species—unless they can also appear outside the species. This motivates some to hold that what ties together the members of a species is the ability to interbreed, (...)
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