This category needs an editor. We encourage you to help if you are qualified.
Volunteer, or read more about what this involves.
Related categories
Subcategories:
Adverbs (29)
Generics (52)
Nouns (179 | 45)
Questions (93)
Quotation (92)

4779 found
Search inside:
(import / add options)   Sort by:
1 — 50 / 4779
Material to categorize
  1. Dorit Abusch (1997). Sequence of Tense and Temporal de Re. Linguistics and Philosophy 20 (1):1-50.
    Remove from this list | Direct download (7 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  2. AlexOliver & TimothySmiley (2001). Strategies for a Logic of Plurals. Philosophical Quarterly 51 (204):289–306.
    Remove from this list | Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  3. Luis Alonso-Ovalle, Spanish de-Clauses Are Not Always in the Right Mood.
    The benchmark theory of conditionals maintains that conditionals quantify over a contextually restricted domain of worlds (Kratzer 1991). They are modal statements. The antecedent contributes to the interpretation of the whole conditional a proposition, a set of worlds. Conditionals quantify over a contextually restricted domain of worlds in which the proposition that the antecedent expresses is true. This is all antecedents do. In particular, the semantic import of its tense and mood inflection is neglected: it is - at most - (...)
    Remove from this list | Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  4. Ron Artstein (2005). Quantificational Arguments in Temporal Adjunct Clauses. Linguistics and Philosophy 28 (5):541 - 597.
    Quantificational arguments can take scope outside of temporal adjunct clauses, in an apparent violation of locality restrictions: the sentence few secretaries cried after each executive resigned allows the quantificational NP each executive to take scope above few secretaries. I show how this scope relation is the result of local operations: the adjunct clause is a temporal generalized quantifier which takes scope over the main clause (Pratt and Francez, Linguistic and Philosophy 24(2), 187–222. [2001]), and within the adjunct clause, the quantificational (...)
    Remove from this list | Direct download (7 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  5. Ron Artstein & Nissim Francez (2006). Plurality and Temporal Modification. Linguistics and Philosophy 29 (3):251 - 276.
    A semantics with plural entitles and plural times accounts for cumulative relations between plural arguments and temporal expressions. The semantics equips nominal, verbal and sentential meanings with temporal context variables and treats temporal modifiers as temporal generalized quantifiers; cumulative conjunction, however, takes place at types lower than generalized quantifiers. The mediation of temporal context variables allows cumulative relations to percolate between an argument in a main clause and one in a temporal clause, in apparent violation of locality restrictions. Plural times (...)
    Remove from this list | Direct download (7 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  6. Nicholas Asher, Ambiguity and Anaphora with Plurals in Discourse.
    We provide examples of plurals related to ambiguity and anaphora that pose problems or are counterexamples for current approaches to plurals. We then propose a dynamic semantics based on an extension of dynamic predicate logic (DPL+) to handle these examples. On our theory, different readings of sentences or discourses containing plurals don’t arise from a postulated ambiguity of plural terms or predicates applying to plural DPs, but follow rather from different types of dynamic transitions that manipulate inputs and outputs from (...)
    Remove from this list | Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  7. Nicholas Asher & Daniel Bonevac (1987). Determiners and Resource Situations. Linguistics and Philosophy 10 (4):567 - 596.
    Remove from this list | Direct download (6 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  8. Jay David Atlas (1977). Negation, Ambiguity, and Presupposition. Linguistics and Philosophy 1 (3):321 - 336.
    In this paper I argue for the Atlas-Kempson Thesis that sentences of the form The A is not B are not ambiguous but rather semantically general (Quine), non-specific (Zwicky and Sadock), or vague (G. Lakoff). This observation refutes the 1970 Davidson-Harman hypothesis that underlying structures, as full semantic representations, are logical forms. It undermines the conception of semantical presupposition, removes a support for the existence of truth-value gaps for presuppositional sentences (the remaining arguments for which are viciously circular), and lifts (...)
    Remove from this list | Direct download (6 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  9. Johan Auwera (1993). 'Already' and 'Still': Beyond Duality. [REVIEW] Linguistics and Philosophy 16 (6):613 - 653.
    Remove from this list | Direct download (7 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  10. Edward W. Averill (1980). Why Are Colour Terms Primarily Used as Adjectives? Philosophical Quarterly 30 (January):19-33.
    Remove from this list | Direct download (6 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  11. Mark Baker, On Gerunds and the Theory of Categories.
    Some recent theories of gerunds account for their hybrid properties by saying that the gerund is both a noun and a verb simultaneously. Such theories are inconsistent with the Reference-Predication Constraint (RPC), a cornerstone of Baker’s (2003) theory of lexical categories. In contrast, I defend the traditional idea that gerunds are fusions of a true verb and a syntactically distinct nominal Infl. Moreover, I give new evidence in favor of the RPC, showing how it explains the fact that nominal gerunds (...)
    Remove from this list | Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  12. Stephen J. Barker (1994). The Consequent-Entailment Problem Foreven If. Linguistics and Philosophy 17 (3):249 - 260.
    A comprehensive theory ofeven if needs to account for consequent ‘entailing’even ifs and in particular those of theif-focused variety. This is where the theory ofeven if ceases to be neutral between conditional theories. I have argued thatif-focusedeven ifs,especially if andonly if can only be accounted for through the suppositional theory ofif. Furthermore, a particular interpretation of this theory — the conditional assertion theory — is needed to account foronly if and a type of metalinguistic negation ofQ if P. We therefore (...)
    Remove from this list | Direct download (6 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  13. Jonathan Bennett (1994). The “Namely” Analysis of the “by”-Locution. Linguistics and Philosophy 17 (1):29 - 51.
    Remove from this list | Direct download (7 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  14. Jonathan Bennett (1982). Even If. Linguistics and Philosophy 5 (3):403 - 418.
    Remove from this list | Direct download (6 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  15. Paul Berckmans (1993). The Quantifier Theory Ofeven. Linguistics and Philosophy 16 (6):589 - 611.
    Remove from this list | Direct download (9 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  16. Andrea Bonomi (2002). Peter Ludlow, Semantics, Tense and Time, an Essay in the Metaphysics of Natural Language. Linguistics and Philosophy 25 (1):81-95.
    Remove from this list | Direct download (6 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  17. Denis Bouchard (1987). A Few Remarks on Past Participle Agreement. Linguistics and Philosophy 10 (4):449 - 474.
    Remove from this list | Direct download (6 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  18. Martin D. S. Braine (1979). On Some Claims Aboutif-Then. Linguistics and Philosophy 3 (1):35 - 47.
    The paper has sought to show two things. One is that the apparent variety of Stalnaker and Lewis's counterexamples is misleading. Several of their examples are quite unsatisfactory because they depend on unguarded language behavior. There is in fact only one type of counterexample that is worth serious discussion, and that has the form of Barense's.For Barense's example, I try to show that it fails as a counterexample to transitivity because one of the premisses is false within the context of (...)
    Remove from this list | Direct download (6 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  19. Michael K. Brame (1977). Alternatives to the Tensed S and Specified Subject Conditions. Linguistics and Philosophy 1 (3):381 - 411.
    The original evidence advanced to support the Tensed S Condition (TSC) and the Specified Subject Condition (SSC) in Chomsky's Conditions on Transformations is reconsidered and viable alternatives to these constraints are provided. It is shown that TSC and SSC, in some instances, lead to a loss of linguistically significant generalization. Satisfactory alternatives can account for the relevant range of data and provide a more general account of additional data. Finally, counterevidence to Subjacency and Superiority is adduced, but explicit alternatives to (...)
    Remove from this list | Direct download (8 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  20. C. Brisson (2003). Plurals, All, and the Nonuniformity of Collective Predication. Linguistics and Philosophy 26 (2):129-184.
    Remove from this list | Direct download (7 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  21. Berit Brogaard (2008). The Trivial Argument for Epistemic Value Pluralism. Or How I Learned to Stop Caring About Truth. In Adrian Haddock, Alan Millar & D. Pritchard (eds.), Epistemic Value. Oxford University Press.
    Relativism offers a nifty way of accommodating most of our intuitions about epistemic modals, predicates of personal taste, color expressions, future contingents, and conditionals. But in spite of its manifest merits relativism is squarely at odds with epistemic value monism: the view that truth is the highest epistemic goal. I will call the argument from relativism to epistemic value pluralism the trivial argument for epistemic value pluralism. After formulating the argument, I will look at three possible ways to refute it. (...)
    Remove from this list | Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  22. Berit Brogaard (2007). Number Words and Ontological Commitment. Philosophical Quarterly 57 (226):1–20.
    With the aid of some results from current linguistic theory I examine a recent anti-Fregean line with respect to hybrid talk of numbers and ordinary things, such as ‘the number of moons of Jupiter is four’. I conclude that the anti-Fregean line with respect to these sentences is indefensible.
    Remove from this list | Direct download (8 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  23. Noel Burton-Roberts (1984). Modality and Implicature. Linguistics and Philosophy 7 (2):181 - 206.
    Remove from this list | Direct download (6 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  24. Elisabeth Camp & John Hawthorne (2008). Sarcastic 'Like': A Case Study in the Interface of Syntax and Semantics. Noûs 42 (1):1 - 21.
    The expression ‘Like’ has a wide variety of uses among English and American speakers. It may describe preference, as in (1) She likes mint chip ice cream. It may be used as a vehicle of comparison, as in (2) Trieste is like Minsk on steroids.
    Remove from this list | Direct download (9 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  25. Ben Caplan, Review of Terms and Truth. [REVIEW]
    Alan Berger’s Terms and Truth covers various expressionsparticularly names and anaphoric pronouns, but also demonstratives and general termsas they occur in various linguistic contexts, including identity sentences, belief ascriptions, and negative existentials. A central thesis of Berger’s book is that all of these expressions are rigid designators. (So I assume that Berger would say, contrary to what the subtitle might suggest, that anaphoric reference is direct reference.).
    Remove from this list |
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  26. Greg N. Carlson (1979). Generics and Atemporalwhen. Linguistics and Philosophy 3 (1):49 - 98.
    Beginning with analyses of English generic sentences and English plural indefinite noun phrases (e.g.dogs), we proceed to apply mechanisms there motivated to a characterization of atemporalwhen, a sense ofwhen which does not appear to involve time. Dealt with are such examples as Dogs are intelligent when they have blue eyes, and their relationships to examples like Dogs that have blue eyes are intelligent. The proposed treatment of atemporalwhen helps motivate the existence of a generic verb phrase operator in English, as (...)
    Remove from this list | Direct download (6 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  27. Greg N. Carlson (1977). A Unified Analysis of the English Bare Plural. Linguistics and Philosophy 1 (3):413 - 456.
    It is argued that the English bare plural (an NP with plural head that lacks a determiner), in spite of its apparently diverse possibilities of interpretation, is optimally represented in the grammar as a unified phenomenon. The chief distinction to be dealt with is that between the generic use of the bare plural (as in Dogs bark) and its existential or indefinite plural use (as in He threw oranges at Alice). The difference between these uses is not to be accounted (...)
    Remove from this list | Direct download (6 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  28. Sitansu S. Chakravarti (2001). Modality, Reference, and Sense: An Essay in the Philosophy of Language. Munshiram Manoharlal Publishers.
  29. Gabriele Contessa (2009). Who is Afraid of Imaginary Objects? In Nicholas Griffin & Dale Jacquette (eds.), Russell Vs. Meinong: The Legacy of "On Denoting". Routledge.
    People often use expressions such as ‘Sherlock Holmes’ and ‘Pegasus’ that appear to refer to imaginary objects. In this paper, I consider the main attempts to account for apparent reference to imaginary objects available in the literature and argue that all fall short of being fully satisfactory. In particular, I consider the problems of two main options to maintain that imaginary objects are real and reference to them is genuine reference: possibilist and abstractist account. According to the former, imaginary objects (...)
    Remove from this list | Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  30. Mary Dalrymple, Makoto Kanazawa, Yookyung Kim, Sam McHombo & Stanley Peters (1998). Reciprocal Expressions and the Concept of Reciprocity. Linguistics and Philosophy 21 (2):159-210.
    Remove from this list | Direct download (7 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  31. Veneeta Dayal (1998). Any as Inherently Modal. Linguistics and Philosophy 21 (5):433-476.
    The primary theoretical focus of this paper is on Free Choice uses of any, in particular on two phenomena that have remained largely unstudied. One involves the ability of any phrases to occur in affirmative episodic statements when aided by suitable noun modifiers. The other involves the difference between modals of necessity and possibility with respect to licensing of any. The central thesis advanced here is that FC any is a universal determiner whose domain of quantification is not a set (...)
    Remove from this list | Direct download (8 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  32. Renaat Declerck (1988). Restrictivewhen-Clauses. Linguistics and Philosophy 11 (2):131 - 168.
    Remove from this list | Direct download (6 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  33. Renaat Declerck (1979). On the Progressive and the 'Imperfective Paradox'. Linguistics and Philosophy 3 (2):267 - 272.
    Remove from this list | Direct download (6 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  34. Imogen Dickie (2010). Negation, Anti-Realism, and the Denial Defence. Philosophical Studies 150 (2):161 - 185.
    Here is one argument against realism. (1) Realists are committed to the classical rules for negation. But (2) legitimate rules of inference must conserve evidence. And (3) the classical rules for negation do not conserve evidence. So (4) realism is wrong. Most realists reject 2. But it has recently been argued that if we allow denied sentences as premisses and conclusions in inferences we will be able to reject 3. And this new argument against 3 generates a new response to (...)
    Remove from this list | Direct download (5 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  35. Jaap Does (1991). A Generalized Quantifier Logic for Naked Infinitives. Linguistics and Philosophy 14 (3):241 - 294.
    Remove from this list | Direct download (6 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  36. Per Durst-Andersen (1995). Imperative Frames and Modality. Linguistics and Philosophy 18 (6):611 - 653.
    Remove from this list | Direct download (7 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  37. Donka F. Farkas & Yoko Sugioka (1983). Restrictive If/When Clauses. Linguistics and Philosophy 6 (2):225 - 258.
    Remove from this list | Direct download (6 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  38. Jean Mark Gawron (1995). Comparatives, Superlatives, and Resolution. Linguistics and Philosophy 18 (4):333 - 380.
    Remove from this list | Direct download (8 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  39. Tamar Szabó Gendler & John Hawthorne (eds.) (2002). Conceivability and Possibility. Oxford University Press.
    The capacity to represent things to ourselves as possible plays a crucial role both in everyday thinking and in philosophical reasoning; this volume offers much-needed philosophical illumination of conceivability, possibility, and the relations between them.
    Remove from this list | Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  40. Bart Geurts (1998). Presuppositions and Anaphors in Attitude Contexts. Linguistics and Philosophy 21 (6):545-601.
    This paper consists of two main parts and a coda. In the first part I present the ''binding theory'' of presupposition projection, which is the framework that I adopt in this paper (Section 1.1). I outline the main problems that arise in the interplay between presuppositions and anaphors on the one hand and attitude reports on the other (Section 1.2), and discuss Heim''s theory of presuppositions in attitude contexts (Section 1.3).In the second part of the paper I present my own (...)
    Remove from this list | Direct download (9 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  41. Adrian Haddock, Alan Millar & Duncan Pritchard (eds.) (2009). Epistemic Value. Oxford University Press.
    Recent epistemology has reflected a growing interest in issues about the value of knowledge and the values informing epistemic appraisal. Is knowledge more valuable that merely true belief or even justified true belief? Is truth the central value informing epistemic appraisal or do other values enter the picture? Epistemic Value is a collection of previously unpublished articles on such issues by leading philosophers in the field. It will stimulate discussion of the nature of knowledge and of directions that might be (...)
    Remove from this list | Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  42. Jaakko Hintikka (1997). No Scope for Scope? Linguistics and Philosophy 20 (5):515-544.
    The notion of scope as it relates to a model of logical form is discussed. The inability of the accepted definition of scope to account for the contrast between priority scope - the logical priority of different quantifiers & other logical notions via rule ordering - & binding scope - the identification of the connection between variables of quantification & a particular quantifier - is demonstrated. The semantic ambiguity of this dichotomy of scope is explored via examination of donkey sentences. (...)
    Remove from this list | Direct download (8 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  43. Jaakko Hintikka (ed.) (1973). Approaches to Natural Language. D. Reidel Publishing.
    Remove from this list |
    Translate to English
    |
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  44. Gerhard Jäger (2003). Towards an Explanation of Copula Effects. Linguistics and Philosophy 26 (5):557-593.
    This paper deals with a series of semantic contrasts between the copula be and the preposition as, two functional elements that both head elementary predication structures. It will be argued that the meaning of as is a type lowering device shifting the meaning of its complement NP from the type of generalized quantifiers to the type of properties (where properties are conceived as relations between individuals and situations), while the copula be induces a type coercion from (partial) situations to (total) (...)
    Remove from this list | Direct download (8 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  45. Eva-Maria Jung & Albert Newen (2010). Knowledge and Abilities: The Need for a New Understanding of Knowing-How. [REVIEW] Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences 9 (1):113-131.
    Stanley and Williamson (The Journal of Philosophy 98(8), 411–444 2001 ) reject the fundamental distinction between what Ryle once called ‘knowing-how’ and ‘knowing-that’. They claim that knowledge-how is just a species of knowledge-that, i.e. propositional knowledge, and try to establish their claim relying on the standard semantic analysis of ‘knowing-how’ sentences. We will undermine their strategy by arguing that ‘knowing-how’ phrases are under-determined such that there is not only one semantic analysis and by critically discussing and refuting the positive account (...)
    Remove from this list | Direct download (4 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  46. Nirit Kadmon & Fred Landman (1993). Any. Linguistics and Philosophy 16 (4):353 - 422.
    Remove from this list | Direct download (8 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  47. David Kaplan (1973). Bob and Ted and Carol and Alice. In Jaakko Hintikka (ed.), Approaches to Natural Language. D. Reidel Publishing.
    Remove from this list |
    Translate to English
    |
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  48. Paul Kay (1990). Even. Linguistics and Philosophy 13 (1):59 - 111.
    Remove from this list | Direct download (6 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  49. Gary Kemp, Chapter 4: Indexicality, Context and Modality.
    These are all indexicals (or each has an indexical use, as will emerge). Take the word ’I’. It is a singular term, but it would be wrong to say that the word ’I’ has a referent; it is not like ‘Rotterdam’, always having the same referent on each occasion of use. Rather, each utterance of the word has a referent. Its referent is the speaker, the one saying it.
    Remove from this list |
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  50. Ewan Klein (1980). A Semantics for Positive and Comparative Adjectives. Linguistics and Philosophy 4 (1):1--45.
    Remove from this list | Direct download (8 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
1 — 50 / 4779