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Summary Søren Aabye Kierkegaard (1813-1855) is generally considered to be the father of existentialism. Kierkegaard’s father, a wealthy retired merchant, was a Pietist and hence encouraged his sons Peter Christian and Søren Aabye to study theology at the University of Copenhagen. Kierkegaard received the degree of Magister Artium in 1840, though by that time his interest has shifted from theology to philosophy. He had hoped to receive an academic position in philosophy, but those hopes were never realized. He was closely tied, however, to academic circles, and was, in fact, one of the leading intellectuals of what has come to be known as the Danish “Golden Age.” Kierkegaard was primarily a polemical writer whose works were often responses to the works of contemporaries such at Hans Lassen Martensen and Johann Ludvig Heiberg. He wrote on a broad range of topics from aesthetics to psychology and employed a variety of literary styles from the novel (e.g. Repetition) to more traditional academic treatises (e.g., The Concept of Anxiety). His mature interest was in delineating the relation between Christianity and philosophy with an emphasis on precisely what was involved both cognitively and practically in being Christian. Kierkegaard is thought by many to have coined the expression “leap of faith.” In fact, this expression comes from Lessing and is used by Kierkegaard only ironically.
Key works The two works most central to Kierkegaard’s thought are Philosophical Crumbs (Kierkegaard & Mooney 2009) and the Concluding Unscientific Postscript to the Philosophical Crumbs (Kierkegaard 2009), though his most famous work is undoubtedly Fear and Trembling (Kierkegaard 2006). Philosophical Crumbs introduces the distinction between what Kierkegaard’s pseudonym Johannes Climacus presents as the traditional philosophical account of the relation of the individual to the truth and the account of this relation given by Christianity. The Postscript looks in detail about what it means to become a Christian. Approximately half of Kierkegaard’s works, including those just mentioned, were published under pseudonyms. Among the works published under Kierkegaard’s own name, the most important are arguably Works of Love (Kierkegaard 1998), and Training in Christianity (Kierkegaard 2004).
Introductions Introductory articles: Michelle Kosch, "Kierkegaard" (Kosch 2015) and Piety, "Kierkegaard on Rationality" (Piety 1993). Book length introductory works: C. Stephen Evans’s Kierkegaard: An Introduction (Evans 2009); Alastair Hannay’s Kierkegaard (Hannay 1982); Gregor Malantschuk’s The Controversial Kierkegaard (Malantschuk 1980), and David F. Swenson’s Something About Kierkegaard (Swenson 1945).
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  1. E. J. A. (1966). The Concept of Irony: With Constant Reference to Socrates. [REVIEW] Review of Metaphysics 20 (2):370-370.
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  2. E. J. A. (1965). The Anti-Christianity of Kierkegaard: A Study of Concluding Unscientific Postscript. [REVIEW] Review of Metaphysics 19 (1):151-151.
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  3. Jens Abildtrup (1952). Søen Kierkegaards Tipoldefader Handelsmand Jens Andersen Og Hans Slæt Paa Astrupgaard : Biografier. Eget Forlag.
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  4. Neil Abramson (2009). What Do I Do Now?: Three Kierkegaardian Strategies After Failing to Be Promoted. Philosophy for Business 51.
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  5. Vinod Acharya (2013). Nietzsche's Meta-Existentialism. Walter de Gruyter.
    Vinod Acharya presents a new existential interpretation of Nietzsche's philosophy. He contends that Nietzsche’s peculiar form of existentialism can be understood only by undertaking a thorough analysis of his characterization and critique of metaphysics. This reading remedies the shortcomings of previous existential interpretations of Nietzsche, which typically view existentialism as concerned primarily with the meaning of individual existence, and therefore necessarily at odds with the abstraction and objectivity of metaphysical thought. Acharya argues that the approach of Nietzsche’s philosophy, especially in (...)
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  6. Robert Ackermann (1991). Kierkegaard's Coachman. Kierkegaardiana 15.
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  7. C. Adair-Toteff (2002). Stephen Mulhall: Inheritance & Originality. Wittgenstein, Heidegger, Kierkegaard. [REVIEW] British Journal for the History of Philosophy 10 (4):682-686.
  8. George Adams (2004). Locating the Self In Kierkegaard and Zen. Faith and Philosophy 21 (3):370-380.
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  9. Noel S. Adams (2011). Søren Kierkegaard and Carl Ullmann: Two Allies in the War Against Speculative Philosophy. British Journal for the History of Philosophy 18 (5):875-898.
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  10. Noel S. Adams (2009). Reconsidering the Relation Between God and Ethics. International Philosophical Quarterly 49 (2):247-258.
    Christian philosophers have always been interested in clarifying the relationship between God and ethics. The theories presented on this topic can be divided into two kinds: “divine command” and “other.” In this paper I evaluate two interesting but ultimately incompatible versions of the “other” variety: one by George Mavrodes and one by Søren Kierkegaard. In the course of my analysis I argue that anyone who reads Kierkegaard’s Works of Love as presenting a divine command theory (e.g., C. Stephen Evans in (...)
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  11. Noel S. Adams (2002). The Early and Recent Reception of Fear and Trembling and Repetition in the English Language. Kierkegaard Studies Yearbook 2002 (1):277-289.
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  12. Noel S. Adams (2002). Hannay, Alastair. Kierkegaard: A Biography. Review of Metaphysics 56 (2):423-424.
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  13. Noel Stewart Adams (2000). Kierkegaard's Conception of the Eternal in His Climacean Works. Dissertation, The University of Wisconsin - Madison
    Perhaps more than any other concept in Kierkegaard's authorship, the absolute paradox is the one for which he is most famous. Whereas much of the body of philosophical literature on Kierkegaard's writings is often centered around this key idea, there is remarkably little consensus on its precise meaning and significance. This lack of consensus is due partly to the fact that few philosophers have given a careful, analytical study into the conceptual commitments that Kierkegaard makes when he talks about this (...)
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  14. Robert Merrihew Adams (1990). The Knight of Faith. Faith and Philosophy 7 (4):383-395.
    The essay is about the “Preliminary Expectoration” of Kierkegaard’s Fear and Trembling. It argues that “the absurd” there refers primarily to the practical paradox that in faith (so it is claimed) one must simultaneously renounce and gladly accept a loved object. In other words it is about a problem of detachment as a feature of religious life. The paper goes on to interpret, and discuss critically, the views expressed in the book about both renunciation (infinite resignation) and the nature of (...)
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  15. Robert Merrihew Adams (1982). Kierkegaard's Arguments Against Objective Reasoning in Religion. In Steven M. Cahn & David Shatz (eds.), The Monist. Oxford University Press 228-243.
    Versions of this paper have been read to philosophical colloquia at Occidental College and California State University, Fullerton. I am indebted to participants in those discussions, to students in many of my classes, and particularly to Marilyn McCord Adams, Van Harvey, Thomas Kselman, William Laserow, and James Muyskens, for helpful comment on the ideas which are contained in this paper (or which would have been, had it not been for their criticisms).
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  16. T. W. Adorno (1939). On Kierkegaard's Doctrine of Love. Studies in Philosophy and Social Science 8:413.
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  17. Theodor W. Adorno (1989). Kierkegaard: Construction of the Aesthetic. University of Minnesota Press.
  18. Theodor W. Adorno (1974). Kierkegaard Konstruktion des Ästhetischen : MIT Einer Beilage.
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  19. Theodor W. Adorno (1933). Kierkegaard Konstruktion des Ästhetischen. Mohr.
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  20. Cassian R. Agera (1987). Faith, Prayer and Grace a Comparative Study in Ramanuja and Kierkegaard. Mittal.
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  21. David W. Aiken (1996). Kierkegaard's “Three Stages”. Faith and Philosophy 13 (3):352-367.
    The purpose of this paper is to explore an hypothesis rather than draw any unassailable conclusions. I argue that there is a fundamental tension between the sub-Christian account of the “Three Stages” presented in the earlier pseudonymous writings and the explicitly Christian account presented in the Anti-Climacean and later acknowledged writings. The earlier version is that of a progress from spiritless “immediacy” toward more complete integrations of the self, culminating in authentic religious faith; while the later is that of a (...)
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  22. David Woodworth Aiken (1990). Sharp Compassion: Kierkegaard on the Problem of Sin. Dissertation, Boston College
    I have a threefold aim for this dissertation: to establish Kierkegaard's philosophical identity as a "therapeutic" rather than as a theoretical thinker; to show that the chief purpose of his "therapy" is to provoke the reader toward an acknowledgement of primordial fallenness and its concrete manifestations; to demonstrate that the problem of sin is thus a central and unifying theme of Kierkegaard's authorship. ;In the Introduction, I confront and answer three challenges to this project: whether sin is an appropriate topic (...)
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  23. Stacey Ake (1999). “As We Are So We Make”: Life As Composition In Søren Kierkegaard And Dietrich Bonhoeffer. Kierkegaard Studies Yearbook:293-309.
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  24. Stacey Elizabeth Ake (1998). Kierkegaard the Teacher1. Enrahonar 29 (7):5-7.
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  25. Şener Aktürk (2006). Living at and Beyond the Grenzenpunkte. The Proceedings of the Twenty-First World Congress of Philosophy 9:51-61.
    This paper compares and contrasts Nietzsche's conceptualization of the "artistic Socrates" with Kierkegaard's vision of the "knight of faith". The paper argues that Nietzsche and Kierkegaard attempted to transcend the rational-ethical sphere of human action in favor of a more spontaneous, yet deeper understanding of the universe. Nietzsche believes that the thread of causality and the principle of sufficient reason, embodied as they are in the personality of Socrates, are not capable of explaining our existence in its entirety. Hence he (...)
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  26. Melodie C. L. Alapack & Richard J. Alapack (1984). The Hinge of the Door To Authentic Adulthood: A Kierkegaardian Inspired Synthesis of the Meaning of Leaving Home. Journal of Phenomenological Psychology 15 (1):45-69.
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  27. Mahvash Alavi (2009). The Structure and Hermeneutics of Rumi’s Mathnawi: Discourse Nine, Book Two. Transcendent Philosophy Journal 10:71-94.
    Soren Kierkegaard and Baba Afdal Kashani are two philosophers havingaxial philosophical arguments on self-knowledge. Kierkegaard's philosophyis learnt through its contrast with Hegel's, as he believes that the truth issubjective. He severely denies learning through objectivity and sees the onlypath to faith and reaching self-consciousness to be subjectivity in thethinking process, which leads to inwardness. Stages of self-consciousness,after the ecstatic stage, in Kierkegaard' opinion, include stages of rationalethics, religious ethics and faith. Self’s perfection in his judgment is attainedthrough trusting in God. (...)
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  28. Ulla Albeck & Niels Thulstrup (1981). Kierkegaard, Literary Miscellany.
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  29. Mariana Alessandri (2012). The Strenuous and Sufficient Task of Kierkegaard's Religiousness A. Philosophy Today 56 (4):434-448.
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  30. Mary Ann Alessandri (2010). Flesh and Bone: Unamuno's "Quixotism" as an Incarnation of Kierkegaard's "Religiousness A". Dissertation, The Pennsylvania State University
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  31. Ian W. Alexander & Regis Jolivet (1950). Introduction a Kierkegaard.Les Doctrines Existentialistes de Kierkegaard a J.-P. Sartre. Philosophical Quarterly 1 (1):79.
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  32. Knut Alfsvåg (2014). The Commandment of Love in Kierkegaard and Caputo. Neue Zeitschrift für Systematicsche Theologie Und Religionsphilosophie 56 (4):473-488.
    Name der Zeitschrift: Neue Zeitschrift für Systematische Theologie und Religionsphilosophie Jahrgang: 56 Heft: 4 Seiten: 473-488.
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  33. E. L. Allen (1935). Kierkegaard: His Life and Thought. London, S. Nott, Ltd..
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  34. Rudolf Allers (1943). A Short Life of Kierkegaard. New Scholasticism 17 (4):393-393.
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  35. Rudolf Allers (1942). Kierkegaard's Concluding Unscientific Postscript. New Scholasticism 16 (3):306-310.
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  36. Eric Alliez (2011). De-Definition of Media: A Telegraphic Postscript. Radical Philosophy 169:17.
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  37. Héctor Ignacio Rodríguez Alvarez (2012). Preludio del espíritu. Una lectura contemporánea de la desesperación en la obra de Soren Kierkegaard (II). Naturaleza y Gracia 1:81-122.
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  38. Mark Alznauer (2014). Kierkegaard's Critique of Hegel's Inner‐Outer Thesis. Heythrop Journal 56 (5):n/a-n/a.
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  39. Gabriel Amengual (2009). Verdad como Subjetividad en Søren Kierkegaard. Revista Portuguesa de Filosofia 65:957 - 964.
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  40. Gabriel Amengual (2008). Experiencia, Verdad y Existencia en Søren Kierkegaard. Revista Portuguesa de Filosofia 64 (2/4):1037 - 1055.
    Apesar de o conceito de experiencia não constituir objecto de estudo por parte de Kierkegaard, a verdade é que o sen pensamento tem sido qualificado de experiencial, dado que o constituinte da existência, o sujeito, é precisamente aquilo que deve ser denominado de experiência. Com efeito, aquilo que constitui o sujeito, Kierkegaard denomina-o relação, conceito base para a compreensão do ser humano (existência, espírito, si-mesmo) e também da verdade. Esta relação (ou relacionalidade), presente de maneira essential nestes conceitos-chave, é precisamente (...)
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  41. María García Amilburu (1992). La Existencia En Kierkegaard. Monograph Collection (Matt - Pseudo).
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  42. Lydia B. Amir (2013). Kierkegaard and the Traditions of the Comic in Philosophy. Kierkegaard Studies Yearbook 2013 (1).
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  43. Lydia B. Amir (2013). Kierkegaard and the Philosophical Traditions of the Comic. Kierkegaard Studies Yearbook:377-401.
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  44. Lydia B. Amir (2006). Søren Kierkegaard and the Practice of Philosophy. In B. R. J. (ed.), Philosophers as Philosophical Practitioners. Ediciones 31-45.
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  45. Ove Valdemar Ammundsen & Køenhavns Universitet (1912). Søen Kierkegaards Ungdom Hans Slæt Og Hans Religiøe Udvikling. Universitetsbogtrykkeriet (J.H. Schultz a/S).
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  46. Valdemar Ammundsen (1912). Søen Kierkegaards Ungdom, Hans Slæt Og Hans Religiøe Udvikling.
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  47. Jørn Erslev Andersen (2004). Begrebet Inderlighed I Kierkegaards Forfatterskab: Den Etiske Betydning Af Gudsforholdet Og Det Mellemmenneskelige Forhold Hos Søren Kierkegaard. Produktion Underskoven.
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  48. Albert Anderson, Niels Thulstrup & Marie Mikulová Thulstrup (eds.) (1982). Kierkegaard's Teachers. C.A. Reitzels Forlag.
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  49. Thomas Anderson (1982). The Experiential Paths To God In Kierkegaard And Marcel. Philosophy Today 26 (1):22-40.
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  50. Thomas C. Anderson (1994). The Extent of Kierkegaard's Skepticism. Man and World 27 (3):271-289.
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