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Summary Søren Aabye Kierkegaard (1813-1855) is generally considered to be the father of existentialism. Kierkegaard’s father, a wealthy retired merchant, was a Pietist and hence encouraged his sons Peter Christian and Søren Aabye to study theology at the University of Copenhagen. Kierkegaard received the degree of Magister Artium in 1840, though by that time his interest has shifted from theology to philosophy. He had hoped to receive an academic position in philosophy, but those hopes were never realized. He was closely tied, however, to academic circles, and was, in fact, one of the leading intellectuals of what has come to be known as the Danish “Golden Age.” Kierkegaard was primarily a polemical writer whose works were often responses to the works of contemporaries such at Hans Lassen Martensen and Johann Ludvig Heiberg. He wrote on a broad range of topics from aesthetics to psychology and employed a variety of literary styles from the novel (e.g. Repetition) to more traditional academic treatises (e.g., The Concept of Anxiety). His mature interest was in delineating the relation between Christianity and philosophy with an emphasis on precisely what was involved both cognitively and practically in being Christian. Kierkegaard is thought by many to have coined the expression “leap of faith.” In fact, this expression comes from Lessing and is used by Kierkegaard only ironically.
Key works The two works most central to Kierkegaard’s thought are Philosophical Crumbs (Kierkegaard & Mooney 2009) and the Concluding Unscientific Postscript to the Philosophical Crumbs (Kierkegaard 2009), though his most famous work is undoubtedly Fear and Trembling (Kierkegaard 2006). Philosophical Crumbs introduces the distinction between what Kierkegaard’s pseudonym Johannes Climacus presents as the traditional philosophical account of the relation of the individual to the truth and the account of this relation given by Christianity. The Postscript looks in detail about what it means to become a Christian. Approximately half of Kierkegaard’s works, including those just mentioned, were published under pseudonyms. Among the works published under Kierkegaard’s own name, the most important are arguably Works of Love (Kierkegaard 1998), and Training in Christianity (Kierkegaard 2004).
Introductions Introductory articles: Michelle Kosch, "Kierkegaard" (Kosch 2015) and Piety, "Kierkegaard on Rationality" (Piety 1993). Book length introductory works: C. Stephen Evans’s Kierkegaard: An Introduction (Evans 2009); Alastair Hannay’s Kierkegaard (Hannay 1982); Gregor Malantschuk’s The Controversial Kierkegaard (Malantschuk 1980), and David F. Swenson’s Something About Kierkegaard (Swenson 1945).
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  1. E. J. A. (1966). The Concept of Irony: With Constant Reference to Socrates. [REVIEW] Review of Metaphysics 20 (2):370-370.
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  2. E. J. A. (1965). The Anti-Christianity of Kierkegaard: A Study of Concluding Unscientific Postscript. [REVIEW] Review of Metaphysics 19 (1):151-151.
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  3. C. Adair-Toteff (2002). Stephen Mulhall: Inheritance & Originality. Wittgenstein, Heidegger, Kierkegaard. [REVIEW] British Journal for the History of Philosophy 10 (4):682-686.
  4. George Adams (2004). Locating the Self In Kierkegaard and Zen. Faith and Philosophy 21 (3):370-380.
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  5. Noel S. Adams (2011). Søren Kierkegaard and Carl Ullmann: Two Allies in the War Against Speculative Philosophy. British Journal for the History of Philosophy 18 (5):875-898.
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  6. Noel S. Adams (2009). Reconsidering the Relation Between God and Ethics. International Philosophical Quarterly 49 (2):247-258.
    Christian philosophers have always been interested in clarifying the relationship between God and ethics. The theories presented on this topic can be divided into two kinds: “divine command” and “other.” In this paper I evaluate two interesting but ultimately incompatible versions of the “other” variety: one by George Mavrodes and one by Søren Kierkegaard. In the course of my analysis I argue that anyone who reads Kierkegaard’s Works of Love as presenting a divine command theory (e.g., C. Stephen Evans in (...)
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  7. Noel S. Adams (2002). Hannay, Alastair. Kierkegaard: A Biography. Review of Metaphysics 56 (2):423-424.
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  8. Noel S. Adams (2002). The Early and Recent Reception of Fear and Trembling and Repetition in the English Language. Kierkegaard Studies Yearbook 2002 (1):277-289.
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  9. Robert Merrihew Adams (1990). The Knight of Faith. Faith and Philosophy 7 (4):383-395.
    The essay is about the “Preliminary Expectoration” of Kierkegaard’s Fear and Trembling. It argues that “the absurd” there refers primarily to the practical paradox that in faith (so it is claimed) one must simultaneously renounce and gladly accept a loved object. In other words it is about a problem of detachment as a feature of religious life. The paper goes on to interpret, and discuss critically, the views expressed in the book about both renunciation (infinite resignation) and the nature of (...)
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  10. Robert Merrihew Adams (1982). Kierkegaard's Arguments Against Objective Reasoning in Religion. In Steven M. Cahn & David Shatz (eds.), Contemporary Philosophy of Religion. Oxford University Press. 228-243.
    Versions of this paper have been read to philosophical colloquia at Occidental College and California State University, Fullerton. I am indebted to participants in those discussions, to students in many of my classes, and particularly to Marilyn McCord Adams, Van Harvey, Thomas Kselman, William Laserow, and James Muyskens, for helpful comment on the ideas which are contained in this paper (or which would have been, had it not been for their criticisms).
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  11. Theodor W. Adorno (1989). Kierkegaard: Construction of the Aesthetic. University of Minnesota Press.
  12. Theodor W. Adorno (1933). Kierkegaard Konstruktion des Ästhetischen. Mohr.
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  13. David W. Aiken (1996). Kierkegaard's “Three Stages”. Faith and Philosophy 13 (3):352-367.
    The purpose of this paper is to explore an hypothesis rather than draw any unassailable conclusions. I argue that there is a fundamental tension between the sub-Christian account of the “Three Stages” presented in the earlier pseudonymous writings and the explicitly Christian account presented in the Anti-Climacean and later acknowledged writings. The earlier version is that of a progress from spiritless “immediacy” toward more complete integrations of the self, culminating in authentic religious faith; while the later is that of a (...)
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  14. Stacey Elizabeth Ake (1998). Kierkegaard the Teacher1. Enrahonar 29 (7):5-7.
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  15. Şener Aktürk (2006). Living at and Beyond the Grenzenpunkte. The Proceedings of the Twenty-First World Congress of Philosophy 9:51-61.
    This paper compares and contrasts Nietzsche's conceptualization of the "artistic Socrates" with Kierkegaard's vision of the "knight of faith". The paper argues that Nietzsche and Kierkegaard attempted to transcend the rational-ethical sphere of human action in favor of a more spontaneous, yet deeper understanding of the universe. Nietzsche believes that the thread of causality and the principle of sufficient reason, embodied as they are in the personality of Socrates, are not capable of explaining our existence in its entirety. Hence he (...)
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  16. Melodie C. L. Alapack & Richard J. Alapack (1984). The Hinge of the Door To Authentic Adulthood: A Kierkegaardian Inspired Synthesis of the Meaning of Leaving Home. Journal of Phenomenological Psychology 15 (1):45-69.
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  17. Mariana Alessandri (2012). The Strenuous and Sufficient Task of Kierkegaard's Religiousness A. Philosophy Today 56 (4):434-448.
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  18. Ian W. Alexander & Regis Jolivet (1950). Introduction a Kierkegaard.Les Doctrines Existentialistes de Kierkegaard a J.-P. Sartre. Philosophical Quarterly 1 (1):79.
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  19. E. L. Allen (1935). Kierkegaard: His Life and Thought. London, S. Nott, Ltd..
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  20. Rudolf Allers (1943). A Short Life of Kierkegaard. New Scholasticism 17 (4):393-393.
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  21. Rudolf Allers (1942). Kierkegaard's Concluding Unscientific Postscript. New Scholasticism 16 (3):306-310.
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  22. Eric Alliez (2011). De-Definition of Media: A Telegraphic Postscript. Radical Philosophy 169:17.
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  23. Héctor Ignacio Rodríguez Alvarez (2012). Preludio del espíritu. Una lectura contemporánea de la desesperación en la obra de Soren Kierkegaard (II). Naturaleza y Gracia 1:81-122.
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  24. Mark Alznauer (2014). Kierkegaard's Critique of Hegel's Inner‐Outer Thesis. Heythrop Journal 56 (2).
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  25. Lydia B. Amir (2013). Kierkegaard and the Philosophical Traditions of the Comic. Kierkegaard Studies Yearbook:377-401.
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  26. Lydia B. Amir (2013). Kierkegaard and the Traditions of the Comic in Philosophy. Kierkegaard Studies Yearbook 2013 (1).
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  27. Lydia B. Amir (2006). Søren Kierkegaard and the Practice of Philosophy. In B. R. J. (ed.), Philosophers as Philosophical Practitioners. Ediciones. 31-45.
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  28. Jørn Erslev Andersen (2004). Begrebet Inderlighed I Kierkegaards Forfatterskab: Den Etiske Betydning Af Gudsforholdet Og Det Mellemmenneskelige Forhold Hos Søren Kierkegaard. Produktion Underskoven.
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  29. Albert Anderson, Niels Thulstrup & Marie Mikulová Thulstrup (eds.) (1982). Kierkegaard's Teachers. C.A. Reitzels Forlag.
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  30. Thomas Anderson (1982). The Experiential Paths To God In Kierkegaard And Marcel. Philosophy Today 26 (1):22-40.
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  31. Thomas C. Anderson (1994). The Extent of Kierkegaard's Skepticism. Man and World 27 (3):271-289.
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  32. Thomas C. Anderson (1989). To Be One Thing: Personal Unity in Kierkegaard's Thought. By George Connell. Modern Schoolman 67 (1):86-87.
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  33. Thomas C. Anderson (1986). Kierkegaard's "Fragments" and "Postscript"; The Religious Philosophy of Johannes Climacus. By C. Stephen Evans. Modern Schoolman 63 (4):292-295.
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  34. Thomas C. Anderson (1986). Kierkegaard's "Fragments" and "Postscript"; The Religious Philosophy of Johannes Climacus. By C. Stephen Evans. Modern Schoolman 63 (4):292-295.
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  35. John J. Ansbro (1972). Essays on Kierkegaard. Philosophical Studies 21 (3):224-236.
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  36. John J. Ansbro (1969). The Promise of Kierkegaard. Philosophical Studies 18:326-327.
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  37. G. A. Arbaugh (1980). Kierkegaard and Feuerbach. Kierkegaardiana 11:7-10.
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  38. George E. Arbaugh (1968). Kierkegaard's Authorship a Guide to the Writings of Kierkegaard. Allen & Unwin.
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  39. George E. Arbaugh (1967). Kierkegaard's Authorship. Rock Island, Ill.,Augustana College Library.
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  40. George E. Arbaugh, Niels Thulstrup & Marie Mikulová Thulstrup (eds.) (1980). Kierkegaard and Human Values. Reitzels.
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  41. Luis Alfonso Gómez Arciniega (2013). Tres estadios, dos filósofos y la Tía Tula. Astrolabio: Revista Internacional de Filosofía 14:12-23.
    En el artículo se describe el tránsito filosófico-existencial de Tula, protagonista de la novela La tía Tula de Miguel de Unamuno, por los tres estadios vitales del filósofo danés Søren Kierkegaard. A lo largo del texto, se muestra que las dudas existenciales que se plantea la protagonista son extensivas para todo el género humano. Además, el texto busca mostrar cómo la narrativa del pensador español está plagada de reflexiones filosóficas y está fuertemente influida por el existencialismo cristiano de Kierkegaard. Debatiéndose (...)
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  42. P. Rudolph Arendt (1970). Der Begriff des Wunders, Besonders Im Hinblick Auf Bultmann Und Kierkegaard. Neue Zeitschrift Für Systematische Theologie Und Religionsphilosophie 12 (2):146-164.
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  43. Jamie Aroosi (2014). Freedom and the Temporality of Despair. Kierkegaard Studies Yearbook 19 (1).
    Name der Zeitschrift: Kierkegaard Studies Yearbook Jahrgang: 19 Heft: 1 Seiten: 217-230.
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  44. A. Freire Ashbaugh, Niels Thulstrup & Marie Mikulová Thulstrup (eds.) (1981). Kierkegaard and Great Traditions. Reitzel.
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  45. Alison Assiter (forthcoming). Kierkegaard and the Ground of Morality. Acta Kierkegaardiana.
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  46. Alison Assiter (2015). Kierkegaard, Eve and Metaphors of Birth. Rowman & Littlefield International.
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  47. Alison Assiter (2013). Kant and Kierkegaard on Freedom and Evil. Royal Institute of Philosophy Supplement 72:275-296.
    Kant and Kierkegaard are two philosophers who are not usually bracketed together. Yet, for one commentator, Ronald Green, in his book Kierkegaard and Kant: The Hidden Debt , a deep similarity between them is seen in the centrality both accord to the notion of freedom. Kierkegaard, for example, in one of his Journal entries, expresses a ‘passion’ for human freedom. Freedom is for Kierkegaard also linked to a paradox that lies at the heart of thought. In Philosophical Fragment Kierkegaard writes (...)
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  48. Alison Assiter (2013). Kierkegaard's Upbuilding Discourses and the Ground of Morality. Acta Kierkegaardiana 6 (6):42-64.
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  49. Alison Assiter & Margherita Tonon (eds.) (2012). Kierkegaard and the Political. Cambridge Scholars Publishing.
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  50. Antony Aumann (2013). Kierkegaard, Paraphrase, and the Unity of Form and Content. Philosophy Today 57 (4):376-387.
    On one standard view, paraphrasing Kierkegaard requires no special literary talent. It demands no particular flair for the poetic. However, Kierkegaard himself rejects this view. He says we cannot paraphrase in a straightforward fashion some of the ideas he expresses in a literary format. To use the words of Johannes Climacus, these ideas defy direct communication. In this paper, I piece together and defend the justification Kierkegaard offers for this position. I trace its origins to concerns raised by Lessing and (...)
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