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  1. Tanja Ahlin (forthcoming). Altered States of Consciousness: From Madness to Medicine. ARGUMENT.
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  2. Ira B. Albert & Barbara McNeece (1974). The Reported Sleep Characteristics of Meditators and Nonmeditators. Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society 3 (1):73-74.
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  3. Reza Amini, Catherine Sabourin & Joseph de Koninck (2011). Word Associations Contribute to Machine Learning in Automatic Scoring of Degree of Emotional Tones in Dream Reports. Consciousness and Cognition 20 (4):1570-1576.
    Scientific study of dreams requires the most objective methods to reliably analyze dream content. In this context, artificial intelligence should prove useful for an automatic and non subjective scoring technique. Past research has utilized word search and emotional affiliation methods, to model and automatically match human judges’ scoring of dream report’s negative emotional tone. The current study added word associations to improve the model’s accuracy. Word associations were established using words’ frequency of co-occurrence with their defining words as found in (...)
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  4. Brian T. Anderson (2012). Ayahuasca as Antidepressant? Psychedelics and Styles of Reasoning in Psychiatry. Anthropology of Consciousness 23 (1):44-59.
    There is a growing interest among scientists and the lay public alike in using the South American psychedelic brew, ayahuasca, to treat psychiatric disorders like depression and anxiety. Such a practice is controversial due to a style of reasoning within conventional psychiatry that sees psychedelic-induced modified states of consciousness as pathological. This article analyzes the academic literature on ayahuasca's psychological effects to determine how this style of reasoning is shaping formal scientific discourse on ayahuasca's therapeutic potential as a treatment for (...)
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  5. Geels Antoon (2011). Altered Consciousness in Religion. In E. Cardeña & M. Winkelman (ed.), Altering Consciousness. Multidisciplinary Perspectives. Praeger.. 1--255.
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  6. J. K. B. (1971). The Meditation of the Sad Soul. Review of Metaphysics 24 (4):740-740.
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  7. S. B. Backman, P. Fiset & G. Plourde (2004). Cholinergic Mechanisms Mediating Anesthetic Induced Altered States of Consciousness. Progress in Brain Research 145:197-206.
  8. Karl Baier (2013). Meditation Im Schnittfeld von Psychotherapie, Hochgradfreimaurerei Und Kirchenreform. Paragrana 22 (2):51-75.
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  9. Gregory Bailey (1984). Altered States of Consciousness as Initiatory Rituals in Hindu Asceticism. In Richard A. Hutch & Peter G. Fenner (eds.), Under the Shade of a Coolibah Tree: Australian Studies in Consciousness. University Press of America. 203.
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  10. Mike Ball (2000). Transforming the Mind a Study in Meditation Practice. Communication and Cognition. Monographies 33 (1-2):121-140.
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  11. Jennifer Barnes (2001). The Lived Experience of Meditation. Indo-Pacific Journal of Phenomenology 1 (2).
    Heuristic Phenomenology lends itself well to a relatively naïve exploration of meditative experiences. I began with an interest in knowing more about the nature of the bodily sensations that I experienced during meditation. I aimed to capture lived experiences as they emerged into consciousness, so I bracketed out my expectations, as much as possible, and meditated. I noticed that I could not tape descriptions of my experiences while in a deep meditative state because when in this state, I was not (...)
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  12. M. J. Bass (1931). Differentiation of the Hypnotic Trance From Normal Sleep. Journal of Experimental Psychology 14 (4):382.
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  13. Tim Bayne, Consciousness.
    After being sorely neglected for some time, consciousness is well and truly back on the philosophical and scientific agenda. This entry provides a whistle-stop tour of some recent debates surrounding consciousness, with a particular focus on issues relevant to the scientific study of consciousness. The first half of this entry (the first to fourth sections) focuses on clarifying the explanandum of a science of consciousness and identifying constraints on an adequate account of consciousness; the second half of this entry (the (...)
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  14. Tim Bayne (2007). Conscious States and Conscious Creatures: Explanation in the Scientific Study of Consciousness. Philosophical Perspectives 21 (1):1–22.
    Explanation does not exist in a metaphysical vacuum. Conceptions of the structure of a phenomenon play an important role in guiding attempts to explain it, and erroneous conceptions of a phenomenon may direct investigation in misleading directions. I believe that there is a case to be made for thinking that much work on the neural underpinnings of consciousness—what is often called the neural correlates of consciousness—is driven by an erroneous conception of the structure of consciousness. The aim of this paper (...)
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  15. Tim Bayne (2007). Hypnosis and Conscious States: The Cognitive Neuroscience Perspective. Oxford University Press.
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  16. Tim Bayne, Mind-Reading.
    Most animals have mental states of one sort or another, but few species share our capacity for self-awareness. We are aware of our own mental states via introspection, and we are aware of the mental states of our fellow human beings on the basis of what they do and say. This chapter is not concerned with these traditional forms of mind-reading—forms whose origins predate the beginnings of recorded history—but with the prospects of a rather different and significantly more recent form (...)
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  17. Stephen Benton (2001). 9 Meditation. In Ron Roberts & David Groome (eds.), Parapsychology: The Science of Unusual Experience. Arnold. 117.
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  18. Ernst Benz (1960). Nembutsu Und Herzensgebet Buddhist and Orthodox Meditation Practices Compared. Kairos 2:131-144.
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  19. Johannes Bilstein (2013). Kunstbetrachtung Als Meditation. Paragrana 22 (2):235-251.
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  20. Jens Erling Birch (2011). Skills and Knowledge - Nothing but Memory? Sport, Ethics and Philosophy 5 (4):362 - 378.
    The aim of this article is to enquire into neuroscientific research on memory and relate it to topics of skill, knowledge and consciousness. The article outlines some contemporary theories on procedural and working memory, and discusses what contributions they give to sport science and philosophy of sport. It is argued that memory research gives important insights to the neuronal structures and events involved in knowledge and consciousness contributing to sport skills, but that these explanations are not exhaustive. The article argues (...)
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  21. Susan Blackmore, Is Meditation Good for You?
    Are you tempted by the prospect of a reversal of ageing, increased intelligence, improved relationships or irreversible world peace? These are just some of the benefits of meditation promised by the Transcendental Meditation organisation. Admittedly, it doesn't seem very plausible. Such claims imply that sitting still silently repeating a phrase - one form of meditation practiced by the followers of the TM movement - can have profound physical, psychological and even sociological effects. Indeed, it sounds so implausible that many people (...)
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  22. Ewa D. Bogusz-Boltuc (2010). Visual Meditation—the Art of Henryk Musialowicz I Editorial. Dialogue and Universalism 20 (3):5.
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  23. Arno Böhler (2013). Meditation Im Kontext der Indischen Philosophie. Paragrana 22 (2):29-40.
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  24. Gernot Böhme (2013). Meditation Als Erkundung von Bewusstseinsformen. Paragrana 22 (2):88-99.
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  25. Guy Boissard (2010). Le commandement Méditation sur le Psaume 118. Nova Et Vetera 85 (4):411-416.
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  26. A. Bolley (1964). Die Bedeutung von Einsfühlungs- und Einfühlungserlebnissen in der Meditation. Archive for the Psychology of Religion 8 (1):153-155.
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  27. Alfons Bolley (1976). Das Meditative Gotteserlebnis Als Personal Bedingtes Seelisches Gefüge. Archive for the Psychology of Religion 12 (1):85-104.
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  28. Melanie Boly, Marie-Elisabeth Faymonville, Brent A. Vogt, Pierre Maquet & Laureys & Steven (2007). Hypnotic Regulation of Consciousness and the Pain Neuromatrix. In Graham Jamieson (ed.), Hypnosis and Conscious States: The Cognitive Neuroscience Perspective. Oup Oxford.
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  29. Lisa Bortolotti, Rochelle Cox & Amanda Barnier (2011). Can We Recreate Delusions in the Laboratory? Philosophical Psychology 25 (1):109 - 131.
    Clinical delusions are difficult to investigate in the laboratory because they co-occur with other symptoms and with intellectual impairment. Partly for these reasons, researchers have recently begun to use hypnosis with neurologically intact people in order to model clinical delusions. In this paper we describe striking analogies between the behavior of patients with a clinical delusion of mirrored self misidentification, and the behavior of highly hypnotizable subjects who receive a hypnotic suggestion to see a stranger when they look in the (...)
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  30. A. S. Brown, C. A. Engle & T. C. Jones (1992). Incrementing Interference in the Stroop Color Word Task. Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society 30 (6):462-462.
  31. Leo C. Brown (1927). Suggestion and Its Causes. Modern Schoolman 3 (8):129-130.
    The timliness of an investigation into the phenomena of suggestion today can hardly be over estimated. With each succeeding advance it is being given more importance in advertising, in education, and in heath. The author has made it the subject of his master's thesis. Here we have the kernel of his months of thought. The Editor.
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  32. Richard A. Bryant, Miriam Wyzenbeek & Julia Weinstein (2011). Dream Rebound of Suppressed Emotional Thoughts: The Influence of Cognitive Load. Consciousness and Cognition 20 (3):515-522.
    Initial evidence suggests that suppressing a thought prior to sleep results in subsequent dreaming of that thought. The present research examined the influence of cognitive load on dreaming following suppression. In Experiment 1, 100 participants received either a suppression instruction or no instruction for an intrusive thought prior to sleep, and subsequently completed a dream diary. Participants instructed to suppress reported dreaming about the target thought more than controls; dream rebound was predicted by poorer performance on a working memory task. (...)
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  33. Kelly Bulkeley (2007). Sacred Sleep: Scientific Contributions to the Study of Religiously Significant Dreaming. In D. Barrett & P. McNamara (eds.), The New Science of Dreaming. Praeger Publishers. 3--71.
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  34. Heather Buttle (2011). Attention and Working Memory in Mindfulness-Meditation Practices. Journal of Mind and Behavior 32 (2):123-134.
    The construct of “mindfulness” has increasingly become a focus of research related to meditation practices and techniques. There is a growing body of research indicating clinical efficacy from therapeutic use, while cognitive neuroscience has provided an insight into the brain regions and mechanisms involved. Significantly, these approaches converge to suggest that attention is an important mechanism with trainable sub-components. This article discusses the role of attention and argues that memory has been neglected as a potential key mechanism in mindfulness–meditation practices. (...)
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  35. Caroline Walker Bynum (2010). Affective Meditation and the Invention of Medieval Compassion. Common Knowledge 16 (3):552-553.
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  36. Matteo Candidi, Salvatore Maria Aglioti & Patrick Haggard (2012). Embodying Bodies and Worlds. Review of Philosophy and Psychology 3 (1):109-123.
    Sensorimotor representations are essential for building up and maintaining corporeal awareness, i.e. the ability to perceive, know and evaluate one's own body as well as the bodies of others. The notion of embodied cognition implies that abstract forms of conceptual knowledge may be ultimately instantiated in such sensorimotor representations. In this sense, conceptual thinking should evoke, via mental simulation, some underlying sensorimotor events. In this review we discuss studies on the relation between embodiment and corporeal awareness. We approach the question (...)
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  37. Haridas Chaudhuri (1965). Philosophy of Meditation. New York, Philosophical Library.
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  38. Eduard Claparède (1995). Recognition and Selfhood. Consciousness and Cognition 4 (4):371-378.
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  39. Daniel Collerton & Elaine Perry (2011). Dreaming and Hallucinations – Continuity or Discontinuity? Perspectives From Dementia with Lewy Bodies. Consciousness and Cognition 20 (4):1016-1020.
    Comparing the phenomenology, neurochemical pathology, and psychopharmacology of hallucinations and dreaming is limited by the available data. Evidence to date reveals no simple correspondence between the two states. Differences in the phenomenology of visual hallucinations and the visual component of dreams may reflect variations in visual context acting on the same underlying mechanism – the minimal visual input during dreaming contrasts with the more substantial perceived context in hallucinations. Variations in cholinergic, dopaminergic and serotonergic neurotransmitter function during sleep and during (...)
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  40. Allan Combs, David Kahn & Stanley Krippner (2000). Dreaming and the Self-Organizing Brain. Journal of Consciousness Studies 7 (7):4-11.
    We argue that the rapid eye movement dream experiences owe their structure and meaning to inherent self-organizing properties of the brain itself. Thus, we offer a common meeting ground for brain based studies of dreaming and traditional psychological dream theory. Our view is that the dreaming brain is a self-organizing system highly sensitive to internally generated influences. Several lines of evidence support a process view of the brain as a system near the edge of chaos, one that is highly sensitive (...)
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  41. Roger Corless (forthcoming). A Form for Buddhist-Christian Coinherence Meditation. Buddhist-Christian Studies.
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  42. Wendy E. Cousins (2011). Colored Inklings: Altered States of Consciousness and Literature. In E. Cardeña & M. Winkelman (ed.), Altering Consciousness. Multidisciplinary Perspectives. Praeger.. 277--300.
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  43. J. W. Curtis (1943). A Study of the Relationship Between Hypnotic Susceptibility and Intelligence. Journal of Experimental Psychology 33 (4):337.
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  44. Thien Thanh Dang Vu, Manuel Schabus, Martin Desseilles, Sophie Schwartz & Pierre Maquet (2007). Neuroimaging of REM Sleep and Dreaming. In D. Barrett & P. McNamara (eds.), The New Science of Dreaming. Praeger Publishers.
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  45. J. P. Das (1958). Conditioning and Hypnosis. Journal of Experimental Psychology 56 (2):110.
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  46. Richard J. Davidson, Interoceptive Awareness in Experienced Meditators.
    Attention to internal body sensations is practiced in most meditation traditions. Many traditions state that this practice results in increased awareness of internal body sensations, but scientific studies evaluating this claim are lacking. We predicted that experienced meditators would display performance superior to that of nonmeditators on heartbeat detection, a standard noninvasive measure of resting interoceptive awareness. We compared two groups of meditators (Tibetan Buddhist and Kundalini) to an age- and body mass index-matched group of nonmeditators. Contrary to our prediction, (...)
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  47. Jan de Houwer, Hilde Hendrickx & Frank Baeyens (1997). Evaluative Learning with “Subliminally” Presented Stimuli. Consciousness and Cognition 6 (1):87-107.
    Evaluative learning refers to the change in the affective evaluation of a previously neutral stimulus that occurs after the stimulus has been associated with a second, positive or negative, affective stimulus . Four experiments are reported in which the AS was presented very briefly. Significant evaluative learning was observed in participants who did not notice the presentation of the affective stimuli or could not discriminate between the briefly presented positive and negative ASi when asked to do so . In two (...)
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  48. A. De Lanion (1996). Meditation on Metaphysics. Indian Philosophical Quarterly 23:233-256.
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  49. Stephen LaBerge Donald J. DeGracia (2000). Varieties of Lucid Dreaming Experience. In Robert G. Kunzendorf & Benjamin Wallace (eds.), Individual Differences in Conscious Experience. Amsterdam: J Benjamins. 269.
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  50. Raphael Demos (1944). Brief Meditation Upon Values. Journal of Philosophy 41 (12):328-332.
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