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  1. Reza Amini, Catherine Sabourin & Joseph de Koninck (2011). Word Associations Contribute to Machine Learning in Automatic Scoring of Degree of Emotional Tones in Dream Reports. Consciousness and Cognition 20 (4):1570-1576.
    Scientific study of dreams requires the most objective methods to reliably analyze dream content. In this context, artificial intelligence should prove useful for an automatic and non subjective scoring technique. Past research has utilized word search and emotional affiliation methods, to model and automatically match human judges’ scoring of dream report’s negative emotional tone. The current study added word associations to improve the model’s accuracy. Word associations were established using words’ frequency of co-occurrence with their defining words as found in (...)
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  2. S. B. Backman, P. Fiset & G. Plourde (2004). Cholinergic Mechanisms Mediating Anesthetic Induced Altered States of Consciousness. Progress in Brain Research 145:197-206.
  3. Tim Bayne, Consciousness.
    After being sorely neglected for some time, consciousness is well and truly back on the philosophical and scientific agenda. This entry provides a whistle-stop tour of some recent debates surrounding consciousness, with a particular focus on issues relevant to the scientific study of consciousness. The first half of this entry (the first to fourth sections) focuses on clarifying the explanandum of a science of consciousness and identifying constraints on an adequate account of consciousness; the second half of this entry (the (...)
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  4. Tim Bayne (2007). Conscious States and Conscious Creatures: Explanation in the Scientific Study of Consciousness. Philosophical Perspectives 21 (1):1–22.
    Explanation does not exist in a metaphysical vacuum. Conceptions of the structure of a phenomenon play an important role in guiding attempts to explain it, and erroneous conceptions of a phenomenon may direct investigation in misleading directions. I believe that there is a case to be made for thinking that much work on the neural underpinnings of consciousness—what is often called the neural correlates of consciousness—is driven by an erroneous conception of the structure of consciousness. The aim of this paper (...)
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  5. Tim Bayne, Mind-Reading.
    Most animals have mental states of one sort or another, but few species share our capacity for self-awareness. We are aware of our own mental states via introspection, and we are aware of the mental states of our fellow human beings on the basis of what they do and say. This chapter is not concerned with these traditional forms of mind-reading—forms whose origins predate the beginnings of recorded history—but with the prospects of a rather different and significantly more recent form (...)
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  6. Jens Erling Birch (2011). Skills and Knowledge - Nothing but Memory? Sport, Ethics and Philosophy 5 (4):362 - 378.
    The aim of this article is to enquire into neuroscientific research on memory and relate it to topics of skill, knowledge and consciousness. The article outlines some contemporary theories on procedural and working memory, and discusses what contributions they give to sport science and philosophy of sport. It is argued that memory research gives important insights to the neuronal structures and events involved in knowledge and consciousness contributing to sport skills, but that these explanations are not exhaustive. The article argues (...)
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  7. Lisa Bortolotti, Rochelle Cox & Amanda Barnier (2011). Can We Recreate Delusions in the Laboratory? Philosophical Psychology 25 (1):109 - 131.
    Clinical delusions are difficult to investigate in the laboratory because they co-occur with other symptoms and with intellectual impairment. Partly for these reasons, researchers have recently begun to use hypnosis with neurologically intact people in order to model clinical delusions. In this paper we describe striking analogies between the behavior of patients with a clinical delusion of mirrored self misidentification, and the behavior of highly hypnotizable subjects who receive a hypnotic suggestion to see a stranger when they look in the (...)
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  8. Richard A. Bryant, Miriam Wyzenbeek & Julia Weinstein (2011). Dream Rebound of Suppressed Emotional Thoughts: The Influence of Cognitive Load. Consciousness and Cognition 20 (3):515-522.
    Initial evidence suggests that suppressing a thought prior to sleep results in subsequent dreaming of that thought. The present research examined the influence of cognitive load on dreaming following suppression. In Experiment 1, 100 participants received either a suppression instruction or no instruction for an intrusive thought prior to sleep, and subsequently completed a dream diary. Participants instructed to suppress reported dreaming about the target thought more than controls; dream rebound was predicted by poorer performance on a working memory task. (...)
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  9. Matteo Candidi, Salvatore Maria Aglioti & Patrick Haggard (2012). Embodying Bodies and Worlds. Review of Philosophy and Psychology 3 (1):109-123.
    Sensorimotor representations are essential for building up and maintaining corporeal awareness, i.e. the ability to perceive, know and evaluate one's own body as well as the bodies of others. The notion of embodied cognition implies that abstract forms of conceptual knowledge may be ultimately instantiated in such sensorimotor representations. In this sense, conceptual thinking should evoke, via mental simulation, some underlying sensorimotor events. In this review we discuss studies on the relation between embodiment and corporeal awareness. We approach the question (...)
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  10. William J. Clancey (1996). Conceptual Coordination: Abstraction Without Description. Philosophical Explorations.
    Conceptual coordination is a learning process that relates multiple perceptual-motor modalities (verbal, visual, gestural, etc.) in time. Lower-order categorizations are thus related by sequence and simultaneity, as shown by neurological dysfunctions. Heretofore, many theories of abstraction have only considered verbal behavior and assumed that the neural mechanism itself consists of manipulation of descriptions (linguistic models of the world and behavior). This broader view better relates physical and intellectual skills.
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  11. Eduard Claparède (1995). Recognition and Selfhood. Consciousness and Cognition 4 (4):371-378.
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  12. Daniel Collerton & Elaine Perry (2011). Dreaming and Hallucinations – Continuity or Discontinuity? Perspectives From Dementia with Lewy Bodies. Consciousness and Cognition 20 (4):1016-1020.
    Comparing the phenomenology, neurochemical pathology, and psychopharmacology of hallucinations and dreaming is limited by the available data. Evidence to date reveals no simple correspondence between the two states. Differences in the phenomenology of visual hallucinations and the visual component of dreams may reflect variations in visual context acting on the same underlying mechanism – the minimal visual input during dreaming contrasts with the more substantial perceived context in hallucinations. Variations in cholinergic, dopaminergic and serotonergic neurotransmitter function during sleep and during (...)
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  13. Jan de Houwer, Hilde Hendrickx & Frank Baeyens (1997). Evaluative Learning with “Subliminally” Presented Stimuli. Consciousness and Cognition 6 (1):87-107.
    Evaluative learning refers to the change in the affective evaluation of a previously neutral stimulus that occurs after the stimulus has been associated with a second, positive or negative, affective stimulus . Four experiments are reported in which the AS was presented very briefly. Significant evaluative learning was observed in participants who did not notice the presentation of the affective stimuli or could not discriminate between the briefly presented positive and negative ASi when asked to do so . In two (...)
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  14. Geoffrey W. Dennis (2008). The Use of Water as a Medium for Altered States of Consciousness in Early Jewish Mysticism: A Cross-Disciplinary Analysis. Anthropology of Consciousness 19 (1):84-106.
    This article combines the disciplines of textual/linguistic analysis, anthropology, and perceptual psychology to examine selected ancient Jewish mystical texts that claim to describe the praxis for ascents into heaven and encounters with angelic spirits in order to reconstruct the psychosocial context of these literary works. Specifically, the article examines Hekhalot or "Divine Palaces" texts that deal with hydromancy, giving attention to their mythic–symbolic assumptions, their described preparatory and triggering rituals, and their accounts of the ASC (altered states of consciousness) visions (...)
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  15. Martin Desseilles, Thien Thanh Dang-Vu, Virginie Sterpenich & Sophie Schwartz (2011). Cognitive and Emotional Processes During Dreaming: A Neuroimaging View. Consciousness and Cognition 20 (4):998-1008.
    Dream is a state of consciousness characterized by internally-generated sensory, cognitive and emotional experiences occurring during sleep. Dream reports tend to be particularly abundant, with complex, emotional, and perceptually vivid experiences after awakenings from rapid eye movement sleep. This is why our current knowledge of the cerebral correlates of dreaming, mainly derives from studies of REM sleep. Neuroimaging results show that REM sleep is characterized by a specific pattern of regional brain activity. We demonstrate that this heterogeneous distribution of brain (...)
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  16. José Luis Díaz (2010). Sacred Plants and Visionary Consciousness. Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences 9 (2):159-170.
    Botanical preparations used by shamans in rituals for divination, prophecy, and ecstasy contain widely different psychoactive compounds, which are incorrectly classified under a single denomination such as “hallucinogens,” “psychedelics,” or “entheogens.” Based on extensive ethnopharmacological search, I proposed a psychopharmacological classification of magic plants in 1979. This paper re-evaluates this taxonomy in the context of consciousness research. Several groups of psychodysleptic magic plants are proposed: (1) hallucinogens—psilocybin mushrooms, mescaline cacti, dimethyltryptamine snuffs, and the synthetic ergoline lysergic acid diethylamide induce strong (...)
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  17. Thomas Dworschak (2010). Book Review: Yogic Perception, Meditation and Altered States of Consciousness. By Eli Franco and Dagmar Eigner, Eds. [REVIEW] Anthropology of Consciousness 21 (2):227-229.
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  18. Christopher French (2009). From the Subliminal to the Ridiculous. The Philosophers' Magazine 45 (45):87-91.
    Virtually all experimental psychologists now accept that our behaviour can be affected by stimuli of which we have no conscious awareness. Such effects are typically not very dramatic even though they are reasonably reliable. However, such results do not on the surface appear to offer much support to claims of profound and lasting behavioural changes brought about by subliminal advertising or subliminal self-help tapes.
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  19. Juan C. González (2010). Preface. Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences 9 (2):157-158.
  20. Wouter J. Hanegraaff (2008). Altered States of Knowledge: The Attainment of Gnōsis in the Hermetica. International Journal of the Platonic Tradition 2 (2):128-163.
    Research into the so-called “philosophical” Hermetica has long been dominated by the foundational scholarship of André-Jean Festugière, who strongly emphasized their Greek and philosophical elements. Since the late 1970s, this perspective has given way to a new and more complex one, due to the work of another French scholar, Jean-Pierre Mahé, who could profit from the discovery of new textual sources, and called much more attention to the Egyptian and religious dimensions of the hermetic writings. This article addresses the question (...)
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  21. Daniel Hart Jr & J. Whitlow (1995). The Experience of Self in the Bottlenose Dolphin. Consciousness and Cognition 4 (2):244-247.
  22. Helene Hembrooke & Stephen J. Ceci (1995). Traumatic Memories: Do We Need to Invoke Special Mechanisms? Consciousness and Cognition 4 (1):75-82.
  23. Beate M. Herbert & Olga Pollatos (2012). The Body in the Mind: On the Relationship Between Interoception and Embodiment. Topics in Cognitive Science 4 (4):692-704.
    The processing, representation, and perception of bodily signals (interoception) plays an important role for human behavior. Theories of embodied cognition hold that higher cognitive processes operate on perceptual symbols and that concept use involves reactivations of the sensory-motor states that occur during experience with the world. Similarly, activation of interoceptive representations and meta-representations of bodily signals supporting interoceptive awareness are profoundly associated with emotional experience and cognitive functions. This article gives an overview over present findings and models on interoception and (...)
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  24. Allan Hobson & Ursula Voss (2011). A Mind to Go Out Of: Reflections on Primary and Secondary Consciousness. Consciousness and Cognition 20 (4):993-997.
    Dreaming and waking are two brain-mind states, which are characterized by shared and differentiated properties at the levels of brain and consciousness. As part of our effort to capitalize on a comparison of these two states we have applied Edelman’s distinction between primary and secondary consciousness, which we link to dreaming and waking respectively. In this paper we examine the implications of this contrastive analysis for theories of mental illness. We conclude that while dreaming is an almost perfect model of (...)
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  25. J. Allan Hobson & Robert Stickgold (1994). Dreaming: A Neurocognitive Approach. Consciousness and Cognition 3 (1):1-15.
    The studies reported in the following articles are aimed at providing a comprehensive, detailed, and quantitative picture of cognition in human dreaming. Our main premises are that waking, REM sleep, and non-REM sleep represent physiologically distinct and identifiable brain states and that the differences between waking, REM, and NREM mentation reflect these physiological differences. We have studied dreams at a formal level of analysis and, in these papers, have studied the specific dream properties of emotions, bizarre transformations, scene shifts, and (...)
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  26. Jakob Hohwy (2009). The Neural Correlates of Consciousness: New Experimental Approaches Needed? Consciousness and Cognition 18 (2):428-438.
    It appears that consciousness science is progressing soundly, in particular in its search for the neural correlates of consciousness. There are two main approaches to this search, one is content-based (focusing on the contrast between conscious perception of, e.g., faces vs. houses), the other is state-based (focusing on overall conscious states, e.g., the contrast between dreamless sleep vs. the awake state). Methodological and conceptual considerations of a number of concrete studies show that both approaches are problematic: the content-based approach seems (...)
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  27. Terry Horgan & Matjaž Potrč (2011). Attention, Morphological Content and Epistemic Justification. Croatian Journal of Philosophy 11 (1):73-86.
    In the formation of epistemically justified beliefs, what is the role of attention, and what is the role (if any) of non-attentional aspects of cognition? We will here argue that there is an essential role for certain nonattentional aspects. These involve epistemically relevant background information that is implicit in the standing structure of an epistemic agent’s cognitive architecture and that does not get explicitly represented during belief-forming cognitive processing. Since such “morphological content” (as we call it) does not become explicit (...)
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  28. Mary Lyn Huffman, Angela M. Crossman & Stephen J. Ceci (1997). “Are False Memories Permanent?”: An Investigation of the Long-Term Effects of Source Misattributions. Consciousness and Cognition 6 (4):482-490.
    With growing concerns over children's suggestibility and how it may impact their reliability as witnesses, there is increasing interest in determining the long-term effects of induced memories. The goal of the present research was to learn whether source misattributions found by Ceci, Huffman, Smith, and Loftus caused permanent memory alterations in the subjects tested. When 22 children from the original study were reinterviewed 2 years later, they recalled 77% of all true events. However, they only consented to 13% of all (...)
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  29. Barbara E. Jones (2000). The Interpretation of Physiology. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 23 (6):955-956.
    Not at all self-evident, the so-called isomorphisms between the phenomenology and physiology of dreams have been interpreted by Hobson et al. in an arbitrary manner to state that dreams are stimulated by chaotic brainstem stimulation (an assumption also adopted by Vertes & Eastman). I argue that this stimulation is not chaotic at all; nor does it occur in the absence of control from the cerebral cortex, which contributes complexity to brainstem activity as well as meaningful information worth consolidating in the (...)
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  30. Tracey L. Kahan, Stephen LaBerge, Lynne Levitan & Philip Zimbardo (1997). Similarities and Differences Between Dreaming and Waking Cognition: An Exploratory Study. Consciousness and Cognition 6 (1):132-147.
    Thirty-eight “practiced” dreamers and 50 “novice” dreamers completed questionnaires assessing the cognitive, metacognitive, and emotional qualities of recent waking and dreaming experiences. The present findings suggest that dreaming cognition is more similar to waking cognition than previously assumed and that the differences between dreaming and waking cognition are more quantitative than qualitative. Results from the two studies were generally consistent, indicating that high-order cognition during dreaming is not restricted to individuals practiced in dream recall or self-observation. None of the measured (...)
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  31. Vered Lev Kenaan (2004). Delusion and Dream in Apuleius'Metamorphoses. Classical Antiquity 23 (2):247-284.
    Considering the absence of any ancient systematic approach to the reading of the novel, this paper turns to ancient dream hermeneutics as a valuable field of reference that can provide the theoretical framework for studying the ancient novel within its own cultural context. In introducing dream interpretation as one of the ancient novel's creative sources, this essay focuses on Apuleius' Metamorphoses. It explores the dream logic in Apuleius' novel by turning to such authorities as Heraclitus, Plato, Cicero, Artemidorus, and Macrobius, (...)
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  32. John F. Kihlstrom (1995). Memory and Consciousness: An Appetite of Claparède and Recognition Et Moı̈ı̈tè. Consciousness and Cognition 4 (4):379-386.
    Claparède′s report of a case of amnesic syndrome is an early example of the cognitive neuropsychology paradigm, by which studies of brain-damaged patients are used to shed light on the nature of normal mental processes. The case illustrates the selective impairment of episodic memory, with procedural and semantic memory remaining intact. Moreover, the several demonstrations of preserved learning during amnesia comprise an early illustration of the dissociation between explicit and implict memory. However, its greatest contemporary relevance is for theories of (...)
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  33. Stanley Krippner & L. George (1986). Psi Phenomena as Related to Altered States of Consciousness. In Benjamin B. Wolman & M. Ullman (eds.), Handbook of States of Consciousness. Van Nostrand Reinhold.
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  34. Timothy Lane & C. M. Yang (2010). The Threshold of Wakefulness, the Experience of Control, and Theory Development. Consciousness and Cognition 19 (4):1095-1096.
    Reinterpretation of our data concerning sleep onset, motivated by the desire to pay close attention to “intra-individual regularities,” suggests that the experience of control might be a key factor in determining the subjective sense that sleep has begun. This loss of control seems akin to what Frith and others have described as “passivity experiences,” which also occur in schizophrenia. Although clearly sleep onset is not a schizophrenic episode, this similarity might help to explain other features of sleep onset. We further (...)
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  35. Sue Llewellyn (2011). If Waking and Dreaming Consciousness Became de-Differentiated, Would Schizophrenia Result? Consciousness and Cognition 20 (4):1059-1083.
    If both waking and dreaming consciousness are functional, their de-differentiation would be doubly detrimental. Differentiation between waking and dreaming is achieved through neuromodulation. During dreaming, without external sensory data and with mesolimbic dopaminergic input, hyper-cholinergic input almost totally suppresses the aminergic system. During waking, with sensory gates open, aminergic modulation inhibits cholinergic and mesocortical dopaminergic suppresses mesolimbic. These neuromodulatory systems are reciprocally interactive and self-organizing. As a consequence of neuromodulatory reciprocity, phenomenologically, the self and the world that appear during dreaming (...)
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  36. Shih-Yu Lo & Su-Ling Yeh (2011). Independence Between Implicit and Explicit Processing as Revealed by the Simon Effect. Consciousness and Cognition 20 (3):523-533.
    Studies showing human behavior influenced by subliminal stimuli mainly focus on implicit processing per se, and little is known about its interaction with explicit processing. We examined this by using the Simon effect, wherein a task-irrelevant spatial distracter interferes with lateralized response. Lo and Yeh found that the visual Simon effect, although it occurred when participants were aware of the visual distracters, did not occur with subliminal visual distracters. We used the same paradigm and examined whether subliminal and supra-threshold stimuli (...)
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  37. María Fernanda López-Ramón, Ana B. Chica, Paolo Bartolomeo & Juan Lupiáñez (2011). Attentional Orienting and Awareness: Evidence From a Discrimination Task. Consciousness and Cognition 20 (3):745-755.
    We used several cue–target SOAs and three different degrees of cue predictability , to investigate the role of awareness of cue–target predictability on cueing effects. A group of participants received instructions about the informative value of the cue, while another group did not receive such instructions. Participants were able to extract the predictive value of a spatially peripheral cue and use it to orient attention, whether or not specific instructions about the predictive value of the cue were given, and no (...)
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  38. Jason Low & Bo Wang (2011). On the Long Road to Mentalism in Children's Spontaneous False-Belief Understanding: Are We There Yet? Review of Philosophy and Psychology 2 (3):411-428.
    We review recent anticipatory looking and violation-of-expectancy studies suggesting that infants and young preschoolers have spontaneous (implicit) understanding of mind despite their known problems until later in life on elicited (explicit) tests of false-belief reasoning. Straightforwardly differentiating spontaneous and elicited expressions of complex mental state understanding in relation to an implicit-explicit knowledge framework may be challenging; early action predictions may be based on behavior rules that are complementary to the mentalistic attributions under consideration. We discuss that the way forward for (...)
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  39. Raffaele Manni, Michele Terzaghi, Pietro-Luca Ratti, Alessandra Repetto, Roberta Zangaglia & Claudio Pacchetti (2011). Hallucinations and REM Sleep Behaviour Disorder in Parkinson's Disease: Dream Imagery Intrusions and Other Hypotheses. Consciousness and Cognition 20 (4):1021-1026.
    REM sleep behaviour disorder is a REM sleep-related parasomnia which may be considered a “dissociated state of wakefulness and sleep”, given that conflicting elements of REM sleep and of wakefulness coexist during the episodes, leading to motor and behavioural manifestations reminiscent of an enacted dream. RBD has been reported in association with α-synucleinopathies: around a third of patients with Parkinson’s disease have full-blown RBD.Recent data indicate that PD patients with RBD are more prone to hallucinations than PD patients without this (...)
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  40. Thaddeus J. Marczynski (2000). Novel Concepts of Sleep-Wakefullness and Neuronal Information Coding. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 23 (6):968-971.
    A new working hypothesis of sleep-wake cycle mechanisms is proposed, based on ontogeny and functional/anatomic compression of two stochastic neuronal models of information coding that complement each other in a key/lock fashion: the axonal arbor patterns (AAP – “hardware”) and the neuronal spike interval inequality patterns (SIIP – “software”). [Hobson et al.; Nielsen; Revonsuo; Solms; Vertes & Eastman].
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  41. Jane M. Merritt, Robert Stickgold, Edward Pace-Schott, Julie Williams & J. Allan Hobson (1994). Emotion Profiles in the Dreams of Men and Women. Consciousness and Cognition 3 (1):46-60.
    We have investigated the emotional profile of dreams and the relationship between dream emotion and cognition using a form that specifically asked subjects to identify emotions within their dreams. Two hundred dream reports were collected from 20 subjects, each of whom produced 10 reports. Compared to previous studies, our method yielded a 10-fold increase in the amount of emotion reported. Anxiety/fear was reported most frequently, followed, in order, by joy/elation, anger, sadness, shame/guilt, and, least frequently, affection/eroticism. Unexpectedly, there was no (...)
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  42. John Michael, Wayne Christensen & Søren Overgaard (2013). Mindreading as Social Expertise. Synthese:1-24.
    In recent years, a number of approaches to social cognition research have emerged that highlight the importance of embodied interaction for social cognition (Reddy, How infants know minds, 2008; Gallagher, J Conscious Stud 8:83–108, 2001; Fuchs and Jaegher, Phenom Cogn Sci 8:465–486, 2009; Hutto, in Seemans (ed.) Joint attention: new developments in psychology, philosophy of mind and social neuroscience, 2012). Proponents of such ‘interactionist’ approaches emphasize the importance of embodied responses that are engaged in online social interaction, and which, according (...)
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  43. Ramesh Kumar Mishra (2012). Haluk Ogmen and Bruno G. Breitmeyer (Eds.): The First Half Second: The Microgenesis and Temporal Dynamics of Unconscious and Conscious Visual Processes. [REVIEW] Minds and Machines 22 (1):61-65.
    Haluk Ogmen and Bruno G. Breitmeyer (eds.): The First Half Second: The Microgenesis and Temporal Dynamics of Unconscious and Conscious Visual Processes Content Type Journal Article Category Book Review Pages 61-65 DOI 10.1007/s11023-011-9266-7 Authors Ramesh Kumar Mishra, Centre of Behavioral and Cognitive Sciences, Allahabad University, Allahabad, India Journal Minds and Machines Online ISSN 1572-8641 Print ISSN 0924-6495 Journal Volume Volume 22 Journal Issue Volume 22, Number 1.
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  44. Ramesh Kumar Mishra (2011). Mental States. Philosophical Psychology 24 (3):427 - 435.
    Philosophical Psychology, Volume 24, Issue 3, Page 427-435, 01Jun2011.
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  45. Daniel E. Moerman (2012). Society for the Anthropology of Consciousness Distinguished Lecture: Consciousness, “Symbolic Healing,” and the Meaning Response. Anthropology of Consciousness 23 (2):192-210.
    Symbolic healing, that is, responding to meaningful experiences in positive ways, can facilitate human healing. This process partly engages consciousness and partly evades consciousness completely (sometimes it partakes of both simultaneously). This paper, presented as the Society for the Anthropology of Consciousness Distinguished Lecture at the 2011 AAA meeting in Montreal, reviews recent research on what is ordinarily (and unfortunately) called the “placebo effect.” The author makes the argument that language use should change, and the relevant portions of what is (...)
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  46. Alain Morin, Self-Awareness Part 2: Neuroanatomy and Importance of Inner Speech.
    The present review of literature surveys two main issues related to self-referential processes: (1) Where in the brain are these processes located, and do they correlate with brain areas uniquely specialized in self-processing? (2) What are the empirical and theoretical links between inner speech and self-awareness? Although initial neuroimaging attempts tended to favor a right hemispheric view of selfawareness, more recent work shows that the brain areas which support self-related processes are located in both hemispheres and are not uniquely activated (...)
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  47. Levente Móró (2010). Hallucinatory Altered States of Consciousness. Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences 9 (2):241-252.
    Altered states of consciousness (ASC), especially hallucinatory ones, are philosophically and scientifically interesting modes of operation of the mind–brain complex. However, classical definitions of ASC seem to capture only a few common characteristics of traditionally regarded phenomena, thus lacking exact classification criteria for assessing altered and baseline states. The current situation leads to a priority problem between phenomena-based definitions and definition-based phenomena selection. In order to solve the problem, this paper introduces a self-mapping procedure that is based on a three-part (...)
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  48. Przemysław Nowakowski (2011). Phantom Body as Bodily Self-Consciousness. Avant 2 (1):135–149.
    In the article, I propose that the body phantom is a phenomenal and functional model of one’s own body. This model has two aspects. On the one hand, it functions as a tacit sensory representation of the body that is at the same time related to the motor aspects of body functioning. On the other hand, it also has a phenomenal aspect as it constitutes the content of conscious bodily experience. This sort of tacit, functional and sensory model is related (...)
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  49. Henry Otgaar, Ewout H. Meijer, Timo Giesbrecht, Tom Smeets, Ingrid Candel & Harald Merckelbach (2010). Children's Suggestion-Induced Omission Errors Are Not Caused by Memory Erasure. Consciousness and Cognition 19 (1):265-269.
    We explored whether children’s suggestion-induced omission errors are caused by memory erasure. Seventy-five children were instructed to remove three pieces of clothing from a puppet. Next, they were confronted with evidence falsely suggesting that one of the items had not been removed. During two subsequent interviews separated by one week, children had to report which pieces of clothing they had removed. Children who during both interviews failed to report that they had removed the pertinent item completed a choice reaction time (...)
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  50. Teresa Paiva, Paulo Bugalho & Carla Bentes (2011). Dreaming and Cognition in Patients with Frontotemporal Dysfunction. Consciousness and Cognition 20 (4):1027-1035.
    Individuals with Parkinson’s disease and temporal lobe epilepsy have hallucinations and mild cognitive dysfunction. The objective of this work was to study dreams in PD and TLE patients using a common functional model of dream production involving the limbic and paralimbic structures.Dreams were characterised in early-stage PD and TLE patients with dream diaries classified by the Hall van de Castle system and were compared with matched controls.In PD, there were significant differences between patients’ dreams and those of controls: animals, physical (...)
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