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Summary The Stoic school of philosophy was founded in Athens by Zeno of Citium c. 300 BCE. He was succeeded as head by Cleanthes and then Chrysippus, who is widely held to be the most important of the early Athenian Stoics. Later Hellenistic Stoics of note included Panaetius and Posidonius. The most important Stoics during the Roman period were Seneca, Epictetus, and Marcus Aurelius; also noteworthy are Musonius Rufus, Hierocles, and Cleomedes. The Stoics divided their philosophy into three parts: logic, physics, and ethics.
Key works All of the works of the early Stoics are lost. Our earliest extended accounts of Stoic philosophy are in the philosophical works of Cicero from the first century BCE. Another important source is the extended account in Book 7 of Diogenes Laertius' Lives and Opinions of the Philosophers. The fragments for the early Athenian Stoics are gathered together in von Arnim 1903-24. A good selection is translated in Inwood & Gerson 2008, which is based on their earlier selection in Gerson & Inwood 1988. Another highly recommended selection is Long & Sedley 1987. The fragments for Posidonius are edited in Edelstein & Kidd 1972. The surviving works of the Roman Stoics Seneca, Epictetus, and Marcus Aurelius are widely available in a number of different editions and translations.
Introductions For a general introduction to Stoicism see Sellars 2006. The edited volume Inwood 2003 offers a fuller overview. Inwood 2005 brings out the philosophical importance of Seneca. For an introduction to Epictetus the best place to start is Long 2002. Marcus Aurelius is examined in Hadot 1998.
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  1. Francesco Ademollo (2012). The Platonic Origins of Stoic Theology. In Brad Inwood (ed.), Oxford Studies in Ancient Philosophy. Oxford University Press 43--217.
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  2. Marcus Aurelius Antoninus & C. R. Haines (1918). The Communings with Himself of Marcus Aurelius Antoninus, Emperor of Rome, Together with His Speeches and Sayings. Journal of Hellenic Studies 38:201.
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  3. Elizabeth Asmis (1990). Seneca's On the Happy Life and Stoic Individualism. Apeiron 23 (4).
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  4. Barlow Barlow (1941). Seneca in the Middle Ages. Classical World: A Quarterly Journal on Antiquity 35:257.
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  5. Emily E. Batinski (2013). G.D. Williams The Cosmic Viewpoint. A Study of Seneca's Natural Questions. Pp. Xiv + 393, Fig. New York: Oxford University Press, 2012. Cased, £30, US$45. ISBN: 978-0-19-973158-9. [REVIEW] The Classical Review 63 (2):442-444.
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  6. Emily E. Batinski (2008). Seneca. Ancient Philosophy 9 (2):351 - 353.
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  7. Robert Bees (2011). Hachmann L. Annaeus Seneca: Epistulae Morales, Brief 66. Pp. Ii + 216. Frankfurt Am Main: Peter Lang, 2006. Paper, £28.80, €38.40, US$59.95. ISBN: 978-3-631-55262-9. [REVIEW] The Classical Review 61 (1):308.
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  8. Miguel Lopez-Astorga, Chrysippus’ Indemonstrables and Mental Logic.
    Stoic logic assumes fi ve inference schemata attributed to Chrysippus of Soli. Those schemata are the well-known indemonstrables. A problem related to them can be that, according to standard propositional calculus, only one of them, modus ponens, is clearly indemonstrable. Nevertheless, I try to show in this paper that the mental logic theory enables to understand why the Stoics considered such schemata to be basic kinds of arguments. Following that theory, four of them can be linked to ‘Core Schemata’ of (...)
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  9. Bohdan Wi Sniewski (1966). L'influence des Sophistes Sur Aristote, Épicure, Stoïciens Et Sceptiques. Zaklad Narodowy Im. Ossoli Nskich.
Zeno of Citium
  1. Thomas Bénatouïl (2003). Logos et scala naturae dans le stoïcisme de Zénon et Cléanthe. Elenchos 23 (2):297-331.
  2. George Boys-Stones (1998). Eros in Government: Zeno and the Virtuous City. Classical Quarterly 48 (01):168-.
    According to a report in Athenaeus , the qualities of Erosled the Stoic Zeno to make him the tutelary god of his ideal state:Pontianus said that Zeno of Citium took Eros to be the god of love and freedom, and even the provider of concord, but nothing else. This is why he said in his Republic that Eros was the god who contributed to the safety of the city.
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  3. R. Bracht Branham (2006). Les Kynica du Stoïcisme, by Marie-Odile Goulet-Cazé. Ancient Philosophy 26 (2):443-447.
  4. R. Bracht Branham (2006). Les Kynica du Stoïcisme. Ancient Philosophy 26 (2):443-447.
  5. C. O. Brink (1956). Οἰϰείωσις and Οἰϰειότης: Theophrastus and Zeno on Nature in Moral Theory. Phronesis 1 (2):123 - 145.
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  6. C. O. Brink (1955). Theophrastus and Zeno on Nature in Moral Theory. Phronesis 1 (2):123-145.
  7. Angel J. Cappelletti (1996). Los Estoicos Antiguos Zenón de Citio, Aristón de Quíos, Apolófanes, Hérilo de Calcedonia, Dionisio de Heraclea, Perseo de Citio, Cleantes, Esfero.
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  8. Harold N. Fowler (1891). The Fragments of Zeno and Cleanthes, with Introduction and Explanatory Notes. An Essay Which Obtained the Hare Prize in the Year 1889. By A. C. Pearson, M.A., Late Scholar of Christ's College, Cambridge. London: C. J. Clay and Sons. 1891. [REVIEW] The Classical Review 5 (10):479-480.
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  9. Kathy L. Gaca (2000). Early Stoic Eros: The Sexual Ethics of Zeno and Chrysippus and Their Evaluation of the Greek Erotic Tradition. Apeiron 33 (3):207 - 238.
  10. Matthias Haake (2004). Documentary Evidence, Literary Forgery, or Manipulation of Historical Documents? Diogenes Laertius and an Athenian Honorary Decree for Zeno of Citium. Classical Quarterly 54 (02):470-483.
  11. Harold Arthur Kinross Hunt (1976). A Physical Interpretation of the Universe: The Doctrines of Zeno the Stoic. Melbourne University Press.
  12. A. A. Long (1978). Andreas Graeser: Zenon von Kition. Positionen und Probleme. Pp. x + 224. Berlin/New York: De Gruyter, 1975. Cloth, DM. 82. [REVIEW] The Classical Review 28 (02):361-.
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  13. James Longrigo (1972). Zeno's Cosmology? The Classical Review 22 (02):170-171.
  14. Jaap Mansfeld (2003). Zeno on the Unity of Philosophy. Phronesis 48 (2):116-131.
    The formula 'the elements of logos' in the Zeno quotation by Epictetus at Arrian, Diss. 4.8.12 need not, pace e.g. von Arnim, pertain to the parts of speech, but more probably means the elements i.e. primary theorems of philosophical theory, or doctrine. Theory moreover should become internalized to the soul and 'lived': philosophy is also the so-called 'art of life'. These theorems are to be distinguished but should reciprocally entail each other. Philosophy according to Zeno is both tripartite and one, (...)
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  15. Jaap Mansfeld (1983). Intuitionism and Formalism: Zeno's Definition of Geometry in a Fragment of L. Calvenus Taurus. Phronesis 28 (1):59 - 74.
  16. Jaap Mansfeld (1983). Intuitionism and Formalism: Zeno's Definition of Geometry in a Fragment of L. Calvenus Taurus. Phronesis 28 (1):59-74.
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  17. Serge Mouraviev (2005). Zeno's Cosmology and the Presumption of Innocence. Interpretations and Vindications. Phronesis 50 (3):232-249.
  18. Serge Mouraviev (2005). Zeno's Cosmology and the Presumption of Innocence. Interpretations and Vindications. Phronesis 50 (3):232-249.
    The present study partly supports, partly corrects, and partly complements recent discussions of Arius Didymus fr. 23 and fr. 25 Diels, Aetius I, 20, 1 and Sextus Empiricus AM X, 3-4 = PH III, 124. It proposes a comprehensive interpretation of the first text (A.I), defends the attribution of its content to Zeno of Citium (A.II), interprets the Stoic definitions of space, place and void to be found in the other sources (B.I) and again vindicates the attribution of the core (...)
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  19. Pierre Pachet (1975). La deixis selon Zénon et Chrysippe. Phronesis 20 (3):241 - 246.
  20. Pierre Pachet (1975). La deixis selon Zénon et Chrysippe. Phronesis 20 (3):241-246.
  21. A. C. Pearson (1892). Berliner Studien Für Classische Philologie Und Archaeologie. Zwölfter Band. Drittes Heft. Zenonis Citiensis de Rebus Physicis Doctrinae Fundamentum Ex Adjectis Fragmentis Constituit Karl Troost. Berlin: Calvary. 1891. Pp. Iv. 88. 3 M. [REVIEW] The Classical Review 6 (03):120-121.
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  22. J. M. Rist (1977). Zeno and Stoic Consistency. Phronesis 22 (2):161 - 174.
  23. J. M. Rist (1977). Zeno and Stoic Consistency. Phronesis 22 (2):161-174.
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  24. F. H. Sandbach (1978). H. A. K. Hunt: A Physical Interpretation of the Universe: The Doctrines of Zeno the Stoic. Pp. Xiv + 79. Carlton, Victoria: Melbourne University Press, 1976. Paper, £3·75. [REVIEW] The Classical Review 28 (01):170-171.
  25. F. H. Sandbach (1933). I Frammenti degli Stoici antichi, vol. i: Zenone. By Nicola Festa. (Filosofi antichi e medievali: collana di testi e di traduzioni.) Pp. viii+128. Bari: Laterza, 1932. Paper, L. 15. [REVIEW] The Classical Review 47 (04):149-.
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  26. Malcolm Schofield (1983). The Syllogisms of Zeno of Citium. Phronesis 28 (1):31 - 58.
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  27. Malcolm Schofield (1983). The Syllogisms of Zeno of Citium. Phronesis 28 (1):31-58.
  28. John Sellars (2007). Stoic Cosmopolitanism and Zeno's Republic. History of Political Thought 28 (1):1-29.
    Modern accounts of Stoic politics have attributed to Zeno the ideal of an isolated community of sages and to later Stoics such as Seneca a cosmopolitan utopia transcending all traditional States. By returning to the Cynic background to both Zeno's Republic and the Cosmopolitan tradition, this paper argues that the distance between the two is not as great as is often supposed. This account, it is argued, is more plausible than trying to offer a developmental explanation of the supposed transformation (...)
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  29. John Sellars (2005). Stoics and Cynics: M.-O. Goulet-Cazé: Les Kynica du Stoïcisme. [REVIEW] The Classical Review 55 (01):69-.
  30. R. W. Sharples (1984). On Fire in Heraclitus and in Zeno of Citium. Classical Quarterly 34 (01):231-.
    In a recent discussion note1 C. D. C. Reeve investigates the reasons for Heraclitus assigning a primary position to fire, as contrasted with the other substances like earth and water which go to make up the physical universe. Reeve considers and rejects other reasons for the primacy of fire that have been put forward, such as the symbolic associations of fire, the role of fire in governing the universe, or the claim that everything becomes fire at some time or other. (...)
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  31. Hans Friedrich August von Arnim (ed.) (1903-24). Stoicorum Veterum Fragmenta. Teubner.
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Cleanthes
  1. Thomas Bénatouïl (2003). Logos et scala naturae dans le stoïcisme de Zénon et Cléanthe. Elenchos 23 (2):297-331.
  2. Angel J. Cappelletti (1996). Los Estoicos Antiguos Zenón de Citio, Aristón de Quíos, Apolófanes, Hérilo de Calcedonia, Dionisio de Heraclea, Perseo de Citio, Cleantes, Esfero.
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  3. Harold N. Fowler (1891). The Fragments of Zeno and Cleanthes, with Introduction and Explanatory Notes. An Essay Which Obtained the Hare Prize in the Year 1889. By A. C. Pearson, M.A., Late Scholar of Christ's College, Cambridge. London: C. J. Clay and Sons. 1891. [REVIEW] The Classical Review 5 (10):479-480.
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  4. Richard Hunter (2007). Literature (J.C.) Thom Cleanthes' Hymn to Zeus. Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck, 2005. Pp. Xii + 207. 64. 3161486609. Journal of Hellenic Studies 127:167-.
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  5. P. A. Meijer (2007). Stoic Theology: Proofs for the Existence of the Cosmic God and of the Traditional Gods: Including a Commentary on Cleanthes' Hymn on Zeus. Eburon.
    Zeno's so-called proofs of divine existence -- Zeno and the traditional gods: a serious problem -- Cleanthes' proofs -- Cleanthes and the traditional gods -- Chrysippus' contribution -- Chrysippus and the traditional gods -- Other Stoic proofs -- Other (Stoic?) arguments in Sextus -- Polemics against the arguments pro the existence of God(s) -- Abolishing the gods leads to odd consequence: the atopical arguments pro the existence of the gods -- The counter-arguments -- Carneades and the data of Sextus and (...)
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  6. Ricardo Salles (2005). ᾽Εκπύρωσις and the Goodness of God in Cleanthes. Phronesis 50 (1):56 - 78.
    The ἐκπύρωσις, or world's conflagration, followed by the restoration of an identical world seems to go against the rationality of the Stoic god. The aim of this paper is to show that Cleanthes, the second head of the School, can avoid this paradox. According to Cleanthes, the conflagration is an inevitable side-effect of the necessary means used by god to sustain the world. Given that this side-effect is contrary to god's sustaining activity, but unavoidable, god's rationality requires the restoration of (...)
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  7. Ricardo Salles (2005). 'Eκπvρωσiσ and the Goodness of God in Cleanthes. Phronesis 50 (1):56-78.
    The ´, or world's con flagration, followed by the restoration of an identical world seems to go against the rationality of the Stoic god. The aim of this paper is to show that Cleanthes, the second head of the School, can avoid this paradox. According to Cleanthes, the con flagration is an inevitable side-effect of the necessary means used by god to sustain the world. Given that this side-effect is contrary to god's sustaining activity, but unavoidable, god's rationality requires the (...)
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  8. F. H. Sandbach (1935). Nicola Festa: I Frammenti Degli Stoiciantichi. Vol. Ii: Aristone — Apollofane—Erillo—Dionigi d'Eraclea—Perséo—Cleante—Sfero. Pp. 195. Bari: Laterza, 1935. Paper, L. 24. [REVIEW] The Classical Review 49 (05):204-.
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  9. J. Tate (1951). The Corn of Cleanthes. The Classical Review 1 (02):88-.
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  10. Author unknown (2001). Cleanthes. Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
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