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Summary The Stoic school of philosophy was founded in Athens by Zeno of Citium c. 300 BCE. He was succeeded as head by Cleanthes and then Chrysippus, who is widely held to be the most important of the early Athenian Stoics. Later Hellenistic Stoics of note included Panaetius and Posidonius. The most important Stoics during the Roman period were Seneca, Epictetus, and Marcus Aurelius; also noteworthy are Musonius Rufus, Hierocles, and Cleomedes. The Stoics divided their philosophy into three parts: logic, physics, and ethics.
Key works All of the works of the early Stoics are lost. Our earliest extended accounts of Stoic philosophy are in the philosophical works of Cicero from the first century BCE. Another important source is the extended account in Book 7 of Diogenes Laertius' Lives and Opinions of the Philosophers. The fragments for the early Athenian Stoics are gathered together in von Arnim 1903-24. A good selection is translated in Inwood & Gerson 2008, which is based on their earlier selection in Gerson & Inwood 1988. Another highly recommended selection is Long & Sedley 1987. The fragments for Posidonius are edited in Edelstein & Kidd 1972. The surviving works of the Roman Stoics Seneca, Epictetus, and Marcus Aurelius are widely available in a number of different editions and translations.
Introductions For a general introduction to Stoicism see Sellars 2006. The edited volume Inwood 2003 offers a fuller overview. Inwood 2005 brings out the philosophical importance of Seneca. For an introduction to Epictetus the best place to start is Long 2002. Marcus Aurelius is examined in Hadot 1998.
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  1. W. H. Alexander (1937). Further Notes on the Text of Seneca's De Beneficiis. Classical Quarterly 31 (1):55-60.
    These suggestions for the betterment and elucidation of the text of the De Beneficiis are additional to those already published in the Classical Quarterly in January, 1934. They are based on a conviction much deepened since that time that Buck1 is right when he says: N allein, und zwar ohne seine Ueberarbeitungen von späteren Händen, darf die Grundlage des Textes von de beneficiis bilden. Préchac3, the latest critical editor in this field, substantially confirms Buck's sweeping conclusion by an independent survey (...)
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  2. W. H. Alexander (1935). Seneca, De Beneficiis 3.16.2. Classical World: A Quarterly Journal on Antiquity 29:190-191.
  3. W. H. Alexander (1934). Notes on The De Beneficiis of Seneca. Classical Quarterly 28 (01):54-.
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  4. William Hardy Alexander (1932). Notes on the Text of Seneca's Letters. Classical Quarterly 26 (3-4):158-.
    The text of Seneca's Letters, despite the attention it has received from scholars in the last fifty years, still leaves much to be desired in a large number of places. It is a field in which emendations can be proposed with rather more security than is often the case in classical Latin prose, because Seneca was a very prolific writer, exceeded only by Cicero and Livy in the bulk of his extant work. The absence of a special lexicon for this (...)
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  5. Keimpe Algra (2009). Stoic Philosophical Theology and Graeco-Roman Religion. In Ricardo Salles (ed.), God and Cosmos in Stoicism. Oxford University Press
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  6. Keimpe Algra (2004). Hellenistic and Early Imperial Philosophy. [REVIEW] Phronesis 49 (2):202-217.
  7. Keimpe Algra (2003). The Mechanism of Social Appropriation and its Role in Hellenistic Ethics'. Oxford Studies in Ancient Philosophy 25:265-296.
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  8. Keimpe Algra (2003). Hellenistic Philosophy and Some Science. Phronesis 48 (1):71-88.
  9. Keimpe Algra (2001). Review: Aristotle and Hellenistic Philosophy. [REVIEW] Phronesis 46 (1):93 - 104.
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  10. Keimpe Algra (2000). Hellenistic Philosophy. [REVIEW] Phronesis 45 (1):77 - 86.
  11. Keimpe Algra (1998). Aristotle and Hellenistic Philosophy. [REVIEW] Phronesis 43 (4):351-359.
  12. Keimpe Algra (1991). Posidonius, the Fragments. The Classical Review 41 (02):316-.
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  13. Keimpe Algra (1991). Posidonius, the Fragments L. Edelstein, I. G. Kidd (Edd.): Posidonius, Vol. I: The Fragments. (Cambridge Classical Texts and Commentaries, 13.) Second Edition. Pp. Lvi + 344. Cambridge University Press, 1989. £50. I. G. Kidd: Posidonius, Vol. II: The Commentary, (I) Testimonia and Fragments 1–149; (Ii) Fragments 150–293. (Cambridge Classical Texts and Commentaries, 14A, 14B.) 2 Vols. Vol. I: Pp. Xii + 551; Vol. II: Pp. Vi + 505 (Numbered 553–1058). Cambridge University Press, 1988. £75. [REVIEW] The Classical Review 41 (02):316-319.
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  14. Keimpe Algra (1988). The Early Stoics on the Immobility and Coherence of the Cosmos. Phronesis 33 (2):155-180.
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  15. James Allen (1998). Études Sur les Philosophies Hellénistiques. Review of Metaphysics 52 (1):132-134.
  16. Louis Althusser & G. M. Goshgarian (2015). The Stoics and Epicurus: Extract From Être Marxiste En Philosophie. Diacritics 43 (2):10-14.
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  17. Margaret Anderson (2008). Stoic Constructions of Virtue in The Vicar of Wakefield. Journal of the History of Ideas 69 (3):419-439.
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  18. W. B. Anderson (1917). Notes on Seneca's Letters. Classical Quarterly 11 (02):102-.
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  19. Julia Annas (2007). Ethics in Stoic Philosophy. Phronesis 52 (1):58-87.
    When examining the role of Stoic ethics within Stoic philosophy as a whole, it is useful for us to look at the Stoic view of the way in which philosophy is made up of parts. The aim is a synoptic and integrated understanding of the "theoremata" of all the parts, something which can be achieved in a variety of ways, either by subsequent integration of separate study of the three parts or by proceeding through 'mixed' presentations, which can be made (...)
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  20. Julia Annas (2007). Ethics in Stoic Philosophy. Phronesis 52 (1):58 - 87.
    When examining the role of Stoic ethics within Stoic philosophy as a whole, it is useful for us to look at the Stoic view of the way in which philosophy is made up of parts. The aim is a synoptic and integrated understanding of the "theoremata" of all the parts, something which can be achieved in a variety of ways, either by subsequent integration of separate study of the three parts or by proceeding through 'mixed' presentations, which can be made (...)
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  21. Julia Annas (2006). Reading Seneca: Stoic Philosophy at Rome (Review). Canadian Journal of Philosophy 36 (3):449-456.
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  22. Julia Annas (1993). The Morality of Happiness. Oxford University Press.
    Ancient ethical theories, based on the notions of virtue and happiness, have struck many as an attractive alternative to modern theories. But we cannot find out whether this is true until we understand ancient ethics--and to do this we need to examine the basic structure of ancient ethical theory, not just the details of one or two theories. In this book, Annas brings together the results of a wide-ranging study of ancient ethical philosophy and presents it in a way that (...)
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  23. Julia Annas (1989). Cicero on Stoic Moral Philosophy and Private Property. In Miriam T. Griffin & Jonathan Barnes (eds.), Philosophia Togata: Essays on Philosophy and Roman Society. Oxford University Press
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  24. David Armstrong (2008). Be Angry and Sin Not" : Philodemus Versus the Stoics on Natural Bites and Natural Emotions. In John T. Fitzgerald (ed.), Passions and Moral Progress in Greco-Roman Thought. Routledge 79--121.
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  25. David Armstrong (1982). Senecan Soleo: Hercules Oetaeus 1767. Classical Quarterly 32 (01):239-.
    Michael Winterbottom , 39) criticizes Costa's edition of Seneca's Medea for failing to annotate sic fugere soleo . ‘Did Medea’, he asks, ‘habitually escape by chariot - or is this a coy allusion to Seneca's predecessors?’ Of course it is neither; sic fugere soleo means Medea was accustomed to flee by leaving dead bodies behind to encumber her enemies . According to. Seneca's usage, and that of Silver Latin rhetoric in general, once would be enough to establish such a ‘habit’, (...)
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  26. E. V. Arnold (1925). Stoicism and its Influence. By R. M. Wenley, Professor of Philosophy in the University of Michigan. One Vol. Pp. Xii + 194. London: G. G. Harrap and Co. [REVIEW] The Classical Review 39 (3-4):91-.
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  27. E. Vernon Arnold (1914). Stoics and Sceptics Stoics and Sceptics: Four Lectures Delivered in Oxford During Hilary Term, 1913, for the Common University Fund. By Edwyn Bevan, Sometime Scholar of the New College, Oxford. . Pp. 152. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1913. 4s. 6d. Net. [REVIEW] The Classical Review 28 (02):62-63.
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  28. Edward Vernon Arnold (1911/1971). Roman Stoicism. Freeport, N.Y.,Books for Libraries Press.
    _Roman Stoicism_, first published in 1911, offers an authoritative introduction to this fascinating chapter in the history of Western philosophy, which throughout the 20 th century has been rediscovered and rehabilitated among philosophers, theologians and intellectual historians. Stoicism played a significant part in Roman history via the public figures who were its adherents ; and, as it became more widely accepted, it assumed the features of a religion. The Stoic approach to physics, the universe, divine providence, ethics, law and humanity (...)
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  29. Elizabeth Asmis (2009). Seneca on Fortune and the Kingdom of God. In Shadi Bartsch & David Wray (eds.), Seneca and the Self. Cambridge University Press
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  30. Elizabeth Asmis (2007). Lucretius Venus and Stoic Zeus. In Monica Gale (ed.), Hermes. Oxford University Press 458-470.
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  31. Elizabeth Asmis (1990). Seneca's "On the Happy Life" and Stoic Individualism. Apeiron 23 (4):219-255.
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  32. Elizabeth Asmis (1990). The Poetic Theory of the Stoic 'Aristo'. Apeiron 23 (3):147 - 201.
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  33. Raymond Astbury (1988). H. K. Riikonen: Menippean Satire as a Literary Genre with Special Reference to Seneca's Apocolocyntosis. (Commentationes Humanarum Litterarum, 83.) Pp. 58. Helsinki: Societas Scientiarum Fennica, 1987. Paper. [REVIEW] The Classical Review 38 (02):417-.
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  34. Catherine Atherton (1993). The Stoics on Ambiguity. Cambridge University Press.
    Stoic work on ambiguity represents one of the most innovative, sophisticated, and rigorous contributions to philosophy and the study of language in western antiquity. This book is both the first comprehensive survey of the often difficult and scattered sources, and the first attempt to locate Stoic material in the rich array of contexts, ancient and modern, which alone can guarantee full appreciation of its subtlety, scope and complexity. The comparisons and contrasts which this book constructs will intrigue not just classical (...)
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  35. Catherine Atherton (1988). Hand Over Fist: The Failure of Stoic Rhetoric. Classical Quarterly 38 (02):392-.
    Students of Stoic philosophy, especially of Stoic ethics, have a lot to swallow. Virtues and emotions are bodies; virtue is the only good, and constitutes happiness, while vice is the only evil; emotions are judgements ; all sins are equal; and everyone bar the sage is mad, bad and dangerous to know. Non-Stoics in antiquity seem for the most part to find these doctrines as bizarre as we do. Their own philosophical or ideological perspectives, and the criticisms of the Stoa (...)
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  36. Marcus Aurelius (2011). Meditations: With Selected Correspondence. OUP Oxford.
    Marcus Aurelius' Meditations is a private notebook of philosophical reflections with universal significance. Drawing on Stoic philosophy, Marcus confronts challenges that affect us all in our struggle to live meaningful lives. This edition includes a selection of Marcus' correspondence with his tutor Fronto which complements the Meditations.
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  37. Marcus Aurelius (1983). The Meditations. Hackett.
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  38. Marcus Aurelius (1964/2005). Meditations. Penguin Books.
    Few ancient works have been as influential as the Meditations of Marcus Aurelius, philosopher and emperor of Rome (A.D. 161–180). A series of spiritual exercises filled with wisdom, practical guidance, and profound understanding of human behavior, it remains one of the greatest works of spiritual and ethical reflection ever written. Marcus’s insights and advice—on everything from living in the world to coping with adversity and interacting with others—have made the Meditations required reading for statesmen and philosophers alike, while generations of (...)
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  39. Marcus Aurelius (1957/1958). Meditations. Mount Vernon, N.Y.,Peter Pauper Press.
    INTRODUCTION MARCUS AURELIUS ANTONINUS was born on April 26, AD 121. His real name was M. Annius Verus, and he was sprung of a noble family which claimed ...
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  40. Maxwell Marcus Aurelius & Staniforth (1964). Meditations. Monograph Collection (Matt - Pseudo).
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  41. D. R. Shackleton Bailey (1979). Notes on Seneca's Quaestiones Naturales. Classical Quarterly 29 (02):448-.
    ‘In spite of the efforts of scholars to improve matters, the condition of Seneca's text remains in many places most uncertain or quite irrecoverable. Again and again one has to be content with conjectures which, while often giving the general sense of a passage, must not be taken as certainly Seneca's words’ . 1. praef. 5 o quam contempta res est homo, nisi supra humana surrexerit! quam diu cum affectibus colluctamur, quid magnifici facimus, etiam si superiores sumus? portenta vincimus: quid (...)
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  42. D. R. Shackleton Bailey (1970). Emendations of Seneca. Classical Quarterly 20 (02):350-.
    10. 2. lugentem timentemque custodire solemus, ne solitudine male utatur. Reynolds does not mention Haupt's conjecture amentemque, which is certainly on the right lines. Bereaved persons may need watching because in the violence of their grief they may do themselves an injury , and the same applies to madmen or to anyone suspected of suicidal inclinations custodio). It does not apply to persons afraid; they may sometimes be glad of company, but do not require surveillance. My only doubt is whether (...)
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  43. D. R. Shackleton Bailey (1969). Emendations of Seneca 'Rhetor'. Classical Quarterly 19 (02):320-.
    Seneca ‘Rhetor’ was last critically edited by H. J. Müller in 1887; the editions of H. Bornecque and W. A. Edward lack an apparatus criticus, though the latter's notes give some attention to textual points. Whoever next addresses himself to the task can take heart from Eduard Norden : ‘der Text ist schwer korrupt, für Konjekturalkritik noch viel zu tun.’ It may be added that he will do a service by jettisoning a large proportion of what Konjekturalkritik has already produced-too (...)
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  44. D. Baltzly (2002). Emotion and Peace of Mind: From Stoic Agitation to Christian Temptation. Australasian Journal of Philosophy 80 (2):235 – 236.
    Book Information Emotion and Peace of Mind: from Stoic agitation to Christian temptation. By Richard Sorabji. Oxford University Press. Oxford. 2000. Pp. xi + 499. Hardback, £30.
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  45. Dirk Baltzly, Stoicism. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
    Stoicism was one of the new philosophical movements of the Hellenistic period. The name derives from the porch (stoa poikilê) in the Agora at Athens decorated with mural paintings, where the members of the school congregated, and their lectures were held. Unlike ‘epicurean,’ the sense of the English adjective ‘stoical’ is not utterly misleading with regard to its philosophical origins. The Stoics did, in fact, hold that emotions like fear or envy (or impassioned sexual attachments, or passionate love of anything (...)
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  46. Dirk Baltzly (2007). The Stoic Life: Emotions, Duty, Fate. Review of Metaphysics 60 (4):855-856.
    This is a brief book note on Tad Brennan's fine book on Stoic ethics.
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  47. Dirk Baltzly (2003). Stoic Pantheism. Sophia 42 (2):3-33.
    This essay argues the Stoics are rightly regarded as pantheists. Their view differs from many forms of pantheism by accepting the notion of a personal god who exercises divine providence. Moreover, Stoic pantheism is utterly inimical to a deep ecology ethic. I argue that these features are nonetheless consistent with the claim that they are pantheists. The essay also considers the arguments offered by the Stoics. They thought that their pantheistic conclusion was an extension of the best science of their (...)
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  48. Dirk Baltzly (2003). Stoic Pantheism. Sophia 42 (2):3-33.
    This essay argues the Stoics are rightly regarded as pantheists. Their view differs from many forms of pantheism by accepting the notion of a personal god who exercises divine providence. Moreover, Stoic pantheism is utterly inimical to a deep ecology ethic. I argue that these features are nonetheless consistent with the claim that they are pantheists. The essay also considers the arguments offered by the Stoics. They thought that their pantheistic conclusion was an extension of the best science of their (...)
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  49. Dirk Baltzly & Nick Eliopoulos (2009). The Classical Ideals of Friendship. In Barabara Caine (ed.), Friendship: a history,. Equinox
    Surveys the ideals of friendship in ancient Greco-Roman philosophy. The notion of the best friendship inevitably reflects the various conceptions of a good life.
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  50. Konrad Banicki (2012). Review of Jonardon Ganeri & Clare Carlisle (Eds.), Philosophy as Therapeia. [REVIEW] Philosophy in Review 32 (1):4.
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