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  1. R. T. Allen (1981). Supererogation Revised. Sophia 20 (2):5-11.
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  2. Cynthia Anderson (1972). Supererogation and Deontological Ethics. Dissertation, The Claremont Graduate University
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  3. John P. Anderson (1997). Sophie's Choice. Southern Journal of Philosophy 35 (4):439-450.
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  4. Rhonda Anderson, Non-Obligatory Forgiveness: Supererogatory or Impermissible?
    Using the categories established by David Heyd's work on supererogation, this article explores the concept of forgiveness. Heyd's distinction between dutiful and supererogatory forms of forgiveness is questionable because he, in common with many other philosophers, views any act of forgiveness, whether stemming from duty or supererogatory forbearance, as morally admirable. Such a view can be supported only if one ignores the way in which forgiveness is sensitive to context. Not every act of forgiveness is permissible. In some situations, forgiveness (...)
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  5. Alfred Archer (forthcoming). The Supererogatory and How Not To Accommodate It: A Reply to Dorsey. Utilitas:1-10.
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  6. Alfred Archer (forthcoming). Divine Moral Goodness, Supererogation and The Euthyphro Dilemma. International Journal for Philosophy of Religion:1-14.
    How can we make sense of God’s moral goodness if God cannot be subject to moral obligations? This question is troubling for divine command theorists, as if we cannot make sense of God’s moral goodness then it seems hard to see how God’s commands could be morally good. Alston argues that the concept of supererogation solves this problem. If we accept the existence of acts that are morally good but not morally required then we should accept that there is no (...)
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  7. Alfred Archer (2014). Forcing Cohen To Abandon Forced Supererogation. Journal of Ethics and Social Philosophy.
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  8. Alfred Archer (2013). Supererogation and Intentions of the Agent. Philosophia 41 (2):447-462.
    It has been claimed, by David Heyd, that in order for an act to count as supererogatory the agent performing the act must possess altruistic intentions (1982 p.115). This requirement, Heyd claims, allows us to make sense of the meritorious nature of acts of supererogation. In this paper I will investigate whether there is good reason to accept that this requirement is a necessary condition of supererogation. I will argue that such a reason can be found in cases where two (...)
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  9. Alfred Archer & Michael Ridge (2015). The Heroism Paradox: Another Paradox of Supererogation. Philosophical Studies 172 (6):1575-1592.
    Philosophers are by now familiar with “the” paradox of supererogation. This paradox arises out of the idea that it can never be permissible to do something morally inferior to another available option, yet acts of supererogation seem to presuppose this. This paradox is not our topic in this paper. We mention it only to set it to one side and explain our subtitle. In this paper we introduce and explore another paradox of supererogation, one which also deserves serious philosophical attention. (...)
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  10. Antonio Argandona (2001). Management and Acting 'Beyond the Call of Duty'. Business Ethics 10 (4):320-330.
    This paper presents a real‐life case, taken from political history and related by Vaclav Havel, President of the Czech Republic. It tells of the way in which three times in that country’s history its leaders opted for a ‘more realistic’ strategy rather than a ‘more ethical’ strategy . The case enables the relationship between heroism , management and leadership to be analysed. Particular emphasis is placed on the study of the morality of the ‘more ethical’ decision, on the evaluation of (...)
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  11. Robin Attfield (1979). Supererogation and Double Standards. Mind 88 (352):481-499.
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  12. Neera Kapur Badhwar (1985). Friendship, Justice and Supererogation. American Philosophical Quarterly 22 (2):123 - 131.
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  13. Deborah R. Barnbaum (2008). Supererogation in Clinical Research. Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 11 (3):343-349.
    ‘Supererogation’ is the notion of going beyond the call of duty. The concept of supererogation has received scrutiny in ethical theory, as well as clinical bioethics. Yet, there has been little attention paid to supererogation in research ethics. Supererogation is examined in this paper from three perspectives: (1) a summary of two analyses of ‘supererogation’ in moral theory, as well as an examination as to whether acts of supererogation exist; (2) a discussion of supererogation in clinical practice, including arguments that (...)
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  14. Marcia Baron (1998). Imperfect Duties And Supererogatory Acts. Jahrbuch für Recht Und Ethik 6.
    In this essay I rethink a view that I developed in my Kantian Ethics Almost Without Apology , concerning how ethical theory should handle the phenomena that are standardly classified as supererogatory acts. The view I elaborated rejects the standard contemporary picture, according to which ethics needs to draw a line separating duty from what is "beyond duty"--the supererogatory. On the Kantian picture, beneficent acts are not beyond duty, for we are required to help others, but we are not required (...)
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  15. Marcia Baron (1987). Kantian Ethics and Supererogation. Journal of Philosophy 84 (5):237-262.
    ...believe that his theory asks too much, demanding total devotion to morality and treating everything worth doing (and perhaps more) as a duty. But, despite their differences, the two sets of...
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  16. Claire Benn (2014). What is Wrong with Promising to Supererogate. Philosophia 42 (1):55-61.
    There has been some debate as to whether or not it is possible to keep a promise, and thus fulfil a duty, to supererogate. In this paper, I argue, in agreement with Jason Kawall, that such promises cannot be kept. However, I disagree with Kawall’s diagnosis of the problem and provide an alternative account. In the first section, I examine the debate between Kawall and David Heyd, who rejects Kawall’s claim that promises to supererogate cannot be kept. I disagree with (...)
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  17. Yotam Benziman (2014). The Ethics of Common Decency. Journal of Value Inquiry 48 (1):87-94.
    Let’s begin with a few examples. The queue at the supermarket is long. My shopping cart is full of groceries. You are standing behind me, and your cart has only two or three items in it. I let you go ahead of me so that you can finish your shopping quickly.A stranger in the street approaches you and asks you if you can light his cigarette. As a matter of course, you do.David Heyd, Supererogation (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1982), p. (...)
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  18. Andreas Bieringer (2011). Heroes and Saints in the Literature as Partners' Dialogue for a Renewed Understanding of Liturgy. Disputatio Philosophica 12 (1):89-96.
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  19. Johan Brännmark (2006). From Virtue to Decency. Metaphilosophy 37 (5):589-604.
    In her work on virtue ethics Rosalind Hursthouse has formulated an Aristotelian criterion of rightness that understands rightness in terms of what the virtuous person would do. It is argued here that this kind of criterion does not allow enough room for the category of the supererogatory and that right and wrong should rather be understood in terms of the characteristic behavior of decent persons. Furthermore, it is suggested that this kind of approach has the added advantage of allowing one (...)
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  20. Lorenne M. Burchill (1965). In Defence of Saints and Heroes. Philosophy 40 (152):152 - 157.
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  21. Vanessa Carbonell (2013). What We Know and What We Owe. Oxford Studies in Normative Ethics 3.
    Knowledge is necessary for certain moral obligations. In learning something new, one sometimes triggers a moral obligation. This paper argues that the existence of these knowledge-based obligations poses a problem for the view that we are not only free to choose the course of our own lives, including our careers and personal projects, but also free to change our minds and quit at any time to pursue something else. For if our choice of life path has generated knowledge-based moral obligations (...)
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  22. Vanessa Carbonell (2012). The Ratcheting-Up Effect. Pacific Philosophical Quarterly 93 (2):228-254.
    I argue for the existence of a ‘ratcheting-up effect’: the behavior of moral saints serves to increase the level of moral obligation the rest of us face. What we are morally obligated to do is constrained by what it would be reasonable for us to believe we are morally obligated to do. Moral saints provide us with a special kind of evidence that bears on what we can reasonably believe about our obligations. They do this by modeling the level of (...)
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  23. R. M. Chisholm (1963). Supererogation and Offence: A Conceptual Scheme for Ethics. Ratio 5 (1):1.
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  24. Roderick M. Chisholm & Ernest Sosa (1966). Intrinsic Preferability and the Problem of Supererogation. Synthese 16 (3-4):321 - 331.
    We first summarize and comment upon a 'calculus of intrinsic preferability' which we have presented in detail elsewhere. 1 Then we set forth 'the problem of supererogation' - a problem which, according to some, has presented difficulties for deontic logic. And, finally, we propose a moral or deontic interpretation of the calculus of intrinsic preferability which, we believe, enables us to solve the problem of supererogation.
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  25. Yogendra Chopra (1963). Professor Urmson on 'Saints and Heroes'. Philosophy 38 (144):160 - 166.
    In a paper entitled ‘Saints and Heroes’ 1 Professor J. O. Urmson has criticised ‘the trichotomy of duties, indifferent actions, and wrongdoing’ , commonly found in moral philosophy, on the ground that it fails to cover an important class of actions, of which saintly and heroic actions are ‘conspicuous” but by no means the only examples. I am inclined to think that this trichotomy is defensible, and that at least it deserves a much longer run for its money than Urmson (...)
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  26. Michael Clark (1978). The Meritorious And The Mandatory. Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 79:23-33.
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  27. Shlomo Cohen (2013). Forced Supererogation. European Journal of Philosophy 23 (2):n/a-n/a.
    There is a disturbing kind of situation that presents agents with only two possibilities of moral action—one especially praiseworthy, the other condemnable. I describe such scenarios and argue that moral action in them exhibits a unique set of parameters: performing the commendable action is especially praiseworthy; not performing is not blameworthy; not performing is wrong. This set of parameters is distinct from those which characterize either moral obligation or supererogation. It is accordingly claimed that it defines a distinct, yet unrecognized, (...)
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  28. Tim Connolly (2013). Sagehood and Supererogation in the Analects. Journal of Chinese Philosophy 40 (2):269-286.
    The Confucian ethical tradition emphasizes unceasing progress toward the goal of sagehood, and so it is generally opposed to the idea of supererogation, as this implies that we may be satisfied with attaining some sub-sagely level of morality. The one possible exception to this anti-supererogationist stance, however, turns out to be Confucius himself, who in the Analects appears to downplay sagehood and instead focus on the goal of junzi. Yet given that Confucius stresses ceaseless cultivation as much as anyone else (...)
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  29. J. Cottingham (1984). HEYD, D. "Supererogation. Its Status in Ethical Theory". [REVIEW] Mind 93:619.
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  30. Olga-Maria Christina Cruz (2003). An Evaluation of the Modest Hero Objection and Stringency as a Solution in the Debate Over Supererogation. Dissertation, The Southern Baptist Theological Seminary
    This dissertation identifies and evaluates a commonly-raised objection to the inclusion of supererogation as a category of moral action. The 'modest hero' objection maintains that since the moral agent praised for a supererogatory act tends to respond modestly, that she was merely "doing her duty," the bar of duty is likely so high as to exclude supererogatory acts altogether. This dissertation argues that the modest hero phenomenon is not so troublesome for supererogation as has been largely assumed; that the concept (...)
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  31. Barry Curtis (1981). The Supererogatory, the Foolish and the Morally Required. Journal of Value Inquiry 15 (4):311-318.
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  32. Jonathan Dancy (1993). Beyond the Call of Duty: Supererogation, Obligation and Offence. Philosophical Books 34 (1):48-49.
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  33. Jonathan Dancy (1983). D. Heyd, "Supererogation". Philosophical Quarterly 33 (133):405.
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  34. H. De Dijn (1983). Heyd, D., Supererogation. Its Status in Ethical Theory. [REVIEW] Tijdschrift Voor Filosofie 45:671.
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  35. N. J. H. Dent (1983). Supererogation. Philosophical Books 24 (2):65-70.
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  36. Dimitrios Dentsoras (forthcoming). The Birth of Supererogation in Advance. Epoché: A Journal for the History of Philosophy.
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  37. Dimitrios Dentsoras (2014). The Birth of Supererogation. Epoché: A Journal for the History of Philosophy 18 (2):351-372.
    The essay investigates the philosophical infancy of the idea that some actions are morally praiseworthy while not being morally obligatory. It focuses on Thomas Aquinas’s distinction between commandments and counsels, the early Christian idea that some acts go beyond nature, and the Stoic notion of circumstantially appropriate actions. I discuss the Christian and Stoic justification of acts of self-denial, such as celibacy, poverty, and martyrdom, and attempt to find a unitary source of goodness and moral obligation that allows for such (...)
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  38. Daniel A. Dombrowski (1985). David Heyd: "Supererogation". [REVIEW] The Thomist 49 (3):485.
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  39. Dale Dorsey (2013). The Supererogatory, and How to Accommodate It. Utilitas 25 (3):355-382.
    Many find it plausible to posit a category of supererogatory actions. But the supererogatory resists easy analysis. Traditionally, supererogatory actions are characterized as actions that are morally good, but not morally required; actions that go the call of our moral obligations. As I shall argue in this article, however, the traditional analysis can be accepted only by a view with troubling consequences concerning the structure of the moral point of view. I propose a different analysis that is extensionally correct, avoids (...)
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  40. R. S. Downie (2002). Supererogation and Altruism: A Comment. Journal of Medical Ethics 28 (2):75-76.
    Supererogation can be distinguished from altruism, in that the former is located in the category of duty but exceeds the strict requirements of duty, whereas altruism belongs to a different moral category from duty. It follows that doctors do not act altruistically in their professional roles. Individual doctors may sometimes show supererogation, but supererogation is not a necessary feature of the medical profession. The aim of medicine is to act in the best interests of patients. This aim involves neither supererogation (...)
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  41. Elizabeth Drummond Young (2013). God's Moral Goodness and Supererogation. International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 73 (2):83-95.
    What do we understand by God’s goodness? William Alston claims that by answering this question convincingly, divine command theory can be strengthened against some major objections. He rejects the idea that God’s goodness lies in the area of moral obligations. Instead, he proposes that God’s goodness is best described by the phenomenon of supererogation. Joseph Lombardi, in response, agrees with Alston that God does not have moral obligations but says that having rejected moral obligation as the content of divine goodness, (...)
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  42. Paul D. Eisenberg (1966). From the Forbidden to the Supererogatory: The Basic Ethical Categories in Kant's "Tugendlehre". American Philosophical Quarterly 3 (4):255-269.
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  43. Andreas Eriksen (forthcoming). Beyond Professional Duty in Advance. International Journal of Applied Philosophy.
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  44. Joel Feinberg (1961). Supererogation and Rules. Ethics 71 (4):276-288.
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  45. Michael Ferry (2013). Does Morality Demand Our Very Best? On Moral Prescriptions and the Line of Duty. Philosophical Studies 165 (2):573-589.
    It is widely accepted that morality does not demand that we do our very best, but our most significant moral traditions do not easily accommodate this intuition. I will argue that the underlying problem is not specific to any particular tradition. Rather, it will be difficult for any moral theory to account for binary moral concepts like permissible/impermissible while also accounting for scalar moral concepts like better/worse. If only the best is considered permissible, morality will seem either unreasonably demanding or (...)
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  46. Stephen Finlay (2007). Too Much Morality. In Paul Bloomfield (ed.), Morality and Self-Interest. Oxford University Press
    This paper addresses the nature and relationship of morality and self-interest, arguing that what we morally ought to do almost always conflicts with what we self-interestedly ought to do. The concept of morality is analyzed as being essentially and radically other-regarding, and the category of the supererogatory is explained as consisting in what we morally ought to do but are not socially expected to do. I express skepticism about whether there is a coherent question, ‘Which ought I all things considered (...)
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  47. Andrew Michael Flescher (2000). Going Beyond the Call of Duty: A Re-Examination of the Nature of Heroes, Saints and Supererogation. Dissertation, Brown University
    This dissertation aims to explain and to assess critically the concept of supererogation that is currently in dominant use in contemporary normative ethics, to introduce and subsequently to argue for a revised understanding of the concept, and finally to re-examine the nature of heroes and saints, persons traditionally thought to epitomize the supererogatory agent. According to dominant contemporary understandings of supererogation, one who exceeds one's moral duty does so optionally, is deserving of moral praise, and would not be deserving of (...)
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  48. Mary Forrester (1975). Some Remarks on Obligation, Permission, and Supererogation. Ethics 85 (3):219-226.
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  49. Espen Gamlund (2011). The Duty to Forgive Repentant Wrongdoers. International Journal of Philosophical Studies 18 (5):651-671.
    The purpose of this paper is to consider the question of whether we have a duty to forgive those who repent and apologize for the wrong they have done. I shall argue that we have a pro tanto duty to forgive repentant wrongdoers, and I shall propose and consider the norm of forgiveness. This norm states that if a wrongdoer repents and apologizes to a victim, then the victim has a duty to forgive the wrongdoer, other things being equal. That (...)
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  50. Espen Gamlund (2010). Supererogatory Forgiveness. Inquiry 53 (6):540-564.
    While forgiveness is widely recognised as an example of a supererogatory action, it remains to be explained precisely what makes forgiveness supererogatory, or the circumstances under which it is supererogatory to forgive. Philosophers often claim that forgiveness is supererogatory, but most of the time they do so without offering an adequate explanation for why it is supererogatory to forgive. Accordingly, the literature on forgiveness lacks a sufficiently nuanced account of the supererogatory status of forgiveness. In this paper, I seek to (...)
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