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  1. Thomas Adajian (2006). Visual Music: Synaesthesia in Art and Music Since 1900 Edited by Brougher, Kerry, Olivia Mattis, Jeremy Strick, Ari Wiseman and Judith Zilczer. Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism 64 (4):488–489.
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  2. Sean Allen-Hermanson & Jennifer Matey (2012). Synesthesia. In J. Feiser & B. Dowden (eds.), Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
    This is an encyclopedia entry on Synesthesia. It provides a summary of our current knowledge about the condition and it reviews the philosophical implications that have been drawn from considerations about synesthesia. It's import for debates about consciousness, perception, modular theories of mind, creativity and aesthetics are discussed.
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  3. Torin Alter (2006). Does Synesthesia Undermine Representationalism? Psyche 12 (5).
    Does synesthesia undermine representationalism? Gregg Rosenberg (2004) argues that it does. On his view, synesthesia illustrates how phenomenal properties can vary independently of representational properties. So, for example, he argues that sound/color synesthetic experiences show that visual experiences do not always represent spatial properties. I will argue that the representationalist can plausibly answer Rosenberg.
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  4. Bryan D. Alvarez & Lynn C. Robertson (2013). Synesthesia and Binding. In Julia Simner & Edward Hubbard (eds.), Oxford Handbook of Synesthesia. Oxford University Press 317.
    Synaesthesia is an excellent model for understanding perceptual binding in the human brain. Current evidence suggests that if synaesthetic colour is bound, it is through the same attention-dependent integration of feature maps that occurs in other forms of binding. synaesthetic colour arises after the point that separate wavelengths blend in normal colour vision, which creates a perceptual paradox where synaesthetic and print colour can appear bound to a single location without blending. If a letter is printed in a colour that (...)
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  5. Michiko Asano & Kazuhiko Yokosawa (2012). Synesthetic Colors for Japanese Late Acquired Graphemes. Consciousness and Cognition 21 (2):983-993.
    Determinants of synesthetic color choice for the Japanese logographic script, Kanji, were studied. The study investigated how synesthetic colors for Kanji characters, which are usually acquired later in life than other types of graphemes in Japanese language , are influenced by linguistic properties such as phonology, orthography, and meaning. Of central interest was a hypothesized generalization process from synesthetic colors for graphemes, learned prior to acquisition of Kanji, to Kanji characters learned later. Results revealed that color choices for Kanji characters (...)
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  6. Michiko Asano & Kazuhiko Yokosawa (2011). Synesthetic Colors Are Elicited by Sound Quality in Japanese Synesthetes. Consciousness and Cognition 20 (4):1816-1823.
    Determinants of synesthetic color choice for Japanese phonetic characters were studied in six Japanese synesthetes. The study used Hiragana and Katakana characters, which represent the same set of syllables although their visual forms are dissimilar. From a palette of 138 colors, synesthetes selected a color corresponding to each character. Results revealed that synesthetic color choices for Hiragana characters and those for their Katakana counterparts were remarkably consistent, indicating that color selection depended on character-related sounds and not visual form. This Hiragana–Katakana (...)
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  7. Julian E. Asher & Duncan A. Carmichael (2013). The Genetics and Inheritance of Synesthesia. In Julia Simner & Edward Hubbard (eds.), Oxford Handbook of Synesthesia. Oxford University Press 23.
    Synaesthesia is a neurodevelopmental condition characterised by anomalous sensory perceptions and associated alterations in cognitive function. This chapter summarises what is known about the familial transmission of synaesthesia and its genetic underpinnings. Early familiality studies showed evidence for a strong genetic predisposition, a highly skewed female: male ratio, and an absence of male-to-male transmission. These patterns supported an early hypothesis of a single-gene X-linked dominant mode of inheritance with male lethality. Subsequent analyses in larger samples indicated that the mode of (...)
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  8. Malika Auvray & Ophelia Deroy (forthcoming). How Do Synesthetes Experience the World. In Mohan Matthen (ed.), Oxford Handbook of Philosophy of Perception. Oxford University Press
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  9. K. Barnett & F. Newell (2008). Synaesthesia is Associated with Enhanced, Self-Rated Visual Imagery. Consciousness and Cognition 17 (3):1032-1039.
    Although the condition known as synaesthesia is currently undergoing a scientific resurgence, to date the literature has largely focused on the heterogeneous nature of synaesthesia across individuals. In order to provide a better understanding of synaesthesia, however, general characteristics need to be investigated. Synaesthetic experiences are often described as occurring ‘internally’ or in the ‘mind’s eye’, which is remarkably similar to how we would describe our experience of visual mental imagery. We assessed the role of visual imagery in synaesthesia by (...)
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  10. Simon Baron-Cohen, D. Bor, J. Billington, J. Asher, S. Wheelwright & C. Ashwin (2007). Savant Memory in a Man with Colour Form-Number Synaesthesia and Asperger. Journal of Consciousness Studies 14 (s 9-10):237-251.
    Extreme conditions like savantism, autism or synaesthesia, which have a neurological 2AH, UK basis, challenge the idea that other minds are similar to our own. In this paper we report a single case study of a man in whom all three of these conditions co-occur. We suggest, on the basis of this single case, that when savantism and synaesthesia co- occur, it is worthwhile testing for an undiagnosed Autism Spectrum Condition (ASC). This is because savantism has an established association with (...)
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  11. David Brang, Ursina Teuscher, V. S. Ramachandran & Seana Coulson (2010). Temporal Sequences, Synesthetic Mappings, and Cultural Biases: The Geography of Time. Consciousness and Cognition 19 (1):311-320.
    Time–space synesthetes report that they experience the months of the year as having a spatial layout. In Study 1, we characterize the phenomenology of calendar sequences produced by synesthetes and non-synesthetes, and show a conservative estimate of time–space synesthesia at 2.2% of the population. We demonstrate that synesthetes most commonly experience the months in a circular path, while non-synesthetes default to linear rows or rectangles. Study 2 compared synesthetes’ and non-synesthetes’ ability to memorize a novel spatial calendar, and revealed better (...)
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  12. Berit Brogaard (forthcoming). Color Synesthesia. In Kimberly A. Jameson (ed.), Cognition & Language, Encyclopedia of Color Science and Technology. Springer
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  13. Berit Brogaard (forthcoming). Synesthetic Binding and the Reactivation Model of Memory. In Ophelia Deroy (ed.), Sensory Blendings: New essays on synaesthesia. Oxford University Press
    Despite the recent surge in research on, and interest in, synesthesia, the mechanism underlying this condition is still unknown. Feedforward mechanisms involving overlapping receptive fields of sensory neurons as well as feedback mechanisms involving a lack of signal disinhibition have been proposed. Here I show that a broad range of studies of developmental synesthesia indicate that the mechanism underlying the phenomenon may involve reinstatement of brain activity in different sensory or cognitive streams in a way that is similar to what (...)
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  14. Berit Brogaard (forthcoming). Varieties of Synesthetic Experience. In Richard Brown (ed.), Consciousness Inside and Out: Phenomenology, Neuroscience, and the Nature of Experience. Neuroscience Series, Synthese Library
    In her response to my "Seeing as a Non-Experiental Mental State: The Case from Synesthesia and Visual Imagery" Ophelia Deroy presents an argument for an interesting new account of synesthesia. On this account, synesthesia can be thought of as "a perceptual state (e.g. of a letter)" that is "changed or enriched by the incorporation of a conscious mental image (e.g. a color)." I reply that while this is a plausible account of some types of synesthesia, some forms cannot be accounted (...)
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  15. Berit Brogaard (2012). Seeing as a Non-Experiental Mental State: The Case From Synesthesia and Visual Imagery. In Richard Brown (ed.), Consciousness Inside and Out: Phenomenology, Neuroscience, and the Nature of Experience. Neuroscience Series, Synthese Library
    The paper argues that the English verb ‘to see’ can denote three different kinds of conscious states of seeing, involving visual experiences, visual seeming states and introspective seeming states, respectively. The case for the claim that there are three kinds of seeing comes from synesthesia and visual imagery. Synesthesia is a relatively rare neurological condition in which stimulation in one sensory or cognitive stream involuntarily leads to associated experiences in a second unstimulated stream. Visual synesthesia is often considered a case (...)
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  16. Berit Brogaard, Kristian Marlow & Kevin Rice (2015). The Long-Term Potentiation Model for Grapheme-Color Binding in Synesthesia. In David Bennett & Chris Hill (eds.), Sensory Integration and the Unity of Consciousness. MIT Press
    The phenomenon of synesthesia has undergone an invigoration of research interest and empirical progress over the past decade. Studies investigating the cognitive mechanisms underlying synesthesia have yielded insight into neural processes behind such cognitive operations as attention, memory, spatial phenomenology and inter-modal processes. However, the structural and functional mechanisms underlying synesthesia still remain contentious and hypothetical. The first section of the present paper reviews recent research on grapheme-color synesthesia, one of the most common forms of synesthesia, and addresses the ongoing (...)
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  17. Berit Brogaard, Simo Vanni & Juha Silvanto (forthcoming). Seeing Mathematics: Perception and Brain Activity in a Case of Acquired Synesthesia. Neurocase.
    We studied the patient JP who has exceptional abilities to draw complex geometrical images by hand and a form of acquired synesthesia for mathematical formulas and objects, which he perceives as geometrical figures. JP sees all smooth curvatures as discrete lines, similarly regardless of scale. We carried out two preliminary investigations to establish the perceptual nature of synesthetic experience and to investigate the neural basis of this phenomenon. In a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study, image-inducing formulas produced larger fMRI (...)
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  18. Alicia Callejas & Juan Lupiáñez (2013). Synesthesia, Incongruence, and Emotionality. In Julia Simner & Edward Hubbard (eds.), Oxford Handbook of Synesthesia. Oxford University Press 347.
    Synaesthesia has an emotional side. Many synaesthetes have a sense of certainty about the reality and accuracy of their experiences. Consequently, when their synaesthesia is mimicked in real life these synaeshtetes report a positive emotion whereas when the opposite is true, they experience discomfort. Synaesthesia can also be induced by emotions, and emotions can also be the synaesthetic experience. Here we review the research on these types of synaesthesia and study the current evidence for the true nature of these emotions (...)
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  19. Clive Cazeaux (1999). Synaesthesia and Epistemology in Abstract Painting. British Journal of Aesthetics 39 (3):241-251.
  20. R. Cohen Kadosh & L. Gertner (2011). Synesthesia: Gluing Together Time, Number and Space. In Stanislas Dehaene & Elizabeth Brannon (eds.), Space, Time and Number in the Brain. Oxford University Press
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  21. R. Cohen Kadosh, N. Sagiv, D. E. J. Linden, L. C. Robertson, G. Elinger & A. Henik (2005). When Blue is Larger Than Red: Colors Influence Numerical Cognition in Synesthesia. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience 17 (11):1766-73.
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  22. Simon Cohen (1995). Is There a Normal Phase of Synaesthesia in Development? Psyche 2.
    Synaesthesia has recently become amenable to scientific investigation. Recent findings are reviewed. Maurer's developmental theory of synaesthesia is then discussed. The theory states that all human neonates have synaesthesia, but that by about 4 months of age the senses have become modularized to the extent that we no longer have synaesthesia. Possible ways of testing this important theory are described, and the distinction between this account and cross-modal matching is clarified.
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  23. Luciano Costa (1995). Synesthesia - A Real Phenomenon? Or Real Phenomena? Psyche 2.
    This text comments on Cytowic's recent review on the current knowledge on synesthesia. Recent neurophysiological findings are discussed that suggest cross-modal interference in the mammalian brain. Based on these results, it is proposed that synesthesia may not be restricted to the phenomenologically characterized abnormality described in Cytowic's review, but rather that it may encompass a series of related physical phenomena in the brain. Some additional remarks on the relationship between emotions and consciousness have also been included.
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  24. E. M. R. Critchley (1994). Synaesthesia. In E. Critchley (ed.), The Neurological Boundaries of Reality. Farrand 116.
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  25. Richard Cytowic (1995). Synesthesia: Phenomenology and Neuropsychology. Psyche 2 (10).
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  26. Richard Cytowic (1995). Synesthesia: Phenomenology And Neuropsychology A Review of Current Knowledge. Psyche 2.
    Synesthesia is the involuntary physical experience of a cross-modal association. That is, the stimulation of one sensory modality reliably causes a perception in one or more different senses. Its phenomenology clearly distinguishes it from metaphor, literary tropes, sound symbolism, and deliberate artistic contrivances that sometimes employ the term "synesthesia" to describe their multisensory joinings. An unexpected demographic and cognitive constellation co-occurs with synesthesia: females and non-right-handers predominate, the trait is familial, and memory is superior while math and spatial navigation suffer. (...)
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  27. Richard E. Cytowic (2013). Synesthesia in the Twentieth Century. In Julia Simner & Edward Hubbard (eds.), Oxford Handbook of Synesthesia. Oxford University Press 399.
    Synaesthesia's Renaissance comments on attitudes and developments in synaesthesia research during the 20th century, focusing in particular on the last three decades when the greatest change took place. During the last century, reaction to the phenomenon varied by group. Synesthetes were gratified to learn that their experience was bona fide and had a scientific name. Laypersons were fascinated and clamored to know more. Well-known psychologists published on it early in the century, but then academia became hostile. After 1940 synesthesia was (...)
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  28. Stephen Davies (2010). Perceiving Melodies and Perceiving Musical Colors. Review of Philosophy and Psychology 1 (1):19-39.
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  29. S. Day (2005). Some Demographic and Socio-Cultural Perspectives of Synaesthesia,[W:] LC Robertson, N. Sagiv (Red.). In Robertson, C. L. & N. Sagiv (eds.), Synesthesia: Perspectives From Cognitive Neuroscience. Oxford University Press
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  30. Sean Day (2005). Some Demographic and Socio-Cultural Aspects of Synesthesia. In Robertson, C. L. & N. Sagiv (eds.), Synesthesia: Perspectives From Cognitive Neuroscience. Oxford University Press
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  31. Sean Day (1995). Synaesthesia and Synaesthetic Metaphors. Psyche 2.
    In a synesthetic metaphor, a certain perceptual mode is initially specified , but the imagery is linguistically related in terms belonging to one or more differing perceptual modes. Commonplace examples of synesthetic metaphors in English include phrases such as "loud colors", "dark sounds", and "sweet smells". Tabulations of the frequency of types of synesthesia and synesthetic metaphors in English reveals that for physiological synesthesia, colored sounds are most common; in English literature, synesthetic metaphors employed for descriptions of tactile sound predominate. (...)
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  32. Sean Day (1995). Synaesthesia and the Borders of the Senses. Semiotics:270-278.
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  33. Sean Day & Charls Pearson (2007). An Experimental Program to Use Synesthesia to Investigate Semantic Structure of the Sign. Semiotics:129-141.
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  34. Mario de Caro, Francesco Ferretti & Massimo Marraffa (eds.) (2007). Cartographies of the Mind: Philosophy and Psychology in Intersection. Kleuwer.
  35. Mario de Caro, Francesco Ferretti & Massimo Marraffa (eds.) (2007). Cartographies of the Mind: Philosophy and Psychology in Intersection , Series: Studies in Brain and Mind, Vol. 4. Kleuwer.
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  36. Ophelia Deroy (ed.) (forthcoming). Sensory Blendings: New Essays on Synaesthesia. Oxford University Press.
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  37. M. Dixon, Daniel Smilek, C. Cudahy & Philip M. Merikle (2000). Five Plus Two Equals Yellow: Mental Arithmetic in People with Synaesthesia is Not Coloured by Visual Experience. Nature 406.
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  38. Mike Dixon (2002). Towards a Synergistic Understanding of Synaesthesia Combining Current Experimental Findings With Synaesthetes' Subjective Descriptions. Psyche 8.
    In synaesthesia, ordinary stimuli elicit extraordinary conscious experiences. For example, standard black digits may elicit highly specific colour experiences and specific tastes may elicit unusual tactile sensations. The growing interest in synaesthesia has led to numerous experimental studies of this phenomenon. The purpose of this paper is to review these recent studies and to discuss the relationship between the results of these experimental investigations of synaesthesia and the subjective descriptions reported by synaesthetes. It is argued that when the experimental investigations (...)
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  39. June E. Downey (1912). Literary Synesthesia. Journal of Philosophy, Psychology and Scientific Methods 9 (18):490-498.
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  40. Peter Es Freund (2009). Social Synaesthesia: Expressive Bodies, Embodied Charisma. Body and Society 15 (4):21-31.
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  41. Rosalind Galt (2011). Doing Away with Words : Synaesthetic Dislocations in Okinawa and Hong Kong. In John David Rhodes & Elena Gorfinkel (eds.), Taking Place: Location and the Moving Image. University of Minnesota Press
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  42. John G. Gammack (2002). Language, Vision, and Music. Amsterdam: J Benjamins.
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  43. John G. Gammack (2002). Synaesthesia and Knowing. In Language, Vision, and Music. Amsterdam: J Benjamins
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  44. Dimitria Electra Gatzia & Berit Brogaard (2016). Psilocybin, LSD, Mescaline and Drug-Induced Synesthesia. In Victor R. Preedy (ed.), Neuropathology of Drug Addictions and Substance Misuse (Vol. 2). Amsterdam: Academic Press-Elsevier (pp. 890-905). Elsevier 890-905.
    Studies have shown that both serotonin and glutamate receptor systems play a crucial role in the mechanisms underlying drug-induced synesthesia. The specific nature of these mechanisms, however, continues to remain elusive. Here we propose two distinct hypotheses for how synesthesia triggered by hallucinogens in the serotonin-agonist family may occur. One hypothesis is that the drug-induced destabilization of thalamic projections via GABAergic neuronal circuits from sensory areas leads to a disruption of low-level, spontaneous integration of multisensory stimuli. This sort of integration (...)
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  45. Rocco J. Gennaro (2016). H.O.T. Theory, Concepts, and Synesthesia: A Reply to Adams and Shreve. Symposion. Theoretical and Applied Inquiries in Philosophy and Social Sciences 3 (443-448).
    Rocco J. Gennaro ABSTRACT: In response to Fred Adams and Charlotte Shreve’s paper entitled “What Can Synesthesia Teach Us about Higher Order Theories of Consciousness?”, previously published in Symposion, I argue that H.O.T. theory does have the resources to account for synesthesia and the specific worries that they advance in their paper, such as the...
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  46. Rocco J. Gennaro (2012). Synesthesia, Experiential Parts, and Conscious Unity. Philosophy Study 2:73-80.
    Synesthesia is the “union of the senses” whereby two or more of the five senses that are normally experienced separately are involuntarily and automatically joined together in experience. For example, some synesthetes experience a color when they hear a sound or see a letter. In this paper, I examine two cases of synesthesia in light of the notions of “experiential parts” and “conscious unity.” I first provide some background on the unity of consciousness and the question of experiential parts. I (...)
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  47. Limor Gertner, Avishai Henik & Roi Cohen Kadosh (2009). When 9 is Not on the Right: Implications From Number-Form Synesthesia. Consciousness and Cognition 18 (2):366-374.
    Number-form synesthetes consciously experience numbers in spatially-defined locations. For non-synesthete individuals, a similar association of numbers and space appears in the form of an implicit mental number line as signified by the distance effect–reaction time decreases as the numerical distance between compared numbers increases. In the current experiment, three number-form synesthetes and two different non-synesthete control groups performed a number comparison task. Synesthete participants exhibited a sizeable distance effect only when presented numbers were congruent with their number-form. In contrast, the (...)
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  48. Jeffrey A. Gray (2005). Synesthesia: A Window on the Hard Problem of Consciousness. In Lynn C. Robertson & Noam Sagiv (eds.), Synesthesia: Perspectives From Cognitive Neuroscience. Oxford University Press 127-146.
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  49. Jeffrey A. Gray & Nunn J. Chopping S. (2002). Implications of Synaesthesia for Functionalism: Theory and Experiments. Journal of Consciousness Studies 9 (12):5-31.
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  50. Richard Gray (2004). What Synaesthesia Really Tells Us About Functionalism. Journal of Consciousness Studies 11 (9):64-69.
    J. A. Gray et al. have recently argued that synaesthesia can be used as a counterexample to functionalism. They provide empirical evidence which they hold supports two anti-functionalist claims: disparate functions share the same types of qualia and the effects of synaesthetic qualia are, contrary to what one would expect from evolutionary considerations, adverse to those functions with which those types of qualia are normally linked. I argue that the empirical evidence they cite does not rule out functionalism, rather the (...)
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