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  1. O. S. Akhmanova (1973). Meaning Equivalence and Linguistic Expression. Mgu.
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  2. Robert Barrett (1965). Quine, Synonymy and Logical Truth. Philosophy of Science 32 (3/4):361-367.
    W. V. O. Quine's well-known attack upon the analytic-synthetic distinction is held to affect only one of the two species of analytic statements he distinguishes. In particular it is not directed at and does not affect the so-called logical truths. In this paper the scope of Quine's attack is extended so as to embrace the logical truths as well. It is shown that the unclarifiability of the notion of 'synonymy' deprives us not only of "analytic statements that are obtainable from (...)
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  3. Edward F. Becker (2012). The Themes of Quine's Philosophy: Meaning, Reference, and Knowledge. Cambridge University Press.
    Machine generated contents note: Preface; Acknowledgements; 1. Conventionalism and the linguistic doctrine of logical truth; 2. Analyticity and synonymy; 3. The indeterminacy of translation; 4. Ontological relativity; 5. Criticisms and extensions; Concluding remarks: conventionalism and implications; Bibliography; Index.
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  4. B. L. Blose (1965). Synonymy. Philosophical Quarterly 15 (61):302-316.
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  5. Tyler Burge (1978). Belief and Synonymy. Journal of Philosophy 75 (3):119-138.
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  6. H. G. Callaway (1996). Synonymy and Analyticity. In Gerhardus D. Et al (ed.), Sprachphilosophie, Ein internationales Handbuch zeitgenössischer Forschung. De Gruyter.
    This article is an invited overview of contemporary issues connected with meaning and the analytic-synthetic distinction.
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  7. H. G. Callaway (1993). Context for Meaning and Analysis, A Critical Study in the Philosophy of Language. Rodopi.
    This book provides a concise overview, with excellent historical and systematic coverage, of the problems of the philosophy of language in the analytic tradition. Howard Callaway explains and explores the relation of language to the philosophy of mind and culture, to the theory of knowledge, and to ontology. He places the question of linguistic meaning at the center of his investigations. The teachings of authors who have become classics in the field, including Frege, Russell, Carnap, Quine, Davidson, and Putnam are (...)
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  8. Rudolf Carnap (1955). Meaning and Synonymy in Natural Languages. Philosophical Studies 6 (3):33 - 47.
  9. David J. Chalmers (1999). Is There Synonymy in Ockham's Mental Language. In P. V. Spade (ed.), The Cambridge Companion to Ockham. Cambridge. 76.
    William of Ockham's semantic theory was founded on the idea that thought takes place in a language not unlike the languages in which spoken and written communication occur. This mental language was held to have a number of features in common with everyday languages. For example, mental language has simple terms, not unlike words, out of which complex expressions can be constructed. As with words, each of these terms has some meaning, or signification; in fact Ockham held that the signification (...)
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  10. Theodore J. Everett (2002). Analyticity Without Synonymy in Simple Comparative Logic. Synthese 130 (2):303 - 315.
    In this paper I provide some formal schemas for the analysis of vague predicates in terms of a set of semantic relations other than classical synonymy, including weak synonymy (as between "large" and "huge"), antonymy (as between "large" and "small"), relativity (as between "large" and "large for a dog"), and a kind of supervenience (as between "large" and "wide" or "long"). All of these relations are representable in the simple comparative logic CL, in accordance with the basic formula: the more (...)
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  11. Gertrude Ezorsky (1959). On the Interchangeability of Synonyms. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 19 (4):536-538.
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  12. Jens Erik Fenstad (1962). Notes on Synonymy. Synthese 14 (1):35 - 77.
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  13. Massimo Grassia (2005). Frege's Criteria of Synonymy. The Harvard Review of Philosophy 13 (1):25-49.
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  14. R. Janko (1982). A Fragment Of Aristotle's Poetics From Porphyry, Concerning Synonymy. Classical Quarterly 32 (02):323-.
  15. Jerrold J. Katz & Edwin Martin Jr (1967). The Synonymy of Actives and Passives. Philosophical Review 76 (4):476-491.
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  16. J. R. Kress (1972). Synonymy and Oddity. Philosophical Studies 23 (4):269 - 279.
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  17. Shalom Lappin (1976). Goodman and Katz on Synonymy. Philosophical Studies 29 (4):279 - 281.
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  18. Henry S. Leonard (1967). Synonymy and Systematic Definitions. The Monist 51 (1):33-68.
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  19. C. Douglas McGee (1959). Who Means What by 'Synonymy'? Inquiry 2 (1-4):199 – 212.
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  20. Gary H. Merrill (2009). Concepts and Synonymy in the UMLS Metathesaurus. Journal of Biomedical Discovery and Collaboration 4 (7).
    This paper advances a detailed exploration of the complex relationships among terms, concepts, and synonymy in the UMLS Metathesaurus, and proposes the study and understanding of the Metathesaurus from a model-theoretic perspective. Initial sections provide the background and motivation for such an approach, and a careful informal treatment of these notions is offered as a context and basis for the formal analysis. What emerges from this is a set of puzzles and confusions in the Metathesaurus and its literature pertaining to (...)
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  21. Yiannis N. Moschovakis (2006). A Logical Calculus of Meaning and Synonymy. Linguistics and Philosophy 29 (1):27 - 89.
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  22. Olaf Mueller (1998). Does the Quine/Duhem Thesis Prevent Us From Defining Analyticity? Erkenntnis 48 (1):85-104.
    Quine claims that holism (i.e., the Quine-Duhem thesis) prevents us from defining synonymy and analyticity (section 2). In Word and Object, he dismisses a notion of synonymy which works well even if holism is true. The notion goes back to a proposal from Grice and Strawson and runs thus: R and S are synonymous iff for all sentences T we have that the logical conjunction of R and T is stimulus-synonymous to that of S and T. Whereas Grice and Strawson (...)
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  23. M. Lynne Murphy (2003). Semantic Relations and the Lexicon: Antonymy, Synonymy, and Other Paradigms. Cambridge University Press.
    This book explores how some word meanings are paradigmatically related to each other, for example, as opposites or synonyms, and how they relate to the mental organization of our vocabularies. Traditional approaches claim that such relationships are part of our lexical knowledge (our "dictionary" of mentally stored words) but Lynne Murphy argues that lexical relationships actually constitute our "metalinguistic" knowledge. The book draws on a century of previous research, including word association experiments, child language, and the use of synonyms and (...)
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  24. Reinhard Muskens, Synonymy, Common Knowledge, and the Social Construction of Meaning.
    In this paper it is shown how a formal theory of interpretation in Montague’s style can be reconciled with a view on meaning as a social construct. We sketch a formal theory in which agents can have their own theory of interpretation and in which groups can have common theories of interpretation. Frege solved the problem how different persons can have access to the same proposition by placing the proposition in a Platonic realm, independent from all language users but accessible (...)
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  25. Joseph Owens (1986). Synonymy and the Nonindividualistic Model of the Mental. Synthese 66 (3):361 - 382.
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  26. Peter Pagin (2003). Quine and the Problem of Synonymy. Grazer Philosophische Studien 66 (1):171-197.
    On what seems to be the best interpretation, what Quine calls 'the problem of synonymy' in Two Dogmas is the problem of approximating the extension of our pretheoretic concept of synonymy by clear and respectable means. Quine thereby identified a problem which he himself did not think had any solution, and so far he has not been proven wrong. Some difficulties for providing a solution are discussed in this paper.
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  27. Peter Pagin (2001). A Quinean Definition of Synonymy. Erkenntnis 55 (1):7-32.
    The main purpose of this paper is to propose and defend anew definition of synonymy. Roughly (and slightly misleadingly), theidea is that two expressions are synonymous iff intersubstitutions insentences preserve the degree of doxastic revisability. In Section 1 Iargue that Quine''s attacks on analyticity leave room for such adefinition. The definition is presented in Section 2, and Section 3elaborates on the concept of revisability. The definition is defendedin Sections 4 and 5. It is, inter alia, shown that the definition hasdesired (...)
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  28. Paul M. Pietroski (2003). Small Verbs, Complex Events: Analyticity Without Synonymy. In Louise M. Antony (ed.), Chomsky and His Critics. Malden Ma: Blackwell Publishing. 179--214.
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  29. Robert J. Richman (1957). On a “Proof” of Non-Synonymy. Philosophical Studies 8 (1-2):7 - 8.
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  30. S. D. Rieber (1994). The Paradoxes of Analysis and Synonymy. Erkenntnis 41 (1):103 - 116.
    The very idea of informative analysis gives rise to a well-known paradox. Yet a parallel puzzle, herein called the paradox of synonymy, arises for statements which do not express analyses. The paradox of synonymy has a straightforward metalinguistic solution: certain words are referring to themselves. Likewise, the paradox of analysis can be solved by recognizing that certain expressions in an analysis statement are referring to their own semantic structures.
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  31. Jay F. Rosenberg (1967). Synonymy and the Epistemology of Linguistics. Inquiry 10 (1-4):405-420.
    In Word and Object, Quine argues from the observation that ?there is no justification for collating linguistic meanings, unless in terms of men's dispositions to respond overtly to socially observable stimulations? to the conclusion that ?the enterprise of translation is found to be involved in a certain systematic indeterminacy?. In this paper, I propose to show (1) that Quine's thesis, when properly understood, reveals in the situation of translation no peculiar indeterminacy but merely the ordinary indeterminacy present in any case (...)
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  32. David Rynin (1960). Non-Cognitive Synonymy and the Definability of 'Good'. Synthese 12 (4):509 - 516.
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  33. Israel Scheffler (1955). On Synonymy and Indirect Discourse. Philosophy of Science 22 (1):39-44.
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  34. Allan Silverman (1990). Self-Predication and Synonymy. Ancient Philosophy 10 (2):193-202.
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  35. Fred Sommers (1963). Meaning Relations and the Analytic. Journal of Philosophy 60 (18):524-534.
  36. Paul Vincent Spade (1980). Synonymy and Equivocation in Ockham's Mental Language. Journal of the History of Philosophy 18 (1):9-22.
    A textual and philosophical study of the claim that according to ockham there is no synonymy or equivocation in mental language. It is argued that ockham is committed to both claims, Either explicitly or in virtue of other features of his doctrine. Nevertheless, Both claims lead to difficulties for ockham's theory.
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  37. Karen Sparck Jones (1964). Synonymy and Semantic Classification. Cambridge, Eng.,Cambridge Language Research Unit.
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  38. Peter Spirtes & Clark Glymour (1982). Space-Time and Synonymy. Philosophy of Science 49 (3):463-477.
    In "The Epistemology of Geometry" Glymour proposed a necessary structural condition for the synonymy of two space-time theories. David Zaret has recently challenged this proposal, by arguing that Newtonian gravitational theory with a flat, non-dynamic connection (FNGT) is intuitively synonymous with versions of the theory using a curved dynamical connection (CNGT), even though these two theories fail to satisfy Glymour's proposed necessary condition for synonymy. Zaret allowed that if FNGT and CNGT were not equally well (bootstrap) tested by the relevant (...)
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  39. Richard Taylor (1954). Disputes About Synonymy. Philosophical Review 63 (4):517-529.
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  40. John L. Tienson (1982). Synonyms and the Objects of Belief. Philosophical Studies 42 (3):297 - 313.
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  41. Marek Tokarz (1988). Synonymy in Sentential Languages: A Pragmatic View. Studia Logica 47 (2):93 - 97.
    In this note two notions of meaning are considered and accordingly two versions of synonymy are defined, weaker and stronger ones. A new semantic device is introduced: a matrix is said to be pragmatic iff its algebra is in fact an algebra of meanings in the stronger sense. The new semantics is proved to be universal enough (Theorem 1), and it turns out to be in some sense a generalization of Wójcicki's referential semantics (Theorem 3).
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  42. Charles Turek (1972). A Note on Quine's Synonymy. Journal of Critical Analysis 4 (2):85-86.
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  43. Michael Tye (1981). Scientific Reduction and the Synonymy Principle of Property Identity. Philosophical Studies 40 (2):177 - 185.
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  44. Rafal Urbaniak (2009). Doxastic Synonymy Vs. Logical Equivalence. The Reasoner 3.
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  45. George E. Weaver (1994). Syntactic Features and Synonymy Relations: A Unified Treatment of Some Proofs of the Compactness and Interpolation Theorems. Studia Logica 53 (2):325 - 342.
    This paper introduces the notion of syntactic feature to provide a unified treatment of earlier model theoretic proofs of both the compactness and interpolation theorems for a variety of two valued logics including sentential logic, first order logic, and a family of modal sentential logic includingM,B,S 4 andS 5. The compactness papers focused on providing a proof of the consequence formulation which exhibited the appropriate finite subset. A unified presentation of these proofs is given by isolating their essential feature and (...)
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  46. Roger Wertheimer (2000). The Synonymy Antinomy. In A. Kanamori (ed.), Proceedings of the 20th World Conress of Philosophy, Vol Vi , Analytic Philosophy and Logic. Philosophy Document Center. 67-88.
    Resolution of Frege's Puzzle by denying that synonym substitution in logical truths preserves sentence sense and explaining how logical form has semantic import. Intensional context substitutions needn't preserve truth, because intercepting doesn't preserve sentence meaning. Intercepting is nonuniformly substituting a pivotal term in syntactically secured truth. Logical sentences (GG: Greeks are Greeks; gg: Greece is Greece) and their synonym interceptions (GH: Greeks are Hellenes; gh: Greece is Hellas) share factual content (extrasentential reality asserted). Semantic (cognitive) content is (identifiable with) factual (...)
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  47. Roger Wertheimer (1999). How Mathematics Isn't Logic. Ratio 12 (3):279–295.
    If logical truth is necessitated by sheer syntax, mathematics is categorially unlike logic even if all mathematics derives from definitions and logical principles. This contrast gets obscured by the plausibility of the Synonym Substitution Principle implicit in conceptions of analyticity: synonym substitution cannot alter sentence sense. The Principle obviously fails with intercepting: nonuniform term substitution in logical sentences. 'Televisions are televisions' and 'TVs are televisions' neither sound alike nor are used interchangeably. Interception synonymy gets assumed because logical sentences and their (...)
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  48. Roger Wertheimer, Synonymy Without Analyticity. International Philosophical Preprint Exchange.
    Analyticity is a bogus explanatory concept, and is so even granting genuine synonomy. Definitions can't explain the truth of a statement, let alone its necessity and/or our a priori knowledge of it. The illusion of an explanation is revealed by exposing diverse confusions: e.g., between nominal, conceptual and real definitions, and correspondingly between notational, conceptual, and objectual readings of alleged analytic truths, and between speaking a language and operating a calculus. The putative explananda of analyticity are (alleged) truths about essential (...)
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  49. Olgierd A. Wojtasiewicz (1979). Antonyms and Negations. A Three-Valued Sentential Calculus with Two Negations. Studia Semiotyczne 9:99-103.
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  50. Andrzej Zabludowski (1989). On Synonymy and Ontic Modalities. Midwest Studies in Philosophy 14 (1):199-205.
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