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  1. Yehoshua Bar-Hillel (1950). On Syntactical Categories. Journal of Symbolic Logic 15 (1):1-16.
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  2. Vladimir Breskin (2010). Triad. Method for Studying the Core of the Semiotic Parity of Language and Art. Signs - International Journal of Semiotics 3 (2010):1-28.
    The purpose of this paper is to present and describe a new method for studying pre-speech language. The suggested approach allows correlate epistemology of linguistics to the ideological tradition of other scientific disciplines. Method is based on three linguistic categories – nouns, verbs, and interjections in their motor and expressive qualities – and their relation to the three basic forms of art – graphics (visual art), movement (dance), and sound (music). The study considers this correlation as caused by the nature (...)
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  3. Richard Pettigrew (2008). Platonism and Aristotelianism in Mathematics. Philosophia Mathematica 16 (3):310-332.
    Philosophers of mathematics agree that the only interpretation of arithmetic that takes that discourse at 'face value' is one on which the expressions 'N', '0', '1', '+', and 'x' are treated as proper names. I argue that the interpretation on which these expressions are treated as akin to free variables has an equal claim to be the default interpretation of arithmetic. I show that no purely syntactic test can distinguish proper names from free variables, and I observe that any semantic (...)
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  4. Pierre Pica (1981). Some Theoretical Implications of the Study of NP-Movement in Some Scandinavian Languages. In Thorstein Fretheim & Lars Hellan (eds.), Papers from the sixth Scandinavian Conference of Linguistics.
    We argue that there exist two kinds of passive structures, a) one generated in the base b) the other transformationally derived by the structure preserving-rule of move-NP. Assuming a Case theory along the lmines of Chomsky (1978), we want to argue a) that some oblique Cases are assigned in the base b) that NP movement can move an oblique Case assigned in the base c) that movement should not be defined in terms of Case but in terms of Government.
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  5. Roger Wertheimer (1999). Identity Syntax. In T. Rockmore (ed.), The Proceedings of the Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy. Philosophy Document Center. 171-186.
    Like '&', '=' is no term; it represents no extrasentential property. It marks an atomic, nonpredicative, declarative structure, sentences true solely by codesignation. Identity (its necessity and total reflexivity, its substitution rule, its metaphysical vacuity) is the objectual face of codesignation. The syntax demands pure reference, without predicative import for the asserted fact. 'Twain is Clemens' is about Twain, but nothing is predicated of him. Its informational value is in its 'metailed' semantic content: the fact of codesignation (that 'Twain' names (...)
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  6. Roger Wertheimer (1998). Identity: Logic, Ontology, Epistemology. Philosophy 73 (2):179-193.
    The identity "relation" is misconceived since the syntax of "=" is misconceived as a relative term. Actually, "=" is syncategorematic; it forms (true) sentences with a nonpredicative syntax from pairs of (coreferring) flanking names, much as "&" forms (true) conjunctive sentences from pairs of (true) flanking sentences. In the conaming structure, nothing is predicated of the subject, other than, implicitly, its being so conamed. An identity sentence has both an objectual reading as a necessity about what is named, and also (...)
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