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  1. Werner Abraham & Sjaak de Meij (eds.) (1986). Topic, Focus, and Configurationality: Papers From the 6th Groningen Grammar Talks, Groningen, 1984. J. Benjamins Pub. Co..
    INTRODUCTION WERNER ABRAHAM, LACI MARÁCZ, SJAAK DE MEY & WIM SCHERPENISSE University of Groningen The Groningen Conference on Topic, ...
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  2. Farrell Ackerman & John Moore (1999). Syntagmatic and Paradigmatic Dimensions of Causee Encodings. Linguistics and Philosophy 22 (1):1-44.
    There have been essentially two types of theoretical approaches to account for the grammatical relations associated with the causee argument of causative constructions. Ignoring the specifics of particular theories, there are transitivity based approaches in which the causee is a direct object when the embedded clause is intransitive, and an indirect object or oblique when the embedded clause is transitive. This pattern finds considerable cross-linguistic support. On the other hand, there are languages in which the causee exhibits alternative grammatical relations (...)
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  3. David Adger (2003). Core Syntax: A Minimalist Approach. Oxford University Press.
    This is an introduction to the structure of sentences in human languages. It assumes no prior knowledge of linguistic theory and little of elementary grammar. It will suit students coming to syntactic theory for the first time either as graduates or undergraduates. It will also be useful for those in fields such as computational science, artificial intelligence, or cognitive psychology who need a sound knowledge of current syntactic theory.
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  4. Erik Andersson (ed.) (1978). Working Papers on Computer Processing of Syntactic Data. Research Institute, Åbo Akademi Foundation.
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  5. Avery Andrews (2010). Propositional Glue and the Projection Architecture of LFG. Linguistics and Philosophy 33 (3):141-170.
    Although ‘glue semantics’ is the most extensively developed theory of semantic composition for LFG, it is not very well integrated into the LFG projection architecture, due to the absence of a simple and well-explained correspondence between glue-proofs and f-structures. In this paper I will show that we can improve this situation with two steps: (1) Replace the current quantificational formulations of glue (either Girard’s system F, or first order linear logic) with strictly propositional linear logic (the quantifier, unit and exponential (...)
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  6. Emmon Bach, Subordination and Mood in Western Abenaki.
    Many (all?) languages regiment differences between main and subordinate clauses and between straightforward assertions and other kinds of expressions. There are two main ways of expressing grammatical differences in natural languages: structural and inflectional. Other resources: lexical, intonational, etc.
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  7. Emmon W. Bach, Discontinous Constituents in Generalized Categorial Grammar.
    [1]. Recently renewed interest in non transformational approaches to syntax [2] suggests that it might be well to take another look at categorial grammars, since they seem to have been neglected largely because they had been shown to be equivalent to context free phrase structure grammars in weak generative capacity and it was believed that such grammars were incapable of describing natural languages in a natural way. It is my purpose here to sketch a theory of grammar which represents a (...)
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  8. Mark Baker, Thematic Roles and Syntactic Structure.
    Suppose that one adopts a broadly Chomskyan perspective, in which there is a distinction between the language faculty and other cognitive faculties, including what Chomsky has recently called the “Conceptual-Intensional system”. Then there must in principle be at least three stages in this association that need to be understood. First, there is the nonlinguistic stage of conceptualizing a particular event.1 For example, while all of the participants in an event may be affected by the event in some way or another, (...)
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  9. Mark C. Baker (1988). Incorporation: A Theory of Grammatical Function Changing. University of Chicago Press.
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  10. Mark Baltin, August 3, 2005.
    This paper shows that a VP in English is only a VP at the outset of a derivation, and that VP- preposing in English is in fact preposing of the internal arguments of the verb, followed by remnant movement of the original VP. Therefore, English looks much more like German (Muller (1998)), than it appears at first glance The evidence for the non-constituency of the verb and its original arguments in preposed position comes from its solution to what has been (...)
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  11. Mark Baltin, Is Grammar Markovian?
    One of the cardinal assumptions about the nature of grammar is that it is a formal system, meaning that the operations and symbols in the grammar should have a precise meaning, so that one can tell precisely how it functions, and whether a given structure is in fact created by the grammar. The issue of how much information is available to the grammar, viewed as a computational device that computes structures, is called the issue of computational complexity. The computational powers (...)
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  12. Mark R. Baltin (2001). A‐Movements. In Mark Baltin & Chris Collins (eds.), The Handbook of Contemporary Syntactic Theory. Blackwell. 226--254.
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  13. Yehoshua Bar-Hillel (1951). Comments on Logical Form. Philosophical Studies 2 (2):26 - 29.
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  14. Chris Barker & Pauline I. Jacobson (eds.) (2007). Direct Compositionality. Oxford University Press.
    This book examines the hypothesis of "direct compositionality", which requires that semantic interpretation proceed in tandem with syntactic combination. Although associated with the dominant view in formal semantics of the 1970s and 1980s, the feasibility of direct compositionality remained unsettled, and more recently the discussion as to whether or not this view can be maintained has receded. The syntax-semantics interaction is now often seen as a process in which the syntax builds representations which, at the abstract level of logical form, (...)
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  15. Patrick K. Bastable (1972). Grammar, Meaning and the Machine Analysis of Language. Philosophical Studies 21:279-280.
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  16. Brigitte L. M. Bauer (1995). The Emergence and Development of Svo Patterning in Latin and French: Diachronic and Psycholinguistic Perspectives. Oxford University Press.
    This book analyzes--in terms of branching--the pervasive reorganization of Latin syntactic and morphological structures: in the development from Latin to French, a shift can be observed from the archaic, left-branching structures (which Latin inherited from Proto-Indo-European) to modern right-branching equivalents. Brigitte Bauer presents a detailed analysis of this development based on the theoretical discussion and definition of "branching" and "head." Subsequently she relates the diachronic shift to psycholinguistic evidence, arguing that the difficuly of LB complex structures as reflected in their (...)
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  17. Laurie Bauer & Winifred Boagey (1977). Review: On 'The Grammar of Case'. [REVIEW] Linguistics and Philosophy 1 (1):119 - 152.
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  18. Michael R. Baumer (1993). Chasing Aristotle's Categories Down the Tree of Grammar. Journal of Philosophical Research 18:341-449.
    This paper addresses the problem of the origin and principle of Aristotle’s distinctions among the categories. It explores the possibilities of reformulating and reviving the “grammatical” theory, generally ascribed first to Trendelenburg. The paper brings two new perspectives to the grammatical theory: that of Aristotle’s own theory of syntax and that of contemporary linguistic syntax and semantics. I put forth a provisional theory of Aristotle’s categories in which (1) I propose that the Categories sets forth a theory of lexical structure, (...)
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  19. Sigrid Beck (1996). Quantified Structures as Barriers for LF Movement. Natural Language Semantics 4 (1):1-56.
    In this paper I argue for a restriction on certain types of LF movement, which I call ‘wh-related LF movement’. Evidence comes from a number of wh-in-situ constructions in German, such as the scope-marking construction and multiple questions. For semantic reasons, the in situ element in those constructions has to move at LF to either a position reserved for wh-phrases, or even higher up in the structure. The restriction (the Minimal Quantified Structure Constraint, MQSC) is that an intervening quantified expression (...)
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  20. Stephen Berman (1994). On the Semantics of Wh-Clauses. Garland Pub..
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  21. Rajesh Bhatt (2002). The Raising Analysis of Relative Clauses: Evidence From Adjectival Modification. [REVIEW] Natural Language Semantics 10 (1):43-90.
    This paper provides a new argument for the raising analysis of relative clauses. This argument is based on the observation that certain adjectival modifiers on the head of a relative clause can be interpreted in positions internal to the relative clause. It is shown that the raising analysis of relative clauses is able to generate the readings corresponding to the relative clause internal interpretation of adjectival modifiers and that two competing analyses of relative clauses, the matching analysis and the head (...)
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  22. Cedric Boeckx (2008). Bare Syntax. Oxford University Press.
    Cedric Boeckx focuses on two core components of grammar: phrase structure and locality.
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  23. Cedric Boeckx (2008). Understanding Minimalist Syntax: Lessons From Locality in Long-Distance Dependencies. Blackwell Pub..
    Understanding Minimalist Syntax introduces the logic of the Minimalist Program by analyzing well-known descriptive generalizations about long-distance dependencies. Proposes a new theory of how long-distance dependencies are formed, with implications for theories of locality, and the Minimalist Program as a whole Rich in empirical coverage, which will be welcomed by experts in the field, yet accessible enough for students looking for an introduction to the Minimalist Program.
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  24. Peter J. Boettke & J. Robert Subrick (2002). From the Philosophy of Mind to the Philosophy of the Market. Journal of Economic Methodology 9 (1):53-64.
    John Searle has argued against the viability of strong versions of artificial intelligence. His most well-known counter-example is the Chinese Room thought experiment where he stressed that syntax is not semantics. We reason by analogy to highlight previously unnoticed similarities between Searle and F.A. Hayek's critique of socialist planning. We extend their insights to explain the failure of many reforms in Eastern Europe in the 1990's.
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  25. Željko Bošković & Howard Lasnik (eds.) (2007). Minimalist Syntax: The Essential Readings. Blackwell Pub..
    This book is a collection of key readings on Minimalist Syntax, the most recent, and arguably most important, theoretical development within the Principles and Parameters approach to syntactic theory. Brings together in one volume the key readings on Minimalist Syntax Includes an introduction and overview of the Minimalist Program written by two prominent researchers Excerpts crucial pieces from the beginning of Minimalism to the most recent work and provides invaluable coverage of the most important topics.
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  26. E. K. Brown (1991). Syntax: A Linguistic Introduction to Sentence Structure. Harper-Collins Academic.
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  27. E. K. Brown (1982). Syntax, Generative Grammar. Hutchinson.
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  28. Alastair Butler (2004). The Syntax and Semantics of Split Constructions: A Comparative Study. Palgrave Macmillan.
    Split constructions are widespread in natural languages. The separation of the semantic restriction of a quantifier from that quantifier is a typical example of such a construction. This study addresses the problem that such discontinuous strings exhibit--namely, a number of locality constraints, including intervention effects. These are shown to follow from the interaction of a minimalist syntax with a semantics that directly assigns a model-theoretic interpretation to syntactic logical forms. The approach is shown to have wide empirical coverage and a (...)
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  29. Elisabeth Camp (2004). The Generality Constraint and Categorial Restrictions. Philosophical Quarterly 54 (215):209-231.
    I argue that we should not adopt categorial restrictions on the significance of syntactically well-formed strings. Even syntactically well-formed but semantically absurd strings, such as ‘Life is but a walking shadow’ and ‘Caesar is a prime number’, can express thoughts; and competent thinkers both can and ought to be able to grasp such thoughts. A more specific way of putting this claim is that Gareth Evans’ Generality Constraint should be viewed as a fully general constraint on concept possession and propositional (...)
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  30. Elisabeth Camp & John Hawthorne (2008). Sarcastic 'Like': A Case Study in the Interface of Syntax and Semantics. Noûs 42 (1):1 - 21.
    The expression ‘Like’ has a wide variety of uses among English and American speakers. It may describe preference, as in (1) She likes mint chip ice cream. It may be used as a vehicle of comparison, as in (2) Trieste is like Minsk on steroids.
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  31. Andrew Carnie (2007). Syntax: A Generative Introduction. Blackwell Pub..
    Building on the success of the bestselling first edition, the second edition of this textbook provides a comprehensive and accessible introduction to the major issues in Principles and Parameters syntactic theory, including phrase structure, the lexicon, case theory, movement, and locality conditions. Includes new and extended problem sets in every chapter, all of which have been annotated for level and skill type. Features three new chapters on advanced topics including vP shells, object shells, control, gapping and ellipsis and an additional (...)
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  32. Andrew Carnie & Eithne Guilfoyle (eds.) (2000). The Syntax of the Verb Initial Languages. Oxford University Press.
    This volume contains twelve chapters on the derivation of and the correlates to verb initial word order. The studies in this volume cover such widely divergent languages as Irish, Welsh, Scots Gaelic, Old Irish, Biblical Hebrew, Jakaltek, Mam, Lummi (Straits Salish), Niuean, Malagasy, Palauan, K'echi', and Zapotec, from a wide variety of theoretical perspectives, including Minimalism, information structure, and sentence processing. The first book to take a crosslinguistic comparative approach to verb initial syntax, this volume provides new data to some (...)
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  33. Andrew Carstairs-McCarthy (1999). Explicitness and Predication: A Risky Linkage. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 22 (5):762-763.
  34. Carlo Cecchetto (2004). Explaining the Locality Conditions of QR: Consequences for the Theory of Phases. [REVIEW] Natural Language Semantics 12 (4):345-397.
    In this paper I offer an explanation for the fact that QR tends to be more local than other types of A-bar movement (i.e., in typical cases, QR cannot take place out of a finite clause). My explanation assumes (and offers evidence for) the Phase Impenetrability Condition (cf. Chomsky 2001a, b) and an Economy Condition that requires that each step of (possibly successive cyclic) QR be motivated (cf. Fox 1999). After showing why QR is local in typical cases, I consider (...)
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  35. Wallace L. Chafe & Johanna Nichols (eds.) (1986). Evidentiality: The Linguistic Coding of Epistemology. Ablex Pub. Corp..
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  36. Sandra Chung, William A. Ladusaw & James McCloskey (1995). Sluicing and Logical Form. Natural Language Semantics 3 (3):239-282.
    This paper presents a novel analysis of Sluicing, an ellipsis construction first described by Ross (1969) and illustrated by the bracketed portion ofI want to do something, but I'm just not sure [what _]. Starting from the assumption that a sluice consists of a displaced Wh-constituent and an empty IP, we show how simple and general LF operations fill out the empty IP and thereby provide it with an interpretable Logical Form. The LF operations we appeal to rely on the (...)
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  37. Robin Lee Clark (1990). Thematic Theory in Syntax and Interpretation. Routledge.
    Chapter one Introduction The lexicon has come to play an increasingly important role in generative grammar. The first widely read monograph on generative ...
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  38. Desmond M. Clarke (1975). Semantic Syntax. Philosophical Studies 24:309-311.
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  39. Jonathan Cohen & Samuel C. Rickless (2007). Binding Arguments and Hidden Variables. Analysis 67 (1):65–71.
    o (2000), 243). In particular, the idea is that binding interactions between the relevant expressions and natural lan- guage quantifiers are best explained by the hypothesis that those expressions harbor hidden but bindable variables. Recently, however, Herman Cappelen and Ernie Lepore have rejected such binding arguments for the presence of hid- den variables on the grounds that they overgeneralize — that, if sound, such arguments would establish the presence of hidden variables in all sorts of ex- pressions where it is (...)
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  40. John Collins (2007). Syntax, More or Less. Mind 116 (464):805-850.
    Much of the best contemporary work in the philosophy of language and content makes appeal to the theories developed in generative syntax. In particular, there is a presumption that—at some level and in some way—the structures provided by syntactic theory mesh with or support our conception of content/linguistic meaning as grounded in our first-person understanding of our communicative speech acts. This paper will suggest that there is no such tight fit. Its claim will be that, if recent generative theories are (...)
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  41. John M. Collins (2000). Theory of Mind, Logical Form and Eliminativism. Philosophical Psychology 13 (4):465-490.
    I argue for a cognitive architecture in which folk psychology is supported by an interface of a ToM module and the language faculty, the latter providing the former with interpreted LF structures which form the content representations of ToM states. I show that LF structures satisfy a range of key features asked of contents. I confront this account of ToM with eliminativism and diagnose and combat the thought that "success" and innateness are inconsistent with the falsity of folk psychology. I (...)
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  42. Heles Contreras (1976). A Theory of Word Order with Special Reference to Spanish. Sale Distributors for the U.S.A. And Canada, America Elsevier Pub. Co..
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  43. Raul Corazzon, Linguistic Relativism (Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis) Vs. Universal Grammar.
    Language and Ontology: Linguistic Relativism (Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis) vs. Universal Grammar Universal Ontology vs. Ontological Relativity Semiotics and Ontology: Annotated Bibliography of John Deely. First part: 1965-1998 Annotated Bibliography of John Deely. Second part: 1999-2010 The Rediscovery of John Poinsot (John of St. Thomas).
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  44. Norbert Corver & Henk C. van Riemsdijk (eds.) (1994). Studies of Scrambling: Movement and Non-Movement Approaches to Free Word-Order Phenomena. Mouton De Gruyter.
    ... the phenomenon of variable word order within a clause. Ross (), who was one of the first to discuss this phenomenon within the generative paradigm, ...
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  45. M. J. Cresswell (2003). Logical Form and Language. Australasian Journal of Philosophy 81 (2):283 – 284.
    Book Information Logical Form and Language. Edited by G. Preyer and G. Peter. Clarendon Press. Oxford. 2002. Pp. x + 512. Hardback, £55. Paperback, £19.99.
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  46. M. J. Cresswell (1976). Formal Philosophy, Selected Papers of Richard Montague. Philosophia 6 (1):193-207.
  47. Diana Cresti (1995). Extraction and Reconstruction. Natural Language Semantics 3 (1):79-122.
    The possibility of extraction across awh-island is usually assumed to be dependent on whether or not the constituent in question can undergo “long” (i.e., nonlocal) Ā-movement across the island. However, the question of how to make a principled distinction between those elements which can violate locality and those which cannot is still rather controversial. I will propose that there are no well-formed locality violations in these cases, and that the grammaticality patterns observed derive from a semantic filter on the escape (...)
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  48. Donald Davidson (1975). The Logic of Grammar. Dickenson Pub. Co..
  49. Veneeta Srivastav Dayal (1993). Scope Marking as Indirectwh-Dependency. Natural Language Semantics 2 (2):137-170.
    In certain languages, scope-marking structures are used to express long-distancewh-dependencies along with or instead of the more familiar extraction structure. The existence of these two strategies raises an interesting question for the mapping between syntactic structure and semantic representation. Should apparent semantic equivalence be taken as a guide and syntactic parallelism posited at an abstract level of syntax? Or should the surface syntactic distinction between them be maintained and an alternative explanation sought for the similarity in meaning? In this paper (...)
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  50. W. de Geest & Yvan Putseys (eds.) (1984). Sentential Complementation: Proceedings of the International Conference Held at Ufsal, Brussels June, 1983. Foris Publications.
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