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Summary We perceive movement, change, and the succession and durations of events. We are constantly aware of the flow of our thoughts. Philosophers have long struggled to provide a coherent and unified account of these temporal aspects of experience. Some have simply denied that we do enjoy temporal experience. Most have sought to explain how such experience is possible, commonly by appeal to memory, or to the contested notion of the specious present. The answers to these questions have been thought important to questions concerning self-knowledge, the nature of perceptual experience in general, and the metaphysics of time.
Key works The most important early modern discussions of temporal experience are in Locke 2008, especially chapter XIV, and Reid 2002, essay III 'Of Memory'. James 1890, chapter XV, is a landmark discussion of time perception from both a philosophical and scientific perspective. A number of important philosophical discussions appeared in the decades following James, most saliently Broad 1923 and Husserl 1991. Recent interest in these issues has been reignited by, amongst others, Dainton 2000. Dennett & Kinsbourne 1992 is a provocative and important contribution making connections with empirical work.
Introductions The following recent papers/books contain broad treatments of some of central philosophical issues: (1) Dainton unknown. Also: Dainton 2008 and Dainton 2000, part two; (2) Le Poidevin 2007. Also: Le Poidevin 2008; (3) Gallagher 1998; (4) Kelly 2005; (5) Phillips 2010. A nice survey of historical work in the area is Andersen & Grush 2009.
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  1. James Aho (2011). Michael G. Flaherty: The Textures of Time: Agency and Temporal Experience. [REVIEW] Human Studies 34 (1):111-113.
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  2. Jan Almäng (2012). Time, Mode and Perceptual Content. Acta Analytica 27 (4):425-439.
    Francois Recanati has recently argued that each perceptual state has two distinct kinds of content, complete and explicit content. According to Recanati, the former is a function of the latter and the psychological mode of perception. Furthermore, he has argued that explicit content is temporally neutral and that time-consciousness is a feature of psychological mode. In this paper it is argued, pace Recanati, that explicit content is not temporally neutral. Recanati’s position is initially presented. Three desiderata for a theory of (...)
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  3. Pedro M. S. Alves (2008). Objective Time and the Experience of Time: Husserl's Theory of Time in Light of Some Theses of A. Einstein's Special Theory of Relativity. [REVIEW] Husserl Studies 24 (3):205-229.
    In this paper, I start with the opposition between the Husserlian project of a phenomenology of the experience of time, started in 1905, and the mathematical and physical theory of time as it comes out of Einstein’s special theory of relativity in the same year. Although the contrast between the two approaches is apparent, my aim is to show that the original program of Husserl’s time theory is the constitution of an objective time and a time of the world, starting (...)
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  4. Adrian Bardon (ed.) (2011). The Future of the Philosophy of Time. Routledge.

    The last century has seen enormous progress in our understanding of time. This volume features original essays by the foremost philosophers of time discussing the goals and methodology of the philosophy of time, and examining the best way to move forward with regard to the field's core issues.

    The collection is unique in combining cutting edge work on time with a focus on the big picture of time studies as a discipline. The major questions asked include:

    • What are (...)
    • Is the passage of time real, or just a subjective phenomenon?
    • Are the past and future real, or is the present all that exists?
    • If the future is real and unchanging (as contemporary physics seems to suggest), how is free will possible?
    • Since only the present moment is perceived, how does the experience as we know it come about? How does experience take on its character of a continuous flow of moments or events?
    • What explains the apparent one-way direction of time?
    • Is time travel a logical/metaphysical possibility?
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  5. Christopher Belshaw (2000). Death, Pain and Time. Philosophical Studies 97 (3):317-341.
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  6. Henri Bergson (1913/2001). Time and Free Will: An Essay on the Immediate Data of Consciousness. Dover Publications.
    First published in 2002. Routledge is an imprint of Taylor & Francis, an informa company.
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  7. Andrew Brook & Kathleen Akins (eds.) (2005). Cognition and the Brain: The Philosophy and Neuroscience Movement. Cambridge University Press.
    This volume provides an up to date and comprehensive overview of the philosophy and neuroscience movement, which applies the methods of neuroscience to traditional philosophical problems and uses philosophical methods to illuminate issues in neuroscience. At the heart of the movement is the conviction that basic questions about human cognition, many of which have been studied for millennia, can be answered only by a philosophically sophisticated grasp of neuroscience's insights into the processing of information by the human brain. Essays in (...)
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  8. John B. Brough (ed.) (2000). The Many Faces of Time. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Pub.
    The authors of the essays collected in this volume continue that tradition, challenging, expanding, and deepening it.
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  9. J. Brown (2000). Mind and Nature: Essays on Time and Subjectivity. Whurr Publishers.
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  10. Ronald Bruzina (2000). There is More to the Phenomenology of Time Than Meets the Eye. In John B. Brough (ed.), The Many Faces of Time. Kluwer. 67--84.
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  11. Robert G. Burton (1976). The Human Awareness of Time: An Analysis. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 36 (March):303-318.
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  12. Jeremy Butterfield (1998). Questions of Time and Tense. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
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  13. Jeremy Butterfield (1998). Seeing the Present. In Robin Le Poidevin (ed.), Questions of Time and Tense. Oxford: Clarendon Press. 161-176.
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  14. Krister Bykvist (1999). All Time Preferences? Theoria 65 (1):36-54.
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  15. Roderick M. Chisholm (1981). Brentano's Analysis of the Consciousness of Time. Midwest Studies in Philosophy 6 (1):3-16.
  16. Y. Christen & P. S. Churchland (eds.) (1992). Neurophilosophy and Alzheimer's Disease. Springer-Verlag.
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  17. Richard M. Cobb-Stevens (1998). James and Husserl: Time-Consciousness and the Intentionality of Presence and Absence. In Dan Zahavi (ed.), Self-Awareness, Temporality, and Alterity. Dordrecht: Kluwer.
  18. David Cockburn (1997). Other Times: Philosophical Perspectives on Past, Present, and Future. Cambridge University Press.
    We view things from a certain position in time: in our language, thought, feelings and actions, we draw distinctions between what has happened, is happening, and will happen. Current approaches to this feature of our lives - those seen in disputes between tensed and tenseless theories, between realist and anti-realist treatments of past and future, and in accounts of historical knowledge - embody serious misunderstandings of the character of the issues; they misconstrue the relation between metaphysics and ethics, and the (...)
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  19. Jonathan Cohen (1954). The Experience of Time. Acta Psychologica 10:207-19.
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  20. Barry F. Dainton (2003). Time in Experience: Reply to Gallagher. Psyche 9 (12).
    Consciousness exists in time, but time is also to be found within consciousness: we are directly aware of both persistence and change, at least over short intervals. On reflection this can seem baffling. How is it possible for us to be immediately aware of phenomena which are not (strictly speaking) present? What must consciousness be like for this to be possible? In "Stream of Consciousness" I argued that influential accounts of phenomenal temporality along the lines developed by Broad and Husserl (...)
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  21. Rickard Donovan (1977). The Human Experience of Time. International Philosophical Quarterly 17 (3):350-352.
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  22. Elizabeth R. Eames (1986). Russell and the Experience of Time. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 46 (June):681-682.
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  23. Bernard C. Ewer (1909). The Time Paradox in Perception. Journal of Philosophy, Psychology and Scientific Methods 6 (6):145-149.
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  24. B. A. Farrell (1973). Temporal Precedence. Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 73:193-216.
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  25. Donald Ferrari & Melanie Ferrari (eds.) (2001). Consciousness in Time. Heidelberg: C Winter University Verlag.
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  26. J. N. Findlay (1956). Report on Does It Make Sense to Suppose That All Events, Including Personal Experiences, Could Occur in Reverse? Analysis 16 (June):121.
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  27. Joan Forman (1978). The Mask of Time: The Mystery Factor in Timeslips, Precognition and Hindsight. Macdonald and Jane's.
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  28. Georg Franck (2004). Mental Presence and the Temporal Present. In Gordon G. Globus, Karl H. Pribram & Giuseppe Vitiello (eds.), Brain and Being: At the Boundary Between Science, Philosophy, Language and Arts. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
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  29. J. T. Fraser (1987). Time, the Familiar Stranger. University of Massachusetts Press.
    Looks at the history of the idea of time, the origins of the universe, relativity, life, the brain's perception of time, aging, death, memory, and time keeping ...
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  30. Shaun Gallagher (1998). The Inordinance of Time. Northwestern University Press.
    Shaun Gallagher's The Inordinance of Time develops an account of the experience of time at the intersection of three approaches: phenomenology, cognitive ...
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  31. Shaun Gallagher (1979). Suggestions Towards a Revision of Husserl's Phenomenology of Time-Consciousness. Man and World 12 (4):445-464.
    In this paper I offer four distinct but related suggestions: (1) That Husserl's phenomenology of time-consciousness is an adequate account of the concept of the specious present; (2) That the Querschtfftt o5 momentary phase of consdousness is genuinely only a Querschnittanskht; (3) That retention, primal-impression, and protention are functions of consciousness rather than phases or types o.f coasdousness; (4) That further conceptual clarification and terminological reformulation is needed.
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  32. André Gallois (1994). Asymmetry in Attitudes and the Nature of Time. Philosophical Studies 76 (1):51 - 69.
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  33. Gordon G. Globus, Karl H. Pribram & Giuseppe Vitiello (eds.) (2004). Brain and Being. John Benjamins.
  34. David B. Greene (1984). Mahler: Consciousness And Temporality. Gordon & Breach.
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  35. Rick Grush (2006). How to, and How Not to, Bridge Computational Cognitive Neuroscience and Husserlian Phenomenology of Time Consciousness. Synthese 153 (3):417-450.
    A number of recent attempts to bridge Husserlian phenomenology of time consciousness and contemporary tools and results from cognitive science or computational neuroscience are described and critiqued. An alternate proposal is outlined that lacks the weaknesses of existing accounts.
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  36. Rick Grush (2005). Brain Time and Phenomenological Time. In A. Brooks & Kathleen Akins (eds.), Philosophy and the Neurosciences. Cambridge.
    ... there are cases in which on the basis of a temporally extended content of consciousness a unitary apprehension takes place which is spread out over a temporal interval (the so-called specious present). ... That several successive tones yield a melody is possible only in this way, that the succession of psychical processes are united "forthwith" in a common structure.
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  37. P. Haggard & J. Cole (2007). Intention, Attention and the Temporal Experience of Action. Consciousness and Cognition 16 (2):211-220.
  38. Stuart R. Hameroff, Time, Consciousness, and Quantum Events in Fundamental Space-Time Geometry.
    1. Introduction: The problems of time and consciousness What is time? St. Augustine remarked that when no one asked him, he knew what time was; however when someone asked him, he did not. Is time a process which flows? Is time a dimension in which processes occur? Does time actually exist? The notion that time is a process which "flows" directionally may be illusory (the "myth of passage") for if time did flow it would do so in some medium or (...)
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  39. C. L. Hardin (1984). Thank Goodness It's Over There! Philosophy 59 (227):121 - 125.
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  40. Shadworth H. Hodson (1900). Perception of Change and Duration-a Reply. Mind 9 (34):240-243.
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  41. Christoph Hoerl (2013). 'A Succession of Feelings, in and of Itself, is Not a Feeling of Succession'. Mind 122 (486):373-417.
    Variants of the slogan that a succession of experiences (in and of itself) does not amount to an experience of succession are commonplace in the philosophical literature on temporal experience. I distinguish three quite different arguments that might be captured using this slogan: the individuation argument, the unity argument, and the causal argument. Versions of the unity and the causal argument are often invoked in support of a particular view of the nature of temporal experience sometimes called intentionalism, and against (...)
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  42. Christoph Hoerl (2013). Husserl, the Absolute Flow, and Temporal Experience. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 86 (2):376-411.
    The notion of the absolute time-constituting flow plays a central role in Edmund Husserl’s analysis of our consciousness of time. I offer a novel reading of Husserl’s remarks on the absolute flow, on which Husserl can be seen to be grappling with two key intuitions that are still at the centre of current debates about temporal experience. One of them is encapsulated by what is sometimes referred to as an intentionalist (as opposed to an extensionalist) approach to temporal experience. The (...)
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  43. Christoph Hoerl (2009). Review: The Images of Time: An Essay on Temporal Representation, by Robin Le Poidevin. [REVIEW] Mind 118 (470):485-489.
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  44. Christoph Hoerl (2009). Time and Tense in Perceptual Experience. Philosophers' Imprint 9 (12):1-18.
    We can not just see, hear or feel how things are at a time, but we also have perceptual experiences as of things moving or changing. I argue that such temporal experiences have a content that is tenseless, i.e. best characterized in terms of notions such as 'before' and 'after' (rather than, say, 'past', 'present' and 'future'), and that such experiences are essentially of the nature of a process that takes up time, viz., the same time as the process that (...)
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  45. Ronald C. Hoy (1976). A Note on Gustav Bergmann's Treatment of Temporal Consciousness. Philosophy of Science 43 (4):610-617.
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  46. Ronald C. Hoy (1976). Science and Temporal Experience: A Critical Defense. Philosophy Research Archives 1156.
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  47. Curtis M. Hutt (1999). Husserl: Perception and the Ideality of Time. Philosophy Today 43 (4):370-385.
  48. Vijay Iyer (2004). Improvisation, Temporality and Embodied Experience. Journal of Consciousness Studies 11 (3-4):159-173.
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  49. David Martel Johnson (1974). The Temporal Dimension of Perceptual Experience: A Non-Traditional Empiricism. American Philosophical Quarterly 11 (January):71-76.
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  50. Carol A. Kates (1970). Perception and Temporality in Husserl's Phenomenology. Philosophy Today 14 (2):89-100.
    The article is an explication of husserl's theory of perception. In particular, The meaning of 'constitution' is analyzed, With the result that traditional realistic or idealistic readings of husserl are discarded. Examination of passive and active synthesis and the meaning of 'hyle' within the framework of husserl's theory of inner time-Consciousness clarifies in turn the nature of phenomenological intuition and the significance of reduction.
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