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  1. Bruce Ackerman (1997). Temporal Horizons of Justice. Journal of Philosophy 94 (6):299-317.
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  2. Virgil C. Aldrich (1975). Picturing, Seeing and the Time-Lag Argument. Canadian Journal of Philosophy 4 (3):535 - 547.
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  3. Jan Almäng (2013). Two Kinds of Time-Consciousness and Three Kinds of Content. Axiomathes 23 (1):61-80.
    This paper explores the distinction between perceiving an object as extended in time, and experiencing a sequence of perceptions. I argue that this distinction cannot be adequately described by any present theory of time-consciousness and that in order to solve the puzzle, we need to consider perceptual content as having three distinct constituents: Explicit content, which has a particular phenomenal character, modal content, or the kind of content that is contributed by the psychological mode, and implicit content, which lacks phenomenal (...)
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  4. Holly Andersen & Rick Grush (2009). A Brief History of Time-Consciousness: Historical Precursors to James and Husserl. Journal of the History of Philosophy 47 (2):277-307.
    William James’ Principles of Psychology, in which he made famous the ‘specious present’ doctrine of temporal experience, and Edmund Husserl’s Zur Phänomenologie des inneren Zeitbewusstseins, were giant strides in the philosophical investigation of the temporality of experience. However, an important set of precursors to these works has not been adequately investigated. In this article, we undertake this investigation. Beginning with Reid’s essay ‘Memory’ in Essays on the Intellectual Powers of Man, we trace out a line of development of ideas about (...)
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  5. Michael L. Anderson, Time-Situated Agency: Active Logic and Intention Formation.
    In recent years, embodied cognitive agents have become a central research focus in Cognitive Science. We suggest that there are at least three aspects of embodiment| physical, social and temporal|which must be treated simultaneously to make possible a realistic implementation of agency. In this paper we detail the ways in which attention to the temporal embodiment of a cognitive agent (perhaps the most neglected aspect of embodiment) can enhance the ability of an agent to act in the world, both in (...)
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  6. Michael V. Antony (2001). On the Temporal Boundaries of Simple Experiences. Journal of Mind and Behavior 22 (3):263-286.
    I have argued elsewhere that our conception of phenomenal consciousness commits us to simple phenomenal experiences that in some sense constitute our complex experiences. In this paper I argue that the temporal boundaries of simple phenomenal experiences cannot be conceived as fuzzy or vague, but must be conceived as instantaneous or maximally sharp. The argument is based on an account of what is involved in conceiving fuzzy temporally boundaries for events generally. If the argument is right, and our conception of (...)
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  7. Adrian Bardon (2007). Empiricism, Time-Awareness, and Hume's Manners of Disposition. Journal of Scottish Philosophy 5 (1):47-63.
    The issue of time-awareness presents a critical challenge for empiricism: if temporal properties are not directly perceived, how do we become aware of them? A unique empiricist account of time-awareness suggested by Hume's comments on time in the Treatise avoids the problems characteristic of other empiricist accounts. Hume's theory, however, has some counter-intuitive consequences. The failure of empiricists to come up with a defensible theory of time-awareness lends prima facie support to a non-empiricist theory of ideas.
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  8. F. C. Bartlett (1937). Some Problems in the Psychology of Temporal Perception. Philosophy 12 (48):457 - 465.
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  9. Jonathan Bennett (2004). Time in Human Experience. Philosophy 79 (308):165-183.
    A set of eight mini-discourses. 1. The conceivability of the physical world's running in the opposite temporal direction. 2. Augustine's reason for thinking this is not conceivable for the world of the mind. 3. Trying to imagine being a creature that lives atemporally. 4. Memory's need for causal input. 5. Acting in the knowledge that how one acts is strictly determined. 6. The Newcomb problem. 7. The idea that all voluntary action is intended to be remedial. 8. Haunted by the (...)
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  10. Martha Blassnigg (2010). Revisiting Marey's Applications of Scientific Moving Image Technologies in the Context of Bergson's Philosophy: Audio-Visual Mediation and the Experience of Time. [REVIEW] Medicine Studies 2 (3):175-184.
    This paper revisits some early applications of audio-visual imaging technologies used in physiology in a dialogue with reflections on Henri Bergson’s philosophy. It focuses on the aspects of time and memory in relation to spatial representations of movement measurements and critically discusses them from the perspective of the observing participant and the public exhibitions of scientific films. Departing from an audio-visual example, this paper is informed by a thick description of the philosophical implications and contemporary discourses surrounding the scientific inventions, (...)
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  11. David O. Brink (2011). Prospects for Temporal Neutrality. In Craig Callender (ed.), The Oxford Handbook of Philosophy of Time. Oup Oxford.
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  12. David O. Brink (2003). Prudence and Authenticity: Intrapersonal Conflicts of Value. Philosophical Review 112 (2):215-245.
    Prudence and authenticity are sometimes seen as rival virtues. Prudence,as traditionally conceived, is temporally neutral. It attaches no intrinsic significance to the temporal location of benefits or harms within the agent’s life; the prudent agent should be equally concerned about all parts of her life. But people’s values and ideals often change over time, sometimes in predictable ways, as when middle age and parenthood often temporize youthful radicalism or spontaneity with concerns for comfort,security, and predictability. In situations involving diachronic, intrapersonal (...)
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  13. Jessica Brown (2000). Against Temporal Externalism. Analysis 60 (2):178-188.
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  14. Jeremy Butterfield (ed.) (1999). The Arguments of Time. Published for the British Academy by Oxford University Press.
    These nine essays address fundamental questions about time in philosophy, physics, linguistics, and psychology. Are there facts about the future? Could we affect the past? In physics, general relativity and quantum theory give contradictory treatments of time. So in the current search for a theory of quantum gravity, which should give way: general relativity or quantum theory? In linguistics and psychology, how does our language represent time, and how do our minds keep track of it?
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  15. James McKeen Cattell (1886). The Time It Takes to See and Name Objects. Mind 11 (41):63-65.
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  16. James McKeen Cattell (1886). The Time Taken Up by Cerebral Operations. Mind 11 (42):220-242.
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  17. Peter Caws (1965). On Being in the Same Place at the Same Time. American Philosophical Quarterly 2 (1):63 - 66.
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  18. M. Chatterjee (1971). Towards a Phenomenology of Time-Consciousness in Music. Diogenes 19 (74):49-56.
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  19. Andy Clark (1998). Time and Mind. Journal of Philosophy 95 (7):354 - 376.
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  20. David Cockburn (2010). Time in Consciousness, Consciousness in Time. Royal Institute of Philosophy Supplement 85 (67):183-201.
    The paper is a criticism of the idea that a notion of has a significant role to play in the attempt to understand how the experience of change is possible. Discussion of such experience must give a significant place to its public and private manifestations. How should we picture the relationship between the experience of change and its manifestations? While we cannot identify these, we need not conclude that is something distinct from any of its public or private manifestations. With (...)
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  21. Barry Dainton, Temporal Consciousness.
    In ordinary conscious experience, consciousness of time seems to be ubiquitous. For example, we seem to be directly aware of change, movement, and succession across brief temporal intervals. How is this possible? Many different models of temporal consciousness have been proposed. Some philosophers have argued that consciousness is confined to a momentary interval and that we are not in fact directly aware of change. Others have argued that although consciousness itself is momentary, we are nevertheless conscious of change. Still others (...)
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  22. Bernard P. Dauenhauer (1969). Making Plans and Lived Time. Southern Journal of Philosophy 7 (1):83-90.
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  23. Daniel C. Dennett (1995). Is Perception the "Leading Edge" of Memory? In A. Spafadora (ed.), Iride: Luoghi Della Memoria E Dell'oblio.
    Daniel C. Dennett Is Perception the 'Leading Edge' of Memory? Consciousness appears to us to consist of a sequence of contentful items, arranged in a sequence, the so-called "stream of consciousness," in which each item in turn bursts quite suddenly into consciousness and thereby enters memory, perhaps only briefly to be remembered, and then forgotten. I think that hidden in this comfortable and largely innocent picture of consciousness is a deep and seductive mistake. I intend to expose and elucidate that (...)
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  24. Daniel C. Dennett (1992). Temporal Anomalies of Consciousness. In Y. Christen & P.S. Churchland (eds.), Neurophilosophy and Alzheimer's Disease. Springer-Verlag. 5--17.
    As cognitive science, including especially cognitive neuroscience, closes in on the first realistic models of the human mind, philosophical puzzles and problems that have been conveniently postponed or ignored for generations are beginning to haunt the efforts of the scientists, confounding their vision and leading them down hopeless paths of theory. I will illustrate this claim with a brief look at several temporal phenomena which appear anomalous only because of a cognitive illusion: an illusion about the point of view of (...)
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  25. Daniel C. Dennett & Marcel Kinsbourne (1992). Time and the Observer: The Where and When of Consciousness in the Brain. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 15 (2):183-201.
    _Behavioral and Brain Sciences_ , 15, 183-247, 1992. Reprinted in _The Philosopher's Annual_ , Grim, Mar and Williams, eds., vol. XV-1992, 1994, pp. 23-68; Noel Sheehy and Tony Chapman, eds., _Cognitive Science_ , Vol. I, Elgar, 1995, pp.210-274.
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  26. Daniel C. Dennett & Kinsbourne Marcel (1992). Time and the Observer. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 15 (2):183-201.
    Two models of consciousness are contrasted with regard to their treatment of subjective timing. The standard Cartesian Theater model postulates a place in the brain where "it all comes together": where the discriminations in all modalities are somehow put into registration and "presented" for subjective judgment. In particular, the Cartesian Theater model implies that the temporal properties of the content-bearing events occurring within this privileged representational medium determine subjective order. The alternative, Multiple Drafts model holds that whereas the brain events (...)
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  27. Fred I. Dretske (1962). Moving Backward in Time. Philosophical Review 71 (1):94-98.
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  28. Nicolas Drouhin (2001). Lifetime Uncertainty and Time Preference. Theory and Decision 51 (2/4):145-172.
    Despite Fisher's (1930) psychological intuitions of and the formal treatment given by Yaari (1965, Review of Economic Studies 32, 137), the intertemporal model of choice is mainly a model with certain lifetime. The purpose of this paper is to reconsider this assumption, starting from a very simple two-period model of choice with lifetime uncertainty. We examine the comparative statics of the model at the first two orders and replace the concept of `pure time preference' by taking into account the subjective (...)
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  29. Heather Dyke (2011). The Evolutionary Origins of Tensed Language and Belief. Biology and Philosophy 26 (3):401-418.
    I outline the debate in metaphysics between those who believe time is tensed and those who believe it is tenseless. I describe the terms in which this debate has been carried out, and the significance to it of ordinary tensed language and widespread common sense beliefs that time is tensed. I then outline a case for thinking that our intuitive beliefs about tense constitute an Adaptive Imaginary Representation (Wilson, in Biol Philos 5:37–62, 1990; Wilson, in Biol Philos 10:77–97, 1995). I (...)
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  30. Aron Edidin (1982). Temporal Neutrality and Past Pains. Southern Journal of Philosophy 20 (4):423-431.
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  31. Paul Fitzgerald (1972). Nowness and the Understanding of Time. PSA: Proceedings of the Biennial Meeting of the Philosophy of Science Association 1972:259 - 281.
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  32. Edward Fullbrook & Margaret A. Simons (2009). Commentary. Beauvoir and Sartre: The Problem of the Other; Corrected Notes. In An Unconventional History of Western Philosophy. 509-523.
    Simone de Beauvoir and Jean-Paul Sartre struggled for the whole of their philosophical careers against one of modern Western philosophy's most pervasive concepts, the Cartesian notion of self. A notion of self is always a complex of ideas; in the case of Beauvoir and Sartre it includes the ideas of embodiment, temporality, the Other, and intersubjectivity. This essay will show the considerable part that gender, especially Beauvoir's position as a woman in twentieth-century France, played in the development, presentation and reception (...)
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  33. Miguel Garcia-Valdecasas (2013). Do Expectations Have Time Span? Axiomathes 23 (4):665-681.
    If it is possible to think that human life is temporal as a whole, and we can make sense of Wittgenstein’s claim that the psychological phenomena called ‘dispositions’ do not have genuine temporal duration on the basis of a distinction between dispositions and other mental processes, we need a compelling account of how time applies to these dispositions. I undertake this here by examining the concept of expectation, a disposition with a clear nexus to time by the temporal point at (...)
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  34. Brian Garrett (1988). `Thank Goodness That's Over' Revisited. Philosophical Quarterly 38 (151):201-205.
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  35. Joseph Glicksohn (2001). Temporal Cognition and the Phenomenology of Time: A Multiplicative Function for Apparent Duration. Consciousness and Cognition 10 (1):1-25.
    The literature on time perception is discussed. This is done with reference both to the ''cognitive-timer'' model for time estimation and to the subjective experience of apparent duration. Three assumptions underlying the model are scrutinized. I stress the strong interplay among attention, arousal, and time perception, which is at the base of the cognitive-timer model. It is suggested that a multiplicative function of two key components (the number of subjective time units and their size) should predict apparent duration. Implications for (...)
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  36. George Graham (1977). Persons and Time. Southern Journal of Philosophy 15 (3):309-315.
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  37. Simon Grondin (2001). A Temporal Account of the Limited Processing Capacity. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 24 (1):122-123.
    A temporal account of the mental capacities for processing information may not be relevant in a context where the goal is to search for storage capacity expressed in chunks. However, if mental capacity and information processing is the question, the time issue can be rehabilitated. A very different temporal viewpoint on capacity limit is proposed in this commentary.
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  38. Holly K. Andersen Rick Grush (2009). A Brief History of Time-Consciousness: Historical Precursors to James and Husserl. Journal of the History of Philosophy 47 (2):pp. 277-307.
    William James' Principles of Psychology , in which he made famous the "specious present" doctrine of temporal experience, and Edmund Husserl's Zur Phänomenologie des inneren Zeitbewusstseins were giant strides in the philosophical investigation of the temporality of experience. However, an important set of precursors to these works has not been adequately investigated. In this article, we undertake this investigation. Beginning with Reid's essay "Memory" in Essays on the Intellectual Powers of Man , we trace out a line of development of (...)
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  39. Rick Grush, Internal Models and the Construction of Time: Generalizing From State Estimation to Trajectory Estimation to Address Temporal Features of Perception, Including Temporal Illusions.
    The question of whether time is its own best representation is explored. Though there is theoretical debate between proponents of internal models and embedded cognition proponents (e.g. Brooks R 1991 Artificial Intelligence 47 139–59) concerning whether the world is its own best model, proponents of internal models are often content to let time be its own best representation. This happens via the time update of the model that simply allows the model’s state to evolve along with the state of the (...)
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  40. Rick Grush, Time and Experience.
    Nothing is more obvious than the fact that we are able to experience events in the world such a ball deflecting from the cross-bar of a goal. But what is the temporal relation between these two things, the event, and our experience of the event? One possibility is that the world progresses temporally through a sequence of instantaneous states – the striker’s foot in contact with the ball, then the ball between the striker and the goal, then the ball in (...)
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  41. Rick Grush, Space, Time and Objects.
    In this paper I will outline a unified information processing framework whose goal is to explain how the nervous system represents space, time and objects. In the remainder of this introductory section I will first be more specific about the sort of spatial, temporal, and object representation at issue, and then outline the structure of this paper.
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  42. Caspar Hare (2010). Realism About Tense and Perspective. Philosophy Compass 5 (9):760-769.
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  43. Caspar Hare (2008). A Puzzle About Other-Directed Time-Bias. Australasian Journal of Philosophy 86 (2):269 – 277.
    Should we be time-biased on behalf of other people? 'Sometimes yes, sometimes no'—it is tempting to answer. But this is not right. On pain of irrationality, we cannot be too selective about when we are time-biased on behalf of other people.
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  44. Richard G. Henson (1967). Ordinary Language, Common Sense, and the Time-Lag Argument. Mind 76 (301):21-33.
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  45. Christoph Hoerl (2012). Seeing Motion and Apparent Motion. European Journal of Philosophy:n/a-n/a.
  46. Christoph Hoerl (2008). On Being Stuck in Time. Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences 7 (4):485-500.
    It is sometimes claimed that non-human animals (and perhaps also young children) live their lives entirely in the present and are cognitively ‘stuck in time’. Adult humans, by contrast, are said to be able to engage in ‘mental time travel’. One possible way of making sense of this distinction is in terms of the idea that animals and young children cannot engage in tensed thought, which might seem a preposterous idea in the light of certain findings in comparative and developmental (...)
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  47. Christoph Hoerl (1998). The Perception of Time and the Notion of a Point of View. European Journal of Philosophy 5 (2):156-171.
    This paper aims to investigate the temporal content of perceptual experience. It argues that we must recognize the existence of temporal perceptions, i.e., perceptions the content of which cannot be spelled out simply by looking at what is the case at an isolated instant. Acts of apprehension can cover a succession of events. However, a subject who has such perceptions can fall short of having a concept of time. Similar arguments have been put forward to show that a subject who (...)
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  48. M. Holmer Nadesan (2002). M.G. Flaherty, A Watched Pot: How We Experience Time. [REVIEW] Human Studies 25 (2):257-265.
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  49. Edwin B. Holt (1904). Dr. Montague's Theory of Time-Perception. Journal of Philosophy, Psychology and Scientific Methods 1 (12):320-323.
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  50. Ronald W. Houts (1980). Some Implications of the Time-Lag Argument. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 41 (1/2):150-157.
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