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  1. Dorit Abusch (1997). Remarks on the State Formulation of de Re Present Tense. Natural Language Semantics 5 (3):303-313.
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  2. Michael Almeida (1997). Alice G. B. Ter Meulen, Representing Time in Natural Language: The Dynamic inTerpretation of Tense and Aspect. [REVIEW] Minds and Machines 7 (3):438-442.
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  3. D. Altshuler (2012). Aspectual Meaning Meets Discourse Coherence: A Look at the Russian Imperfective. Journal of Semantics 29 (1):39-108.
    This article investigates aspectual meaning and its interaction with independently motivated temporal constraints imposed by coherence relations. I argue that aspectual markers denote functions from a set of events denoted by a verb-phrase (VP) to a set of VP-event parts that are located relative to (i) an input encoding explicitly temporal information and (ii) an input encoding information about discourse connectivity. By virtue of encoding information about discourse connectivity, aspectual makers play a nontrivial role in determining which coherence relation holds (...)
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  4. Daniel Altshuler (2014). Discourse Transparency and the Meaning of Temporal Locating Adverbs. Natural Language Semantics 22 (1):55-88.
    This paper proposes that a core semantic property of temporal locating adverbs is the ability (or the lack thereof) to introduce a new time discourse referent. The core data comes from that same day in narrative discourse. I argue that unlike other previously studied temporal locating adverbs—which introduce a new time discourse referent and relate it to the speech time or a salient time introduced into the discourse context—that same day is ‘twice anaphoric’, i.e. it retrieves two salient times from (...)
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  5. Patrícia Amaral & Fabio Del Prete (2010). Approximating the Limit: The Interaction Between Quasi 'Almost' and Some Temporal Connectives in Italian. [REVIEW] Linguistics and Philosophy 33 (2):51-115.
    This paper focuses on the interpretation of the Italian approximative adverb quasi ‘almost’ by primarily looking at cases in which it modifies temporal connectives, a domain which, to our knowledge, has been largely unexplored thus far. Consideration of this domain supports the need for a scalar account of the semantics of quasi (close in spirit to Hitzeman’s semantic analysis of almost, in: Canakis et al. (eds) Papers from the 28th regional meeting of the Chicago Linguistic Society, 1992). When paired with (...)
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  6. Patrícia Amaral & Fabio Del Prete (2010). Approximating the Limit: The Interaction Between Quasi 'Almost' and Some Temporal Connectives in Italian. [REVIEW] Linguistics and Philosophy 33 (2):51 - 115.
    This paper focuses on the interpretation of the Italian approximative adverb quasi 'almost' by primarily looking at cases in which it modifies temporal connectives, a domain which, to our knowledge, has been largely unexplored thus far. Consideration of this domain supports the need for a scalar account of the semantics of quasi (close in spirit to Hitzeman's semantic analysis of almost, in: Canakis et al. (eds) Papers from the 28th regional meeting of the Chicago Linguistic Society, 1992). When paired with (...)
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  7. M. Andrewes (1951). The Function of Tense Variation in the Subjunctive Mood of Oratio Obliqua. The Classical Review 1 (3-4):142-146.
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  8. Mark Aronszajn (1996). A Defense of Temporalism. Philosophical Studies 81 (1):71 - 95.
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  9. Nicholas Asher (1992). A Default, Truth Conditional Semantics for the Progressive. Linguistics and Philosophy 15 (5):463 - 508.
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  10. Emmon Bach, [63] on Time, Tense, and Aspect: An Essay in English Metaphysics.
    In 1936, Benjamin Lee Whorf wrote a justly famous paper entitled "An American Indian Model of the Universe" (Carroll, 1956). In that paper, Whorf criticized the easy assumption that people in different cultures, speaking radically different languages, share common presuppositions about what the world is like. He contrasted the Hopi view of space and time with what he called elsewhere the Standard Average European view. For the Hopi, space and time are inherently relativistic; for the speaker of Western European languages, (...)
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  11. Emmon Bach, On Time, Tense, and Aspect: An Essay in English Metaphysics.
    In 1936, Benjamin Lee Whorf wrote a justly famous paper entitled "An American Indian Model of the Universe" (Carroll, 1956). In that paper, Whorf criticized the easy assumption that people in different cultures, speaking radically different languages, share common presuppositions about what the world is like. He contrasted the Hopi view of space and time with what he called elsewhere the Standard Average European view. For the Hopi, space and time are inherently relativistic; for the speaker of Western European languages, (...)
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  12. Thomas Baldwin (1999). Back to the Present. Philosophy 74 (2):177-197.
    McTaggart's famous argument that the A-series is contradictory is vitiated by an unsatisfactory conceptualization of tenses which can be corrected by making explicit their relational structure. This leads into a much sharper formulation of his apparent contradiction, and defusing this apparent contradiction requires a careful distinction between tensed and tenseless descriptions of thoughts. As a result the ‘unreality’ of tense turns out to rest on the fact that tensed descriptions of temporal facts do not capture their identity. This ‘metaphysical’ priority (...)
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  13. Luca Barlassina & Fabio Del Prete, No Longer True.
    There are sentences that express the same temporally fully specified proposition at all contexts--call them 'context-insensitive, temporally specific sentences.' Sentence (1) 'Obama was born in 1961' is a case in point: at all contexts, it expresses the proposition ascribing to the year 1961 the property of being a time in which Obama was born. Suppose that someone uttered (1) in a context located on Christmas 2000 in our world. In this context, (1) is a true sentence about the past. Moreover, (...)
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  14. Corien Bary & Emar Maier (2009). The Dynamics of Tense Under Attitudes: Anaphoricity and de Se Interpretation in the Backward Shifted Past. In Hattori et al (ed.), New Frontiers in Artificial Intelligence. Springer. 146--160.
    Shows that both anaphoricity and egocentric de se binding play a crucial role in the interpretation of tense in discourse. Uses the English backwards shifted reading of the past tense in a mistaken time scenario to bring out the tension between these two features. Provides a suitable representational framework for the observed clash in the form of an extension of DRT in which updates of the common ground are accompanied by updates of each relevant agent's complex attitudinal state.
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  15. Rainer Bäuerle (1979). Tense Logics and Natural Language. Synthese 40 (2):225 - 230.
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  16. Michelle Beer (2010). Tense and Truth Conditions. Philosophia 38 (2):265-269.
    The B-theory of time holds that McTaggart’s A-series of past, present, and future is reducible to the B-series of events running from earlier to later. According to the date-theory—originally put forth by J.J.C. Smart and later endorsed by by D.H. Mellor—the truth conditions of tensed or Asentence-tokens can be given in terms of tenseless or B-sentences and, therefore, A-sentence-tokens do not ascribe any A-determinations of pastness, presentness, or futurity. However, as Nathan Oaklander has argued, the date-theory does not provide an (...)
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  17. Fabio Bellissima & Saverio Cittadini (1999). Finite Trees in Tense Logic. Studia Logica 62 (2):121-140.
    In this paper we show the adequacy of tense logic with unary operators for dealing with finite trees. We prove that models on finite trees can be characterized by tense formulas, and describe an effective method to find an axiomatization of the theory of a given finite tree in tense logic. The strength of the characterization is shown by proving that adding the binary operators "Until" and "Since" to the language does not result in a better description than that given (...)
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  18. Maria Bittner, Conditional Prospects in a Tenseless Language.
    DGfS workshop on Tense across Languages, Bamberg University, Germany. [handout].
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  19. Maria Bittner, Grammatical Centering: Tense, Mood, and Evidentiality.
    Natural languages exhibit a great variety of verbal paradigms. For instance, in English main verbs are grammatically marked for tense, whereas in the tenseless Eskimo-Aleut language Kalaallisut they are marked for illocutionary mood. Although time is a universal dimension of the human experience and speaking is part of that experience, some languages encode discourse reference to time without any grammatical tense morphology (see e.g. Bittner 2005), or reference to speech acts without any illocutionary mood morphology.
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  20. Maria Bittner, Mood-Based Temporal Reference.
    Last time we introduced the notion of an illocutionary perspective . The basic idea is that the very act of speaking up introduces several discourse referents. The speech act itself (e ) is introduced as the central perspective point ( ε ). In addition, all the speech spheres (p ) where this speech act is realized, as well as the worlds of each sphere (w ∈p ) are introduced as modal topics ( Ω and  ω ).
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  21. Maria Bittner, Aspect as Eventuality Centering: Mandarin.
    Unlike English and Polish, Mandarin has no grammatical tense (TNS). Therefore, reference times are only introduced by temporal modifiers (contra Smith 1991/7, Wu 2003, Lin 2005, etc). In Mandarin discourse, the frequency of such modifiers (‘today’, ‘last night’, etc) is about the same (low) as in tensed languages (e.g. English, Polish) and plays a similarly marginal role in temporal discourse reference. This, however, does NOT mean that in tenseless Mandarin temporal relations between eventualities in discourse are in any way less (...)
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  22. Maria Bittner, Amele Switch Reference as Temporal Recentering.
    Amele (Papuan, New Guinea) is a tense-mood-based language (in the typology of Bittner 2014) with an elaborate system of clause chaining, including switch reference (SR) and serial verb constructions (SVC). This draft analyzes two interlinear Amele texts (from Roberts 2007) in Update with Centering of Bittner (2014). The basic idea is that an SR-chain is a topic-comment sequence about a 'topical development' — i.e. a topic time framing a chain of causally linked events. In contrast, an SVC is a chain (...)
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  23. Maria Bittner, Aspect as Eventuality Centering: English and Polish.
    Last time we saw that grammatical tenses anaphorically refer to top-ranked times or time-valued functions of top-ranked events, just like grammatical person markers anaphorically refer to top-ranked individuals or invididual-valued functions of top-ranked events. Today we extend this idea to grammatical aspect. Specifically, grammatical aspect marking in English and Polish is analyzed as discourse anaphora to top-ranked eventualities (states or events).
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  24. Maria Bittner, Temporal Quantification as Top-Level Anaphora.
    This is part two of our discussion of discourses involving anaphora to and by quantificational expressions of various types. In part one (March 8), we focused on quantification over individuals ("Nominal quantification as top-level anaphora"). In part two (March 22-29), we show that the proposed analysis of quantification, as anaphoric discourse reference to top-ranked sets, automatically generalizes to temporal quantifiers (over times, events, or states).
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  25. Maria Bittner, Tense as Temporal Centering.
    Abstract According to an influential theory, English tenses are anaphoric to an aforementioned reference point. This point is sometimes construed as a time (e.g. Reichenbach 1947, Partee 1973, Stone 1997) and sometimes as an event (e.g. Kamp 1979, 1981, Webber 1988). Moreover, some researchers draw semantic parallels between tenses and pronouns (e.g. Partee 1973, 1984, Stone 1997), whereas others draw parallels between tenses and anaphorically anchored (in)definite descriptions (e.g.
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  26. Maria Bittner, Tense, Mood, and Centering.
    Natural languages exhibit a great variety of grammatical paradigms. For instance, in English verbs are grammatically marked for tense, whereas in the tenseless Eskimo-Aleut language Kalaallisut they are marked for illocutionary mood. Although time is a universal dimension of the human experience and speaking is part of that experience, some languages encode reference to time without any grammatical tense morphology, or reference to speech acts without any illocutionary mood morphology. Nevertheless, different grammatical systems are semantically parallel in certain respects. Specifically, (...)
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  27. Maria Bittner, From Mandarin Texts to Update with Centering.
    Simple Mandarin Chinese texts translated into Update with Centering. Notes toward a directly compositional fragment of Mandarin Chinese, combining Categorial Grammar with Update with Centering, to appear in Bittner (in prep.) "Temporality: Universals and Variation".
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  28. Maria Bittner, Temporal Anaphora in Tenseless Languages: Day 1.
    Day 1 of advanced course on "Temporal anaphora in tenseless languages" at 2006 ESSLLI.
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  29. Maria Bittner (forthcoming). Topic States in Mandarin Discourse. In Michael Opper (ed.), Proceedings of the 25th North American Conference on Chinese Linguistics. Ohio State University.
    I propose that Mandarin 。-sentences (units marked by 。) are aspectual topic-comment sequences, where an initial update (terminating in a pause) introduces a topic state for comment by one or more clauses. Each comment anaphorically refers to the topic state via the aspect feature of the verbal predicate. This proposal explains why Mandarin 。-sentences have controversial boundaries, since speakers may disagree where one topic state ends and the next one begins. It also explains various manifestations of aspect-prominence and topic-prominence in (...)
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  30. Maria Bittner (2014). Temporality: Universals and Variation. Wiley-Blackwell.
    This book surveys the ways in which languages of different types refer to past, present, and future events and how these referents are related to the knowledge and attitudes of discourse participants. The book is the culmination of fifteen years of research by the author. Four major language types are examined in-depth: tense-based English, tense-aspect-based Polish, aspect-based Chinese, and mood-based Kalaallisut. Each contributes to a series of logical representation languages, which together define a common logical language that is argued to (...)
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  31. Maria Bittner (2011). Time and Modality Without Tenses or Modals. In Renate Musan & Monika Rathert (eds.), Tense across Languages. Niemeyer. 147--188.
    In English, discourse reference to time involves grammatical tenses interpreted as temporal anaphors. Recently, it has been argued that conditionals involve modal discourse anaphora expressed by a parallel grammatical system of anaphoric modals. Based on evidence from Kalaallisut, this paper argues that temporal and modal anaphora can be just as precise in a language that does not have either grammatical category. Instead, temporal anaphora directly targets eventualities of verbs, without mediating tenses, while modal anaphora involves anaphoric moods and/or attitudinal verbs.
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  32. Maria Bittner (2008). Aspectual Universals of Temporal Anaphora. In Susan Rothstein (ed.), Theoretical and Crosslinguistic Approaches to the Semantics of Aspect. John Benjamins. 11--349.
    It has long been recognized that temporal anaphora in French and English depends on the aspectual distinction between events and states. For example, temporal location as well as temporal update depends on the aspectual type. This paper presents a general theory of aspect-based temporal anaphora, which extends from languages with grammatical tenses (like French and English) to tenseless languages (e.g. Kalaallisut). This theory also extends to additional aspect-dependent phenomena and to non-atomic aspectual types, processes and habits, which license anaphora to (...)
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  33. Maria Bittner (2007). Online Update: Temporal, Modal, and de Se Anaphora in Polysynthetic Discourse. In Chris Barker & Pauline Jacobson (eds.), Direct Compositionality. Oxford University Press. 11--363.
    This paper introduces a framework for direct surface composition by online update. The surface string is interpreted as is, with each morpheme in turn updating the input state of information and attention. A formal representation language, Logic of Centering, is defined and some crosslinguistic constraints on lexical meanings and compositional operations are formulated.
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  34. Maria Bittner (2005). Future Discourse in a Tenseless Language. Journal of Semantics 22 (4):339-87.
    The Eskimo language Kalaallisut (alias West Greenlandic) has traditionally been described as having a rich tense system, with three future tenses (Kleinschmidt 1851, Bergsland 1955, Fortescue 1984) and possibly four past tenses (Fortescue 1984). Recently however, Shaer (2003) has challenged these traditional claims, arguing that Kalaallisut is in fact tenseless.
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  35. Andrea Bonomi & Fabio Del Prete, Evaluating Future-Tensed Sentences in Changing Contexts.
    modal view has it that the truth conditions of such a sentence require the truth of ϕ being already “settled” at the time of utterance, where “being settled” is defined by universal quantification over a domain of courses of events, the futures compatible with what has happened up to the time of utterance. On the proposal we discuss in this paper, actualism and modalism are seen as two related attitudes that speakers can have when evaluating future-tensed sentences, and the corresponding (...)
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  36. Andrea Bonomi & Fabio Del Prete, Evaluating Future-Tensed Sentences in Changing Contexts.
    According to the actualist view, what is essential in the truth conditions of a future-tensed sentence ‘it will be the case that ’ is the reference to the unique course of events that will become actual (Lewis 1986). On the other hand, the modal view has it that the truth conditions of such sentences require the truth of  being already “settled” at the time of utterance, where “being settled” is defined by universal quantification over a domain of courses of (...)
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  37. Andrea Bonomi & Fabio Del Prete, Evaluating Future-Tensed Sentences in Changing Contexts.
    According to the actualist view, what is essential in the truth conditions of a future-tensed sentence of type ‘it will be the case that ϕ’ is the reference to the unique course of events that will become actual. On the other hand, the modal view has it that the truth conditions of such a sentence require the truth of ϕ being already “settled” at the time of utterance, where “being settled” is defined by universal quantification over a domain of courses (...)
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  38. C. Bourne (2005). Review: Time, Tense, and Reference. [REVIEW] Mind 114 (455):747-750.
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  39. C. Bourne (2002). When Am I? A Tense Time for Some Tense Theorists? Australasian Journal of Philosophy 80 (3):359 – 371.
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  40. A. J. Bowen (1977). K. L. McKay: Greek Grammar for Students (A Concise Grammar of Classical Attic with Special Reference to Aspect in the Verb). Pp. Xii + 239. Canberra: Australian National University, 1974. Limp Cloth, $A.7. [REVIEW] The Classical Review 27 (02):295-296.
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  41. Stephen E. Braude (1974). Are Verbs Tensed or Tenseless? Philosophical Studies 25 (6):373 - 390.
    We have seen that we cannot de-tense a sentence like (15) simply by changing its verb, since the tense of such a sentence is determined by a temporal adverb. More importantly, we have seen that de-tensing is a process of removing certain temporal restrictions from the truth-conditions of tensed sentences, and that tensed and tenseless forms of a verb do not differ in sense. Once we understand this, and once we realize that it is an historical accident that the tense (...)
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  42. Stephen E. Braude (1973). Tensed Sentences and Free Repeatability. Philosophical Review 82 (2):188-214.
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  43. Berit Brogaard (2007). Span Operators. Analysis 67 (1):72–79.
    I. Tensed Plural Quantifiers Presentists typically assent to a range of tensed statements, for instance, that there were dinosaurs, that there was a president named Lincoln, and that my future grandchildren will be on their way to school.1 Past- and future-tensed claims are dealt with by introducing primitive, intensional tense operators, for instance, it has been 12 years ago that, it was the case when I was born that, and it will be the case that (Prior 1968). For example, ‘there (...)
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  44. Berit Brogaard (2006). Review of Thomas Sattig, The Language and Reality of Time. [REVIEW] Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews 2006 (11).
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  45. Berit Brogaard (2006). Tensed Relations. Analysis 66 (3):194–202.
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  46. Jeremy Butterfield (ed.) (1999). The Arguments of Time. Published for the British Academy by Oxford University Press.
    These nine essays address fundamental questions about time in philosophy, physics, linguistics, and psychology. Are there facts about the future? Could we affect the past? In physics, general relativity and quantum theory give contradictory treatments of time. So in the current search for a theory of quantum gravity, which should give way: general relativity or quantum theory? In linguistics and psychology, how does our language represent time, and how do our minds keep track of it?
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  47. Seth Cable (2013). Beyond the Past, Present, and Future: Towards the Semantics of 'Graded Tense' in Gĩkũyũ. [REVIEW] Natural Language Semantics 21 (3):219-276.
    In recent years, our understanding of how tense systems vary across languages has been greatly advanced by formal semantic study of languages exhibiting fewer tense categories than the three commonly found in European languages. However, it has also often been reported that languages can sometimes distinguish more than three tenses. Such languages appear to have ‘graded tense’ systems, where the tense morphology serves to track how far into the past or future a reported event occurs. This paper presents a formal (...)
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  48. Craig Callender, Time's Ontic Voltage.
    Philosophy of time, as practiced throughout the last hundred years, is both language- and existence-obsessed. It is language-obsessed in the sense that the primary venue for attacking questions about the nature of time—in sharp contrast to the primary venue for questions about space—has been philosophy of language. Although other areas of philosophy have long recognized that there is a yawning gap between language and the world, the message is spreading slowly in philosophy of time.[1] Since twentieth-century analytic philosophy as a (...)
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  49. Ben Caplan (2005). Why So Tense About the Copula? Mind 114 (455):703 - 708.
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  50. Roderick M. Chisholm & Dean W. Zimmerman (1997). Theology and Tense. Noûs 31 (2):262-265.
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