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  1. Gerhard Jean Daniël Aalders (1982). Plutarch's Political Thought. North-Holland Pub. Co..
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  2. Marcus Arvan (2012). Reconceptualizing Human Rights. Journal of Global Ethics 8 (1):91-105.
    This paper defends several highly revisionary theses about human rights. Section 1 shows that the phrase ?human rights? refers to two distinct types of moral claims. Sections 2 and 3 argue that several longstanding problems in human rights theory and practice can be solved if, and only if, the concept of a ?human right? is replaced by two more exact concepts: International human rights: moral claims sufficient to warrant coercive domestic and international social protection. Domestic human rights: moral claims sufficient (...)
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  3. Hugh Breakey (2010). User's Rights and the Public Domain. Intellectual Property Quarterly (3):312-23.
    In recent years the concept of “user’s rights” has gained considerable currency in discussions of the limits of intellectual property in general, and of copyright in particular. Those arguing in favour of the public domain and increased limitations on copyright have increasingly sought to fight fire with fire – to place substantive user’s rights against the claims of intellectual property. User’s rights have in some jurisdictions received explicit Supreme Court imprimatur and they are expressly recognised in key charters of human (...)
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  4. Hugh Breakey (2009). Without Consent: Principles of Justified Acquisition and Duty-Imposing Powers. Philosophical Quarterly 59 (237):618-640.
    A controversy in political philosophy and applied ethics concerns the validity of duty-imposing powers, that is, rights entitling one person to impose new duties on others without their consent. Many philosophers have criticized as unplausible any such moral right, in particular that of appropriating private property unilaterally. Some, finding duty-imposing powers weird, unfamiliar or baseless, have argued that principles of justified acquisition should be rejected; others have required them to satisfy exacting criteria. I investigate the many ways in which we (...)
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  5. Corey Brettschneider (2010). A Transformative Theory of Religious Freedom. Political Theory 38 (2):187-213.
    Religious freedom is often thought to protect not only religious practices but also the underlying religious beliefs of citizens. But what should be said about religious beliefs that oppose religious freedom itself or that deny the concept of equal citizenship? The author argues here that such beliefs, while protected against coercive sanction, are rightly subject to attempts at transformation by the state in its expressive capacities. Transformation is entailed by a commitment to publicizing the reasons and principles that justify the (...)
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  6. Corey Brettschneider (2010). When the State Speaks, What Should It Say? The Dilemmas of Freedom of Expression and Democratic Persuasion. Perspectives on Politics 8 (4):1005-1019.
    Hate groups are often thought to reveal a paradox in liberal thinking. On the one hand, such groups challenge the very foundations of liberal thought, including core values of equality and freedom. On the other hand, these same values underlie the rights such as freedom of expression and association that protect hate groups. Thus a liberal democratic state that extends those protections to such groups in the name of value neutrality and freedom of expression may be thought to be undermining (...)
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  7. Corey Brettschneider (2007). Democratic Rights: The Substance of Self-Government. Princeton University Press.
    When the Supreme Court in 2003 struck down a Texas law prohibiting homosexual sodomy, it cited the right to privacy based on the guarantee of "substantive due process" embodied by the Constitution. But did the court act undemocratically by overriding the rights of the majority of voters in Texas? Scholars often point to such cases as exposing a fundamental tension between the democratic principle of majority rule and the liberal concern to protect individual rights. Democratic Rights challenges this view by (...)
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  8. Corey Brettschneider (2007). The Rights of the Guilty. Political Theory 35 (2):175-199.
    In this essay I develop and defend a theory of state punishment within a wider conception of political legitimacy. While many moral theories of punishment focus on what is deserved by criminals, I theorize punishment within the specific context of the state’s relationship to its citizens. Central to my account is Rawls’s “liberal principle of legitimacy,” which requires that all state coercion be justifiable to all citizens. I extend this idea to the justification of political coercion to criminals qua citizens. (...)
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  9. Corey Brettschneider (2006). The Value Theory of Democracy. Politics, Philosophy and Economics 5 (3):259-278.
    Liberal political theorists often argue that justice requires limits on policy outcomes, limits delineated by substantive rights. Distinct from this project is a body of literature dedicated to elaborating on the meaning of democracy in procedural terms. In this article, I offer an alternative to the traditional divide between procedural theories of democracy and substantive theories of justice; I call this the ‘value theory of democracy’. I argue that the democratic ideal is fundamentally about a core set of values (political (...)
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  10. Corey Brettschneider (2005). Balancing Procedures and Outcomes Within Democratic Theory: Corey Values and Judicial Review. Political Studies 53:423-451.
    Democratic theorists often distinguish between two views of democratic procedures. ‘Outcomes theorists’ emphasize the instrumental nature of these procedures and argue that they are only valuable because they tend to produce good outcomes. In contrast, ‘proceduralists’ emphasize the intrinsic value of democratic procedures, for instance, on the grounds that they are fair. In this paper. I argue that we should reject pure versions of these two theories in favor of an understanding of the democratic ideal that recognizes a commitment to (...)
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  11. Adam Etinson (2013). Human Rights, Claimability and the Uses of Abstraction. Utilitas 25 (4):463-486.
    This article addresses the so-called to human rights. Focusing specifically on the work of Onora O'Neill, the article challenges two important aspects of her version of this objection. First: its narrowness. O'Neill understands the claimability of a right to depend on the identification of its duty-bearers. But there is good reason to think that the claimability of a right depends on more than just that, which makes abstract (and not welfare) rights the most natural target of her objection (section II). (...)
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  12. Ori J. Herstein (2013). A Legal Right to Do Legal Wrong. Oxford Journal of Legal Studies (1):gqt022.
    The literature, as are the intuitions of many, is sceptical as to the coherence of ‘legal rights to do legal wrong’. A right to do wrong is a right against interference with wrongdoing. A legal right to do legal wrong is, therefore, a right against legal enforcement of legal duty. It is, in other words, a right that shields the right holder’s legal wrongdoing. The sceptics notwithstanding, the category of ‘legal right to do legal wrong’ coheres with the concepts of (...)
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  13. Ori J. Herstein (2012). Defending the Right To Do Wrong. Law and Philosophy 31 (3):343-365.
    Are there moral rights to do moral wrong? A right to do wrong is a right that others not interfere with the right-holder’s wrongdoing. It is a right against enforcement of duty, that is a right that others not interfere with one’s violation of one’s own obligations. The strongest reason for moral rights to do moral wrong is grounded in the value of personal autonomy. Having a measure of protected choice (that is a right) to do wrong is a condition (...)
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  14. Leonard Kahn (ed.) (2012). Mill on Justice. Palgrave Macmillan.
  15. Leonard Kahn (2012). The Objection From Justice and the Conceptual/Substantive Distinction. In , Mill on Justice. Palgrave Macmillan. 198.
    I begin this chapter by outlining Mill's thinking about why justice is a problem for utilitarians. Next, I turn to Mill's own account of justice and explain its connection with rights, perfect duties, and harms. I then examine David Lyons' answer to the question of how Mill's account is meant to answer the Weak Objection from Justice. Lyons maintains that Mill's account of justice has both a conceptual side and a substantive side. The former provides an analysis of such concepts (...)
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  16. Simon Căbulea May (2012). Moral Status and the Direction of Duties. Ethics 123 (1):113-128.
    Gopal Sreenivasan’s “hybrid theory” states that a moral duty is directed toward an individual because her interests justify the assignment of control over the duty. An alternative “plain theory” states that the individual’s interests justify the duty itself. I argue that a strong moral status constraint explains Sreenivasan’s instrumentalization objection to a Razian plain theory but that his own model violates this constraint. I suggest how both approaches can be reformulated to satisfy the constraint, and I argue that a reformulated (...)
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  17. Nedim Nomer (2013). Fichte's Separation Thesis. Philosophical Forum 44 (3):233-254.
  18. John Oberdiek (2010). Specifying Constitutional Rights. Constitutional Commentary 271 (1).
  19. John Oberdiek (2008). Specifying Rights Out of Necessity. Oxford Journal of Legal Studies 28 (1):19.
    It is the purpose of this article to make the positive case for an under-appreciated conception of rights: specified rights. In contrast to rights conceived generally, a specified right can stand against different behaviour in different circumstances, so that what conflicts with a right in one context may not conflict with it in another. The specified conception of rights thus combines into a single inquiry the two questions that must be answered in invoking the general conception of rights, identifying the (...)
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  20. Marcus Ohlström, Marco Solinas & Olivier Voirol (2010). Redistribuzione o riconoscimento? di Nancy Fraser e Axel Honneth. Iride 23 (2):443-460.
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  21. Ingmar Persson (2013). From Morality to the End of Reason: An Essay on Rights, Reasons and Responsibility. Oxford University Press.
    Many philosophers think that if you're morally responsible for a state of affairs, you must be a cause of it. Ingmar Persson argues that this strand of common sense morality is asymmetrical, in that it features the act-omission doctrine, according to which there are stronger reasons against performing some harmful actions than in favour of performing any beneficial actions. He analyses the act-omission doctrine as consisting in a theory of negative rights, according to which there are rights not to have (...)
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  22. Marek Piechowiak (2012). Godność w Karcie Praw Podstawowych Unii Europejskiej – destrukcja uniwersalnego paradygmatu ujęcia podstaw praw człowieka? [Dignity in the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union – Destruction of the Universal Paradigm of Understanding of the Foundations of Human Rights?]. Themis Polska Nova 2 (1):126-146.
    Zasadniczym przedmiotem analiz tego opracowania jest pojęcie godności w Karcie praw podstawowych Unii Europejskiej z 7 grudnia 2000 r. Interpretacja Karty prowadzona jest z uwzględnieniem postanowień Traktatu z Lizbony z 13 grudnia 2007 r., który podniósł Kartę do rangi prawa traktatowego. Uwyraźnienie treści pojęcia godności w Karcie dokonywane jest przez pryzmat paradygmatu rozumienia godności utrwalonego już w prawie międzynarodowym praw człowieka na poziomie uniwersalnym, czyli prawa kształtowanego i funkcjonującego w ramach Organizacji Narodów Zjednoczonych. Paradygmat uniwersalny, w którego centrum znajduje się (...)
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  23. Marek Piechowiak (2010). Wokół konstytucyjnej ochrony życia. Próba oceny propozycji nowelizacji Konstytucji RP [Constitutional Protection of Life: An Attempt to Assess the Proposal for Amendment of Poland’s Constitution]. Przegląd Sejmowy 18 (1 (96)):25-47.
    This article first of all attempts to assess the proposals of 2006–2007 to amend Poland’s Constitution, aimed mostly at strengthening constitutional protection of unborn human life. Parliamentary work on this proposal begins with the submission of the Deputy’s bill on amendment of the Constitution, published in the Sejm Paper No. 993 of September 5, 2006, and ends with a series of votes at the 39th sitting of the Sejm of the fifth term of office, held on April 13, 2007, on (...)
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  24. Marek Piechowiak (2009). Klauzula limitacyjna a nienaruszalność praw i godności [Limitation Clause and the Inviolability of Rights and Dignity]. Przegląd Sejmowy 17 (2 (91)):55-77.
    The author examines the arguments for applicability of the limitation clause which specifies the requirements for limitation of constitutional freedoms and rights (Article 31 para. 3 of the Constitution) to the right to protection of life (Article 38). Even if there is almost a general acceptance of such applicability, this approach does not hold up to criticism based on the rule existing in the Polish legal order that treaty commitments concerning human rights have supremacy over national statutory regulations. Due to (...)
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  25. Marek Piechowiak (2008). Can Human Rights Be Real? Can Norms Be True? In Norm and Truth.
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  26. Marek Piechowiak (2007). Służebność państwa wobec człowieka i jego praw jako naczelna idea Konstytucji RP z 2 kwietnia 1997 roku – osiągnięcie czy zadanie? [Subordination of the State to the Individual and to Human Rights as a Central Idea of Poland’s Constitution of 2 April 1997: A Goal or an Achievement?]. Przegląd Sejmowy 15 (4 (81)):65-91.
    The article deals with relations between the individual and human rights on the one hand, and the State on the other, in the context of the Constitution of the Republic of Poland. The author poses the question whether the idea of subordination of the State to the individual is really a central idea of that constitution. He puts forward many arguments against such suggestion. These arguments relate, above all, to the arrangement of the constitution: a chapter concerning human rights is (...)
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  27. Marek Piechowiak (1997). Pojęcie praw człowieka [The Notion of Human Rights]. In Leszek Wiśniewski (ed.), Podstawowe prawa jednostki oraz ich sądowa ochrona. Wydawnictwo Sejmowe. 7-37.
    W opracowaniu tym poszukiwana jest odpowiedź na dwa pytania: „co to są prawa człowieka?” oraz „jakie są zasadnicze elementy konstytucyjnej koncepcji tych praw?” Odpowiadając na pierwsze pytanie, zmierzać będę do wskazania zasadniczych elementów współczesnej – opartej przede wszystkim na prawie międzynarodowym – koncepcji służącej ujęciu tych praw, czyli do eksplikacji pojęcia praw człowieka. Odpowiadając na drugie, będę poszukiwać zasadniczych konsekwencji, które dla konstytucyjnych regulacji ma uznanie tej koncepcji. Analizy mają charakter projektujący. Nie jest moim celem rekonstrukcja koncepcji praw człowieka zawartej (...)
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  28. Marco Solinas (2009). Review of Hauke Brunkhorst, Habermas. [REVIEW] Iride (56):253-254.
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  29. Terrance Tomkow, Self Defense.
    If there are rights there is surely a right to self-defense. But self-defense has proved very puzzling to rights theorists. The central puzzle has been called the "paradox of self-defense": If our right not to be harmed gives rise to our right to fight back, what happens to the attacker's right not to be harmed when the defender fights back? If the attacker somehow forfeits his right to self-defense because he is a bad actor, what do we say about innocent (...)
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  30. Terrance Tomkow, The Retributive Theory of Property.
  31. Makoto Usami (2011). The Non-Identity Problem, Collective Rights, and the Threshold Conception of Harm. Tokyo Institute of Technology Department of Social Engineering Discussion Paper (2011-04):1-17.
    One of the primary views on our supposed obligation towards our descendants in the context of environmental problems invokes the idea of the rights of future generations. A growing number of authors also hold that the descendants of those victimized by historical injustices, including colonialism and slavery, have the right to demand financial reparations for the sufferings of their distant ancestors. However, these claims of intergenerational rights face theoretical difficulties, notably the non-identity problem. To circumvent this problem in a relationship (...)
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  32. Siegfried van Duffel, The Nature of Rights.
    The debate between the 'Will Theory' and the 'Interest Theory' of rights is actually a debate over stipulative definitions. I argue how this could have happened, and suggest how we might proceed building a theory of rights.
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  33. Siegfried van Duffel (2010). From Objective Right to Subjective Rights: The Franciscans and the Interest and Will Conceptions of Rights. In Virpi Mäkinen (ed.), The Nature of Rights: Moral and Political Aspects of Rights in Late Medieval and Early Modern Philosophy. The Philosophical Society of Finland.
  34. Jeremy Waldron (1981). A Right to Do Wrong. Ethics 92 (1):21-39.
  35. Michael P. Zuckert (2007). On Constitutional Welfare Liberalism: An Old-Liberal Perspective. Social Philosophy and Policy 24 (1):266-288.
    One new form of liberalism is a doctrine that might be called Constitutional Welfare Liberalism. It stands in some continuity with the varieties of welfare and equality oriented liberalism that emerged in the Nineteenth Century and which found expression in the U.S. in political movements like the New Deal of F.D.R. and the Great Society of L.B.J. Constitutional Welfare Liberalism differs somewhat from earlier versions of Welfare Liberalism in that it claims to be solidly grounded in the fundamentals of the (...)
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The Analysis of Rights
  1. Anna-Karin Margareta Andersson (2013). Choices, Interests, and Potentiality: What Distinguishes Bearers of Rights? [REVIEW] Journal of Value Inquiry 47 (3):175-190.
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  2. Danny Frederick (forthcoming). Pro-Tanto Versus Absolute Rights. Philosophical Forum.
    Judith Jarvis Thomson and others contend that rights are pro-tanto rather than absolute, that is, that rights may permissibly be infringed in some circumstances. Alan Gewirth maintains that there are some rights that are absolute because infringing them would amount to unspeakable evil. However, there seem to be possible circumstances in which it would be permissible to infringe even those rights. Specificationists, such as Gerald Gaus, Russ Shafer-Landau, Hillel Steiner and Kit Wellman, argue that all rights are absolute because they (...)
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Rights and Duties
  1. David Alm (2011). Promises, Rights and Claims. Law and Philosophy 30 (1):51-76.
    The paper argues that promise rights presuppose independently existing (if not pre-existing) claims. The argument relies on the Bifurcation Thesis, according to which all claims, and all rights, can be exhaustively divided into two categories: capacity based and exercise based.
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  2. G. E. M. Anscombe (1978). Rules, Rights, and Promises. Midwest Studies in Philosophy 3 (1):318-323.
  3. Bertram Bandman (1973). Rights and Claims. Journal of Value Inquiry 7 (3):204-213.
    By way of conclusion, I have tried to show that rights do not come from nowhere, that is, rights are not sui generis. They come from claims. Rights do not make claims possible; rather claims make rights possible. For out of claims come claims to rights and from the welter of such claims to rights a legal system is established which, after sifting and refining, accepts some claims to rights and dignifies these as deeds, titles, rights and rejects others; and (...)
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  4. Keith Burgess-Jackson (1987). Duties, Rights, and Charity. Journal of Social Philosophy 18 (3):3-12.
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  5. Steven Daskal (2013). Confining Pogge's Analysis of Global Poverty to Genuinely Negative Duties. Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 16 (2):369-391.
    Thomas Pogge has argued that typical citizens of affluent nations participate in an unjust global order that harms the global poor. This supports his conclusion that there are widespread negative institutional duties to reform the global order. I defend Pogge’s negative duty approach, but argue that his formulation of these duties is ambiguous between two possible readings, only one of which is properly confined to genuinely negative duties. I argue that this ambiguity leads him to shift illicitly between negative and (...)
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  6. Danny Frederick (forthcoming). Pro-Tanto Versus Absolute Rights. Philosophical Forum.
    Judith Jarvis Thomson and others contend that rights are pro-tanto rather than absolute, that is, that rights may permissibly be infringed in some circumstances. Alan Gewirth maintains that there are some rights that are absolute because infringing them would amount to unspeakable evil. However, there seem to be possible circumstances in which it would be permissible to infringe even those rights. Specificationists, such as Gerald Gaus, Russ Shafer-Landau, Hillel Steiner and Kit Wellman, argue that all rights are absolute because they (...)
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  7. Sarah Kenehan (2013). In Defense of the Duty to Assist: A Response to Critics on the Viability of a Rawlsian Approach to Climate Change. Critical Review of International Social and Political Philosophy:1-20.