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Summary The Huayan (Flower Garland) School of Buddhism flourished in China during the Tang period, roughly from the late 500s until the mid 800s. The school derives its name from the Huayan Sutra, and along with the Tiantai School it ranks among the most important schools of Buddhism indigenous to China. Distinctive theses endorsed within the school, and illustrated with famous analogies of the golden lion and the jeweled net of Indra, include the mutual penetration of all dharmas past-present-and-future as well as the mutual identity of parts and wholes. But the school is also known for its contributions to classification systems of Buddhist teachings, for its use of paradoxical language, and for its innovations in conceptualizing causation. Specific teachings of the school that have attracted scholarly attention include doctrines of the three natures, the four realms, the six characteristics, the ten times, and the ten mysterious gates.
Key works Cook 1977 is a standard reference point for many other discussions in English. An early attempt to compare Huayan to process philosophy is Odin 1982, and a recent attempt to relate Huayan to postmodern ideas is Park 2010. For specific topics within the Huayan school, consult Lai 1977 on causation, Liu 1981 on hermeneutics, Wright 1982 on paradoxical language, Vorenkamp 2004 on faith, Jiang 2001 or Jones 2010 on mereology.
Introductions General introductions to the Huayan School include Cook 1977 and Chang 1971. Lai 1977, Liu 1981, and Gregory 1983 situation Huayan relative to other schools of Chinese Buddhism.
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  1. James Behuniak Jr (2009). Li in East Asian Buddhism: One Approach From Plato's Parmenides. Asian Philosophy 19 (1):31 – 49.
    In Plato's Parmenides , Socrates proposes a 'Day' analogy to express one possible model of part/whole relations. His analogy is swiftly rejected and replaced with another analogy, that of the 'Sail'. In this paper, it is argued that there is a profound difference between these two analogies and that the 'Day' represents a distinct way to think about part/whole relations. This way of thinking, I argue, is the standard way of thinking in East Asian Buddhism. Plato's 'Day' analogy can then (...)
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  2. Jana Benicka (2003). Fazang (643-712), Tractatus on Golden Lion. Filozofia 58 (9):612-623.
    The Treatise on Golden Lion is one of the most familiar and the most popular treatises in Chinese Mahayana Buddhism. Fazang, who made a system out of the classical form of learning in the Chinese school called „Flower wreath“ (Huayan), allegedly wrote this short work as a description of a real event – he explained his doctrine in the emperor's palace using a golden sculpture of a lion. He explains the fundamental implications of the doctrine oh his school – the (...)
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  3. Garma Chang (1971). The Buddhist Teaching of Totality: The Philosophy of Hwa Yen Buddhism. Pennsylvania State University Press.
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  4. Jinhua Chen (2007). Philosopher, Practitioner, Politician: The Many Lives of Fazang (643-712). Brill.
    The Buddhist master Fazang is regarded as one of the greatest metaphysicians in medieval Asia.
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  5. Francis Cook (1984). The Dialogue Between Hua-Yen and Process Thought. The Eastern Buddhist 17 (2):12-29.
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  6. Francis Cook (1979). Causation in the Chinese Hua-Yen Tradition. Journal of Chinese Philosophy 6 (4):367-385.
  7. Francis Cook (1977). Hua-Yen Buddhism: The Jewel Net of Indra. Pennsylvania State University Press.
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  8. Francis H. Cook (1972). The Meaning of Vairocana in Hua-Yen Buddhism. Philosophy East and West 22 (4):403-415.
    Is vairocana, The buddha who is the object of veneration in the chinese hua-Yen school of buddhism, To be construed as a substance or spirit in phenomenal objects? an examination of the writings of fa-Tsang, Founder of the school, Reveals that he understood vairocana to be nothing other than the name given to the mode of existence of phenomenal reality. This mode, In buddhism, Is that of complete interdependence, Or intercausality. Vairocana is the interdependent existence of the universe, Or dharma-Dhatu (...)
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  9. Gregory M. Fahy (2012). Huayan Buddhism and Dewey: Emptiness, Compassion, and the Philosophical Fallacy. Journal of Chinese Philosophy 39 (2):260-271.
    Huayan Buddhist philosophers and John Dewey share a perspective on emptiness or dependent origination. This article compares Dewey's local, contextual, and relational metaphysics with Huayan thinkers’ use of the metaphor of Indra's jewel net to extend their relational metaphysics to an infinite extent. Huayan thinkers base their ethics of compassion on the recognition of the infinite relatedness of all things. Dewey prefers constructing social institutions that foster experiences that are reliably aesthetically unified. This dispute is significant because pragmatism and Buddhism (...)
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  10. Robert Gimello (1976). Chih-Yeh and the Foundations of Hua-Yen Buddhism. Dissertation, Columbia University
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  11. Peter Gregory (1983). Chinese Buddhist Hermeneutics: The Case of Hua-Yen. Journal of the American Academy of Religion 51 (2):231-249.
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  12. Peter Gregory (1983). The Place of the Sudden Teaching Within the Hua- Yen Tradition: An Investigation of the Process of Doctrinal Change. Journal of the International Association of Buddhist Studies 6 (1):31-60.
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  13. Imre Hamar (2010). Interpretation of Yogācāra Philosophy in Huayan Buddhism. Journal of Chinese Philosophy 37 (2):181-197.
  14. Peter D. Hershock (2010). Review of Jin Y. Park, Buddhism and Postmodernity: Zen, Huayan, and the Possibility of Buddhist Postmodern Ethics. [REVIEW] Sophia 49 (1):153-155.
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  15. Kenneth Inada (1983). The Metaphysics of Cumulative Penetration Revisited. [REVIEW] Process Studies 13 (2):154-158.
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  16. Yün-Hua Jan (1980). Tsung-Mi's Questions Regarding the Confucian Absolute. Philosophy East and West 30 (4):495-504.
  17. Tao Jiang (2001). The Problematic of Whole – Part and the Horizon of the Enlightened in Huayan Buddhism. Journal of Chinese Philosophy 28 (4):457–475.
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  18. Nicholaos Jones (2010). Nyāya-Vaiśesika Inherence, Buddhist Reduction, and Huayan Total Power. Journal of Chinese Philosophy 37 (2):215-230.
    This paper elaborates upon various responses to the Problem of the One over the Many, in the service of two central goals. The first is to situate Huayan's mereology within the context of Buddhism's historical development, showing its continuity with a broader tradition of philosophizing about part-whole relations. The second goal is to highlight the way in which Huayan's mereology combines the virtues of the Nyāya-Vaisheshika and Indian Buddhist solutions to the Problem of the One over the Many while avoiding (...)
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  19. Nicholaos Jones (2009). Fazang's Total Power Mereology: An Interpretive Analytic Reconstruction. Asian Philosophy 19 (3):199-211.
    In his _Treatise on the Golden Lion_, Fazang says that wholes are _in_ each of their parts and that each part of a whole _is_ every other part of the whole. In this paper, I offer an interpretation of these remarks according to which they are not obviously false, and I use this interpretation in order to rigorously reconstruct Fazang's arguments for his claims. On the interpretation I favor, Fazang means that the presence of a whole's part suffices for the (...)
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  20. Nicholaos John Jones (2010). Mereological Heuristics for Huayan Buddhism. Philosophy East and West 60 (3):355-368.
    This is an attempt to explain, in a way familiar to contemporary ways of thinking about mereology, why someone might accept some prima facie puzzling remarks by Fazang, such as his claims that the eye of a lion is its ear and that a rafter of a building is identical to the building itself. These claims are corollaries of the Huayan Buddhist thesis that everything is part of everything else, and it is intended here to show that there is a (...)
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  21. Sallie B. King (1975). Zongmi's Commentary to the Hua-Yan Dharma-Realm Meditation. Dissertation, University of British Columbia
    This thesis is a translation, with notes and introduction, of the Commentary to the Hua-yan Dharma-Realm Meditation. This text is a commentary to the Dharma-Realm Meditation, which is incorporated into the former. The core text is by the first patriarch of the Hua-yan school of Buddhism in China, Du-shun (557-640); the commentary is by the fifth patriarch of the Hua-yan school, Zong-mi (780-841). The text is both philosophical and meditational in nature, and is a concise statement of the key doctrines (...)
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  22. Winston L. King (1979). Hua-Yen Mutually Interpenetrative Identity and Whiteheadean Organic Relation. Journal of Chinese Philosophy 6 (4):387-410.
  23. Seunghak Koh (2011). Li Tongxuan's Utilization of Chinese Symbolism in the Explication of the Avataṃasaka-Sūtra. Asian Philosophy 20 (2):141-158.
    This article deals with Li Tongxuan's explication of the Avata asaka-s tra in terms of the Sinification of Buddhism. While the affirmation of the present human condition is shared by other Chinese Huayan masters as well, this attitude is most evident in Li Tongxuan's explication of the scripture where the Chinese symbolisms such as yin-yang and five phases are amply employed. For him, every scriptural description on ordinary objects and names, especially directions, had profound religious implications. In order to reveal (...)
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  24. Seunghak Koh & Li Tongxuan (2010). Li Tongxuan's Utilization of Chinese Symbolism in the Explication of the Avatamsaka-Sutra (Vol 20, Pg 141, 2010). Asian Philosophy 20 (3):141-158.
    This article deals with Li Tongxuan's explication of the Avata?asaka-s?tra in terms of the Sinification of Buddhism. While the affirmation of the present human condition is shared by other Chinese Huayan masters as well, this attitude is most evident in Li Tongxuan's explication of the scripture where the Chinese symbolisms such as yin-yang and five phases are amply employed. For him, every scriptural description on ordinary objects and names, especially directions, had profound religious implications. In order to reveal these meanings (...)
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  25. Whalen Lai (2009). The Yijing and the Formation of the Huayan Phiolosophy. Journal of Chinese Philosophy 36 (s1):101-112.
  26. Whalen Lai (1986). The Defeat of Vijñaptimatrata in China: Fa-Tsang on Fa-Hsing and Fa-Hsiang. Journal of Chinese Philosophy 13 (1):1-19.
  27. Whalen Lai (1984). Process Metaphysics and Hua-Yen Buddhism. Idealistic Studies 14 (3):278-278.
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  28. Whalen Lai (1980). The I-Ching and the Formation of the Hua-Yen Philosophy. Journal of Chinese Philosophy 7 (3):245-258.
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  29. Whalen Lai (1977). Chinese Buddhist Causation Theories: An Analysis of the Sinitic Mahāyāna Understanding of Pratitya-Samutpāda. Philosophy East and West 27 (3):241-264.
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  30. JeeLoo Liu, Tian-Tai Metaphysics Vs. Hua-Yan Metaphysics.
    Tian-tai Buddhism and Hua-yan Buddhism can be viewed as the two most philosophically important schools in Chinese Buddhism. The Tian-tai school was founded by Zhi-yi (Chih-i) (538-597 A.D.). The major Buddhist text endorsed by this school is the Lotus Sutra, short for “the Sutra of the Lotus Blossom of the Subtle Dharma.” Hua-yan Buddhism derived its name from the Hua-yan Sutra, translated as “The Flower Ornament Scripture” or as “The Flowery Splendor Scripture.”1 The founder of the Hua-yan school was a (...)
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  31. Ming-wood Liu (1982). The Harmonious Universe of Fa-Tsang and Leibniz: A Comparative Study. Philosophy East and West 32 (1):61-76.
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  32. Ming-Wood Liu (1982). The Three-Nature Doctrine and its Interpretation in Hua-Yen Buddhism. T'oung Pao 68 (4-5):181-220.
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  33. Ming-Wood Liu (1981). The P’an-Chiao System of the Hua-Yen School in Chinese Buddhism. T’Oung Pao 67 (1-2):10-47.
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  34. Ming-Wood Liu (1979). The Teaching of Fa-Tsang: An Examination of Buddhist Metaphysics. Dissertation, University of California
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  35. Sthaneshwar Timalsina London & Cynics By William Desmond Berkeley (2009). Beyond Compare: St. Francis de Sales and Srı Vedanta Desika on Loving Surrender to God. By Francis X. Clooney, SJ. Washington, DC: Georgetown University Press, 2008. Pp. Xiii+ 271. Paper $34.95,£ 20.75. Buddhism and Postmodernity: Zen, Huayan, and the Possibility of Buddhist Post-Modern Ethics. By Jin Y. Park. Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield, 2008. Pp. [REVIEW] Philosophy East and West 59 (4):574-575.
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  36. Sor-Ching Low (2012). Buddhism and Postmodernity: Zen, Huayan, and the Possibility of Buddhist Postmodern Ethics (Review). Philosophy East and West 62 (3):417-420.
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  37. David Loy (1993). Indra's Postmodern Net. Philosophy East and West 43 (3):481-510.
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  38. Hajime Nakamura (1967). Interrelational Existence. Philosophy East and West 17 (1/4):107-112.
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  39. Robert C. Neville (1984). New Metaphysics for Eternal Experience: Critical Review of Steve Odin's Process Metaphysics and Hua-Yen Buddhism: A Critical Study of Cumulative Penetration Vs. Interpenetration. [REVIEW] Journal of Chinese Philosophy 11:185-197.
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  40. Steve Odin (1982). Process Metaphysics and Hua-Yen Buddhism: : A Critical Study of Cumulative Penetration Vs. Interpenetration. Suny Press.
    Abbreviations Works by Alfred North Whitehead 1) Adventures of Ideas. New York: Macmillan Co., 1967 AI 2) Concept of Nature. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1971 CN 3) Modes of Thought. New York: Macmillan Co., 1968 MT 4) Process ..
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  41. Jin Park (2010). Buddhism and Postmodernity: Zen, Huayan, and the Possibility of Buddhist Postmodern Ethics. Rowman & Littlefield.
    Through a close analysis of Zen encounter dialogues (gong'ans) and Huayan Buddhist philosophy, Buddhism and Postmodernity offers a new ethical paradigm for Buddhist-postmodern philosophy.
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  42. Jin Y. Park (2013). Ethics of Tension: A Buddhist-Postmodern Ethical Paradigm. Taiwan Journal of East Asian Studies 10 (19):123-142.
    This essay considers an ethical paradigm that can be drawn from Buddhist and postmodern philosophy. Ethics is a practical branch of philosophy and an ethical paradigm is closely connected to the fundamental structure and tenets of a philosophical system. That ethics is a practical branch of philosophy also indicates that meaning and value of a certain ethical paradigm is directly related to the environments in which the paradigm is understood and practiced. In considering an ethical paradigm based on Buddhist and (...)
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  43. Jin Y. Park (2013). Ethics of Tension: A Buddhist-Postmodern Ethical Paradigm. Taiwan Journal of East Asian Studies 10 (19):123-142.
    This essay considers an ethical paradigm that can be drawn from Buddhist and postmodern philosophy. Ethics is a practical branch of philosophy and an ethical paradigm is closely connected to the fundamental structure and tenets of a philosophical system. That ethics is a practical branch of philosophy also indicates that meaning and value of a certain ethical paradigm is directly related to the environments in which the paradigm is understood and practiced. In considering an ethical paradigm based on Buddhist and (...)
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  44. Jin Y. Park (2003). Living the Inconceivable: Hua-Yen Buddhism and Postmodern Différend. Asian Philosophy 13 (2 & 3):165 – 174.
    This essay attempts a paradigmatic comparison between the fourfold worldview of Hua-yen Buddhism and the postmodern philosophy of Jean-François Lyotard. Employing a tension between centripetal and centrifugal forces as a structural underpinning of these two philosophies, the essay illuminates the liberating nature of Hua-yen Buddhism and postmodern thought together with the shadow of skepticism involved in endorsing a vision for a poly-lingual existence. Despite human beings' desire for a totalitarian vision hidden in every aspect of our (...)
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  45. Casey Rentmeester (2014). Leibniz and Huayan Buddhism: Monads as Modified Li? Lyceum 13 (1):36-57.
  46. Norman Harry Rothschild, Fazang (Fa-Tsang). Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
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  47. Hsueh-Man Shen (2012). Between One and Many: Multiples, Multiplication and the Huayan Metaphysics. Proceedings of the British Academy 181:205.
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  48. Andres Siu-Kwong Tang (2011). Mou Zongsan's “Transcendental” Interpretation of Huayan Buddhism. Journal of Chinese Philosophy 38 (2):238-256.
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  49. Dirck Vorenkamp (2005). Reconsidering the Whiteheadian Critique of Huayan Temporal Symmetry in Light of Fazang's Views. Journal of Chinese Philosophy 32 (2):197-210.
  50. Dirck Vorenkamp (2004). An English Translation of Fa-Tsang’s Commentary on the Awakening of Faith. E. Mellen Press.
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