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  1. Ellen Armour (2010). Blinding Me with (Queer) Science: Religion, Sexuality, and (Post?) Modernity. [REVIEW] International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 68 (1):107-119.
    This essay brings to bear insights from continental philosophers Michel Foucault and Judith Butler on the science of (homo)sexuality and, more importantly, the desire to use such science to resolve contemporary conflicts over homosexuality’s acceptability. So-called queer science remains deeply beholden to modern notions of sex, gender, and sexuality, the author argues, a schematic that its premodern (Christian) roots further denaturalize. The philosophical insights drawn from this analysis are then applied to the controversy over homosexuality within global Christianity that often (...)
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  2. David Bell & Gill Valentine (eds.) (1994). Mapping Desire: Geographies of Sexualities. Routledge.
    Discover the truth about sex in the city (and the country). Mapping Desire explores the places and spaces of sexuality from body to community, from the "cottage" to the Barrio, from Boston to Jakarta, from home to cyberspace. Mapping Desire is the first book to explore sexualities from a geographical perspective. The nature of place and notions of space are of increasing centrality to cultural and social theory. Mapping Desires presents the rich and diverse world of contemporary sexuality, exploring how (...)
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  3. Daryl Bem, Exotic Becomes Erotic: Explaining the Enigma of Sexual Orientation.
    In this address, I outline my “Exotic-Becomes-Erotic" theory of sexual orientation (Bem, 1996) , which provides the same basic account for both opposite-sex and same-sex erotic desire—and for both men and women. It proposes that biological variables do not code for sexual orientation per se but for childhood temperaments that influence a child’s preferences for sextypical or sex-atypical activities. These preferences lead children to feel different from opposite-sex or same-sex peers—to perceive them as “exotic.” This, in turn, produces heightened physiological (...)
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  4. Ann Burlein (2005). The Productive Power of Ambiguity: Rethinking Homosexuality Through the Virtual and Developmental Systems Theory. Hypatia 20 (1):21-53.
  5. Dena S. Davis (2008). Religion, Genetics, and Sexual Orientation: The Jewish Tradition. Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 18 (2):pp. 125-148.
    This paper probes the implications of a genetic basis for sexual orientation for traditional branches of Judaism, which are struggling with how accepting to be of noncelibate gays and lesbians in their communities. The paper looks at the current attitudes toward homosexuality across the different branches of Judaism; social and cultural factors that work against acceptance; attitudes toward science in Jewish culture; and the likelihood that scientific evidence that sexual orientation is at least partly genetically determined will influence Jewish scholars' (...)
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  6. K. J. Dover (1991). Greek Sexual Choices David M. Halperin: One Hundred Years of Homosexuality and Other Essays on Greek Love. (Classical Studies/Cultural Series.) Pp. X + 230; 5 B/W Photographs. New York and London: Routledge, 1990. Paper, £9.99. [REVIEW] The Classical Review 41 (01):161-162.
  7. James A. Gould (1988). The “Natural” And Homosexuality. International Journal of Applied Philosophy 4 (2):51-54.
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  8. Jarnes A. Gould (1988). The “Natural” and Homosexuality. International Journal of Applied Philosophy 4 (2):51-54.
  9. I. Hacking (2002). How "Natural'' Are "Kinds'' of Sexual Orientation? Law and Philosophy 21 (1):95-107.
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  10. Richard L. Lippke (2011). Why Sex (Offending) Is Different. Criminal Justice Ethics 30 (2):151-172.
    The central premise is that a significant amount of sex offending stems from unusual or inappropriate sexual preferences that appear in early adolescence, are relatively stable, and immutable. In those ways, they are like more ordinary sexual preferences, generating sexual impulses that are insistent. Individuals are strongly tempted to act on them, alternatives to satisfying them are unfulfilling, and complete long-term control of such impulses is unlikely. Yet, since individuals with sexual preferences for inappropriate objects or activities are neither morally (...)
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  11. Brent Pickett, Homosexuality. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
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  12. Lee C. Rice (2000). Homosexualization and Collectivism. Philosophy and Theology 12 (2):275-292.
    I examine the new analysis of gay community and liberation offered by Dennis Altman in The Homosexualization of America. Three distinctive theoretical constructs are analyzed and criticized: (1) a new view of psychosocial development; (2) a new concept of gay identity; and (3) A set of causal hypotheses designed to explain the new direction of the gay subculture.
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  13. Paul Robinson (1999). Freud and Homosexuality. Constellations 6 (1):80-84.
  14. Vernon A. Rosario (ed.) (1997). Science and Homosexualities. Routledge.
    Science and Homosexualities is the first anthology by historians of science to examine European and American scientific research on sexual orientation since the coining of the word "homosexual" almost 150 years ago. This collection is particularly timely given the enormous scientific and popular interest in biological studies of homosexuality, and the importance given such studies in current legal, legislative and cultural debates concerning gay civil rights. However, scientific and popular literature discussing the biology of sexual orientation have been short-sighted in (...)
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  15. Michael Ruse (1990). Homosexuality: A Philosophical Inquiry. Blackwell.
Essentialism about Sexual Orientation
  1. Maren Behrensen (2013). Born That Way? The Metaphysics of Queer Liberation. APA Newsletter on Philosophy and Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender Issues 12 (2):2-7.
  2. Noretta Koertge (ed.) (1981). The Nature and Causes of Homosexuality: A Philosophic and Scientific Inquiry. Haworth Press.
    For a balanced discussion of the main social, medical, and philosophical aspects of homosexuality, here is the ideal book. Written by philosophers of science, each comprehensive chapter takes a critical look at research on the etiology of homosexuality. Read Philosophy and Homosexuality and examine the evidence for both the sociobiological and hormonal explanations of homosexuality and study the definitions of sexual orientation and how they have affected research.
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  3. R. C. Lyle (1975). Deviant Sexual Behaviour: Modification and Assessment. Journal of Medical Ethics 1 (4):197-198.
Sexual Orientation as Biological
  1. Daryl Bem, Exotic Becomes Erotic: A Political Postscript.
    This article is a postscript to Bem's (1996) theory of sexual orientation, which claims that an individual's sexual orientation is more directly the result of childhood experiences than of inborn biological factors. The possibility that the theory provides a successful strategy for preventing gender-nonconforming children from becoming homosexual adults is considered and rejected. So, too, is the thesis that biological explanations of homosexuality are more likely than experience-based explanations to promote gay-positive attitudes and practices.
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  2. Daryl Bem, Exotic Becomes Erotic: Interpreting the Biological Correlates of Sexual Orientation.
    Although biological findings currently dominate the research literature on the de- terminants of sexual orientation, biological theorizing has not yet spelled out a developmental path by which any of the various biological correlates so far iden- tified might lead to a particular sexual orientation. The Exotic-Becomes-Erotic (EBE) theory of sexual orientation (Bem, 1996) attempts to do just that, by sug- gesting how biological variables might interact with experiential and sociocultural factors to influence an individual’s sexual orientation. Evidence for the theory (...)
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  3. Andreas De Block & Pieter Adriaens (2004). Darwinizing Sexual Ambivalence: A New Evolutionary Hypothesis of Male Homosexuality. Philosophical Psychology 17 (1):59 – 76.
    At first sight, homosexuality has little to do with reproduction. Nevertheless, many neo-Darwinian theoreticians think that human homosexuality may have had a procreative value, since it enabled the close kin of homosexuals to have more viable offspring than individuals lacking the support of homosexual siblings. In this article, however, we will defend an alternative hypothesis - originally put forward by Freud in "A phylogenetic phantasy" - namely that homosexuality evolved as a means to strengthen social bonds. Consequently, from an evolutionary (...)
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  4. Christopher Horvath (2007). Biological Explanations of Human Sexuality: The Genetic Basis of Sexual Orientation. In David L. Hull & Michael Ruse (eds.), The Cambridge Companion to the Philosophy of Biology. Cambridge University Press.
  5. Yi Jiang, Patricia Costello, Fang Fang, Miner Huang & Sheng He (2006). A Gender- and Sexual Orientation-Dependent Spatial Attentional Effect of Invisible Images. PNAS 103 (45):17048 -17052.
  6. Jeff Kirby (2003). A New Group-Selection Model for the Evolution of Homosexuality. Biology and Philosophy 18 (5):683-694.
    Abstract. Scientists have long puzzled over how homosexual orientation has evolved, given the assumed low relative fitness of homosexual individuals compared to heterosexual individuals. A number of theoretical models for the evolution of homosexuality have been postulated including balance polymorphism, "Fertile females", hypervariability of DNA sequences, kin selection, and "parental manipulation". In this paper, I propose a new group-selection model for the evolution of homosexuality which offers two advantages over existing models: (1) its non-assumption of genetic determinism, and (2) its (...)
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  7. Noretta Koertge (ed.) (1981). The Nature and Causes of Homosexuality: A Philosophic and Scientific Inquiry. Haworth Press.
    For a balanced discussion of the main social, medical, and philosophical aspects of homosexuality, here is the ideal book. Written by philosophers of science, each comprehensive chapter takes a critical look at research on the etiology of homosexuality. Read Philosophy and Homosexuality and examine the evidence for both the sociobiological and hormonal explanations of homosexuality and study the definitions of sexual orientation and how they have affected research.
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  8. M. MacCulloch (1980). Biological Aspects of Homosexuality. Journal of Medical Ethics 6 (3):133-138.
  9. Charles Weijer, Queer Science: The Use and Abuse of Research Into Homosexuality.
Sexual Orientation as Socially Constructed
  1. Roger Adkins (1999). Where “Sex” Is Born(E): Intersexed Births and the Social Urgency of Heterosexuality. [REVIEW] Journal of Medical Humanities 20 (2):117-133.
    Our beloved “genders” of the present moment are neither universal nor trans-historical presences in the world. The specific gender order which we employ today is the legacy of a particular cultural and political history, and there is still a great deal at stake in preserving it. As a graduate student I stumbled upon the topic of intersexuality a few years ago and found myself enthralled with its implications. Continuing to present itself inspite of all our scientific knowledge about the supposed (...)
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  2. Pieter R. Adriaens & Andreas De Block (2006). The Evolution of a Social Construction: The Case of Male Homosexuality. Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 49 (4):570-585.
  3. Dominique Bauer (2006). Homosexuality Within the Context of Social Institutionalisation and Moral Sense. Ethical Perspectives 13 (1):61-89.
  4. Daryl Bem, Exotic Becomes Erotic: A Political Postscript.
    This article is a postscript to Bem's (1996) theory of sexual orientation, which claims that an individual's sexual orientation is more directly the result of childhood experiences than of inborn biological factors. The possibility that the theory provides a successful strategy for preventing gender-nonconforming children from becoming homosexual adults is considered and rejected. So, too, is the thesis that biological explanations of homosexuality are more likely than experience-based explanations to promote gay-positive attitudes and practices.
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  5. Terrell Carver (2009). Sex, Gender and Heteronormativity: Seeing |[Lsquo]|Some Like It Hot|[Rsquo]| as a Heterosexual Dystopia. Contemporary Political Theory 8 (2):125.
  6. George Drazenovich (2012). A Foucauldian Analysis of Homosexuality. Educational Philosophy and Theory 44 (3):259-275.
    The present research paper approaches homosexuality from a Foucauldian perspective. Foucault's place and standing in a postmodern historical and cultural context will be explained. The paper outlines how homosexuality has been historically constructed and socially constituted. How sexuality became understood as a particular form of discourse, that is as a science, will be explored particularly with regard to the strategic use of confession as a producer of knowledge. I will present how homosexuality, as a medicalized, ontological identity was implanted in (...)
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  7. Ian Hacking (1999). The Social Construction of What? Harvard University Press.
    Especially troublesome in this dispute is the status of the natural sciences, and this is where Hacking finds some of his most telling cases, from the conflict ...
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  8. Noretta Koertge (ed.) (1981). The Nature and Causes of Homosexuality: A Philosophic and Scientific Inquiry. Haworth Press.
    For a balanced discussion of the main social, medical, and philosophical aspects of homosexuality, here is the ideal book. Written by philosophers of science, each comprehensive chapter takes a critical look at research on the etiology of homosexuality. Read Philosophy and Homosexuality and examine the evidence for both the sociobiological and hormonal explanations of homosexuality and study the definitions of sexual orientation and how they have affected research.
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  9. Bonnie Mann (2007). The Lesbian June Cleaver: Heterosexism and Lesbian Mothering. Hypatia 22 (1):149-165.
    : For many of us, entry into motherhood involves an ambiguous visibility and intelligibility, where our acceptance into mainstream spaces as mothers entails a loss of lesbian difference. Mann explores this loss using the work of two philosophers of lesbian difference, Monique Wittig and Judith Butler. She argues that the figure of the lesbian mother is deployed on a broad cultural scale to reinvigorate and renaturalize the myth of the happy, natural, heterosexual mother.
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Sexual Orientation as a Choice
  1. James Gould (1994). Is Homosexuality Natural? International Journal of Applied Philosophy 8 (2):57-58.
  2. Noretta Koertge (ed.) (1981). The Nature and Causes of Homosexuality: A Philosophic and Scientific Inquiry. Haworth Press.
    For a balanced discussion of the main social, medical, and philosophical aspects of homosexuality, here is the ideal book. Written by philosophers of science, each comprehensive chapter takes a critical look at research on the etiology of homosexuality. Read Philosophy and Homosexuality and examine the evidence for both the sociobiological and hormonal explanations of homosexuality and study the definitions of sexual orientation and how they have affected research.
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  3. William S. Wilkerson (2009). Is It a Choice? Sexual Orientation as Interpretation. Journal of Social Philosophy 40 (1):97-116.
    Argues that choice, as a form of interpretation, is completely intertwined with the development of both sexual orientation and sexual identity. Sexual orientation is not simply a given, or determined aspect of personality.
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The Nature of Sexual Orientation, Misc
  1. Pieter R. Adriaens & Andreas De Block (2006). The Evolution of a Social Construction: The Case of Male Homosexuality. Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 49 (4):570-585.
  2. Mark Blasius (1992). An Ethos of Lesbian and Gay Existence. Political Theory 20 (4):642-671.
  3. Michel Foucault (1980). The History of Sexuality. Volume One: An Introduction. Vintage Books.
  4. Christopher Horvath (2007). Biological Explanations of Human Sexuality: The Genetic Basis of Sexual Orientation. In David L. Hull & Michael Ruse (eds.), The Cambridge Companion to the Philosophy of Biology. Cambridge University Press.
  5. Christopher D. Horvath (1999). Measuring Gender. Biology and Philosophy 14 (4):505-519.
    Over the past several years, various operational definitions of gender have been used in studies of gender conformity in homosexual males. The goal of these studies is to demonstrate that childhood gender nonconformity (CGN) is either the proximate cause of adult homosexuality or an intermediate step in a biologically mediated process. The hypothesis of a causal connection between the development of gender and sexual orientation is embedded within the context of a biological (evolutionary) understanding of human behavior. Thus, testing the (...)
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  6. Thomas K. Hubbard (2009). The Paradox of “Natural” Heterosexuality with “Unnatural” Women. Classical World 102 (3):249-258.
  7. Wendy Lee-Lampshire (1999). Spilling All Over the "Wide Fields of Our Passions": Frye, Butler, Wittgenstein and the Context(s) of Attention, Intention and Identity (Or: From Arm Wrestling Duck to Abject Being to Lesbian Feminist). Hypatia 14 (3):1-16.
    : I argue for a Wittgensteinian reading of Judith Butler's performative conception of identity in light of Marilyn Frye's analysis of lesbian as nonexistent and Butler's analysis of abject. I suggest that the attempt to articulate a performative lesbian identity must take seriously the contexts within which abjection is vital to maintaining gender, exposing the intimate link between context and the formulation of intention, and shedding light on possible lesbian identities irreducible to abjection.
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  8. R. C. Lyle (1975). Deviant Sexual Behaviour: Modification and Assessment. Journal of Medical Ethics 1 (4):197-198.
  9. Michael Ruse (1981). Medicine as Social Science: The Case of Freud on Homosexuality. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 6 (4):361-386.
    This paper considers the question of whether the explanation of homosexual orientation offered by Sigmund Freud qualifies as a genuine explanation, judged by the criteria of the social sciences. It is argued that the explanation, namely that homosexual orientation is a function of atypical parental influences, is indeed an explanation of the kind found in the social sciences. Nevertheless, it is concluded that to date Freud's hypotheses about homosexuality are no more than unproven speculations. Also considered is the question of (...)
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