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  1. Massimiliano Badino, Three Dogmas on Scientific Theory.
    Most philosophical accounts on scientific theories are affected by three dogmas or ingrained attitudes. These dogmas have led philosophers to choose between analyzing the internal structure of theories or their historical evolution. In this paper, I turn these three dogmas upside down. I argue (i) that mathematical practices are not epistemically neutral, (ii) that the morphology of theories can be very complex, and (iii) that one should view theoretical knowledge as the combination of internal factors and their intrinsic historicity.
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  2. Joaquín Barutta & Pablo Lorenzano (2012). Reconstrucción estructuralista de la teoría del movimiento circular de la sangre, de William Harvey. Scientiae Studia 10 (2):219-241.
    En las investigaciones sobre fisiología cardiovascular desarrolladas por William Harvey es posible distinguir entre dos teorías que responden a preguntas diferentes. La primera de ellas, que denominamos teoría del movimiento circular de la sangre, intenta dar una respuesta al problema sobre la cantidad de sangre que se mueve dentro del sistema. La segunda pretende dar cuenta de las causas de que la sangre se mueva y la denominamos teoría de las causas del movimiento de la sangre. En este trabajo, presentamos (...)
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  3. Rory J. Conces (1996). The Semblance of Ideologies and Scientific Theories and the Constitution of Facts. Review Journal of Philosophy and Social Science 21 (1 & 2):1-18.
  4. Howard Darmstadter (1975). Better Theories. Philosophy of Science 42 (1):20-27.
    It is argued that a better theory neither (I) proves better at enabling us to realize our goals, nor (II) enables us to make more accurate predictions than a worse theory. (I) fails because it, tacitly, erroneously assumes, in talking of our goals, that individual preferences for theories can be aggregated into a social preference ordering; (II) fails because it cannot distinguish between important and unimportant predictions. Neither of these failures can be patched up by appealing to the notion of (...)
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  5. Jose Diez, Jose Falguera & Pablo Lorenzano (2011). Introducción - Introduction - Introdução. Metatheoria 1 (2):1-7.
    It is the Introduction to Metatheoria’s Special Issue in homage to Joseph D. Sneed, in the fortieth anniversary of the publication of Sneed’s The Logical Structure of Mathematical Physics (Dordrecht: Reidel, 1971, 2nd revised ed. 1979) first edition, which marks the birth of metatheoretical structuralism.
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  6. José Díez & Pablo Lorenzano (2015). Are Natural Selection Explanatory Models a Priori? Biology and Philosophy 30 (6):787-809.
    The epistemic status of Natural Selection has seemed intriguing to biologists and philosophers since the very beginning of the theory to our present times. One prominent contemporary example is Elliott Sober, who claims that NS, and some other theories in biology, and maybe in economics, are peculiar in including explanatory models/conditionals that are a priori in a sense in which explanatory models/conditionals in Classical Mechanics and most other standard theories are not. Sober’s argument focuses on some “would promote” sentences that (...)
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  7. Santiago Ginnobili (2004). Desarrollos actuales de la metateoría estructuralista: Problemas y discusiones. [REVIEW] Análisis Filosófico 24 (1):111-113.
    Un aspecto poco estudiado del argumento de Michael Sandel en contra del carácter neutral de la justicia como equidad, es el modo en que funda sus conclusiones en el entendimiento que tiene de otros tres aspectos de la concepción rawlsiana de justicia: su carácter deontológico, el equilibrio reflexivo, y la posición original. Nuestro objetivo es mostrar que Sandel no ha cometido cuatro errores independientes, sino que poseer un entendimiento equivocado del carácter deontológico de la teoría lo ha llevado a caracterizar (...)
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  8. Michael Heidelberger (1994). Alternative Interpretationen der Repräsentationstheorie der Messung. In Ulla Wessels & Georg Meggle (eds.), Analyomen / Analyomen: Proceedings of the 1st Conference. De Gruyter 310-323.
    Four different interpretations of measurement are distinguished that are compatible with the formal frame of the representational theory of measurement: (1) the classical interpretation, the additive, (3) the operationalis, (4) the correlative one.
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  9. Brendan Hogan (2008). The Imaginative Character of Pragmatic Inquiry. Cognitio Estudos 5 (2).
    John Dewey’s lifelong labor to articulate an alternative account of logic from -/- the ‘abstract thought’ predominant in discussions of logic culminates in his 1938 Logic: the -/- theory of inquiry. In this text Dewey argues that all inquiry involves the instantiation of a general -/- pattern of inquiry. Articulating the role of imagination in the general pattern of inquiry is crucial -/- to illuminating the practical character and theoretical scope of this activity. Specifically, the -/- agency of the inquirer (...)
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  10. Andreas Hüttemann (2009). Pluralism and the Hypothetical in Heinrich Hertz’s Philosophy of Science. In Michael Heidelberger & Gregor Schiemann (eds.), The Significance of the Hypothetical in the Natural Sciences. De Gruyter
    In this paper I argue against readings of Hertz that overly assimilate him into the thought of late 20th century anti-realists and pluralists. Firstly, as is well-known, various images of the same objects are possible according to Hertz. However, I will argue that this envisaged pluralism concerns the situation before all the evidence is considered i. e. before we can decide whether the images are correct and appropriate. Hertz believes in final and decisive battles of the kind he participated in (...)
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  11. Emiliano Ippoliti, Thomas Nickles & Fabio Sterpetti (2016). Modeling and Inferring in Science. In Emiliano Ippoliti, Fabio Sterpetti & Thomas Nickles (eds.), Models and Inferences in Science. Springer 1-9.
    Science continually contributes new models and rethinks old ones. The way inferences are made is constantly being re-evaluated. The practice and achievements of science are both shaped by this process, so it is important to understand how models and inferences are made. But, despite the relevance of models and inference in scientific practice, these concepts still remain contro-versial in many respects. The attempt to understand the ways models and infer-ences are made basically opens two roads. The first one is to (...)
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  12. Elizabeth Irvine (2016). Model-Based Theorizing in Cognitive Neuroscience. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 67 (1):143-168.
    Weisberg and Godfrey-Smith distinguish between two forms of theorizing: data-driven ‘abstract direct representation’ and modelling. The key difference is that when using a data-driven approach, theories are intended to represent specific phenomena and so directly represent them, while models may not be intended to represent anything and so represent targets indirectly, if at all. The aim here is to compare and analyse these practices, in order to outline an account of model-based theorizing that involves direct representational relationships. This is based (...)
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  13. Frédérique Laurent & François-Igor Pris (2015). SUR LA NOTION DE THÉORIE CLOSE DE WERNER HEISENBERG À LA LUMIÈRE DU SECOND WITTGENSTEIN. APRIORI (Russian E-Journal) 6:1-35.
    Nous interprétons les vues philosophiques de Werner Heisenberg comme un pragmatisme et un réalisme non-métaphysique de type Wittgensteinien. La « théorie close » est une règle (concept) Wittgensteinienne. À la différence d’Alisa Bokulich qui donne raison à la position de Paul Dirac sur la nature des relations entre les théories physiques différentes, nous favorisons plutôt celle de Heisenberg. Notre position interprétant Heisenberg va aussi à l’encontre de celle de Popper: le critère d’une théorie scientifique établie (close) est sa non-falsifiabilité. -/- (...)
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  14. Sabina Leonelli (2012). Classificatory Theory in Data-Intensive Science: The Case of Open Biomedical Ontologies. International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 26 (1):47 - 65.
    Knowledge-making practices in biology are being strongly affected by the availability of data on an unprecedented scale, the insistence on systemic approaches and growing reliance on bioinformatics and digital infrastructures. What role does theory play within data-intensive science, and what does that tell us about scientific theories in general? To answer these questions, I focus on Open Biomedical Ontologies, digital classification tools that have become crucial to sharing results across research contexts in the biological and biomedical sciences, and argue that (...)
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  15. Ignazio Licata (2012). Complessità in fisica: che cos’è il cambiamento? Nuova Civiltà Delle Macchine 10 (4):59-76.
    IN FISICA LA COMPLESSITÀ FA IL SUO INGRESSO NELLA FISICA STATISTICA PER POI APPARIRE NELLO STUDIO DEI COMPORTAMENTI COLLETTIVI NELLA MATERIA CONDENSATA E DELLA SOFT MATTER, E DA ULTIMO NELLA NUOVA TEORIA DEL CAMBIAMENTO. RIDUZIONISMO ED EMERGENZA NON SONO APPROCCI OPPOSTI BENSÌ COMPLEMENTARI.
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  16. P. Lorenzano, W. Balzer, C. U. Moulines & J. Sneed (2000). Structuralist Knowledge Representation: Paradigmatic Examples. In Joseph D. Sneed, Wolfgang Balzer & C.-U. Moulines (eds.), Structuralist Knowledge Representation: Paradigmatic Examples. Rodopi
    Contents: Foreword. Wolfgang BALZER and C. ULISES MOULINES: Introduction. José A. DÍEZ CALZADA: Structuralist Analysis of Theories of Fundamental Measurement. Adolfo GARCÍA DE LA SIENRA and Pedro REYES: The Theory of Finite Games in Extensive Form. Hans Joachim BURSCHEID und Horst STRUVE: The Theory of Stochastic Fairness - its Historical Development, Formulation and Justification. Wolfgang BALZER and Richard MATTESSICH: Formalizing the Basis of Accounting. Werner DIEDERICH: A Reconstruction of Marxian Economics. Bert HAMMINGA and Wolfgang BALZER: The Basic Structure of Neoclassical (...)
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  17. Pablo Lorenzano (2014). What is the Status of the Hardy-Weinberg Law Within Population Genetics? Vienna Circle Institute Yearbook 17:159-172.
    The aim of this paper is to further develop van Fraassen’s diagnosis, expanding a previous analysis of the fundamental law of classical genetics and the status of the so-called ‘Mendel’s laws’.6 According to this diagnosis the Hardy-Weinberg law: 1) cannot be considered as axiom (or fundamental law) for classical population genetics, since it is a law that describes an equilibrium that 2) holds only under certain special conditions, and 3) only determines a subclass of models, 4) whose generalized form (and (...)
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  18. Pablo Lorenzano (2011). Philosophical theorizing about science in the twentieth century (and what has elapsed of the 21st century)). Discusiones Filosóficas 12 (19):131 - 154.
    Scientific activity produces results of various types. In particular, science produces a special kind of knowledge or knowledges, assumed to be different from knowledge or common sense knowledge, from everyday experience and formulated in ordinary language; a more systematized knowledge, with greater range and accuracy, and intersubjectively controllable. To produce this kind of knowledge (or knowledge), we introduce new concepts, formulate hypotheses and laws and, ultimately, construct theories, being the result of a practice or specific activity, considering science as (perhaps), (...)
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  19. Pablo Lorenzano (2006). Fundamental Laws and Laws of Biology. In Gerhard Ernst & Karl-Georg Niebergall (eds.), Philosophie der Wissenschaft – Wissenschaft der Philosophie. Festschrift für C.Ulises Moulines zum 60. Geburstag. Mentis 129-155.
    In this paper, I discuss the problem of scientific laws in general and laws of biology in particular. After reviewing the debate around the existence of laws in biology, I examine the subject in the light of the structuralist notion of a fundamental law and argue for the law of matching as the fundamental law of genetics.
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  20. Pablo Lorenzano (2000). Classical Genetics and the Theory-Net of Genetics. In Joseph D. Sneed, Wolfgang Balzer & C.-Ulises Moulines (eds.), Structuralist Knowledge Representation: Paradigmatic Examples. Rodopi 75-251.
    This article presents a reconstruction of the so-called classical, formal or Mendelian genetics, which is intended to be more complete and adequate than existing reconstructions. This reconstruction has been carried out with the instruments, duly modified and extended with respect to the case under consideration, of the structuralist conception of theories. The so-called Mendel’s Laws, as well as linkage genetics and gene mapping are formulated in a precise manner while the global structure of genetics is represented as a theory-net. These (...)
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  21. Pablo Lorenzano (1998). Hacia una reconstrucción estructural de la genética clásica y de sus relaciones con el mendelismo. Episteme 3 (5):89-117.
    The present paper is framed within one of the predominant currents of contemporary philosophy of science, which is based in case studies, in order to construct a solid, non-speculative, metatheory. In this paper classical genetics is formally analized and reconstructed with the instruments, duly modified and extended in accordance with the considered case, of the structuralist view of theories, in such a way that that theory can be characterized as a refinement of an earlier introduced model of genetics, which determines (...)
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  22. Pablo Lorenzano (1998). Sobre las Leyes en la Biologia. Episteme 3 (7):261- 272.
    The aim of the present communication is to contribute to the discussion about the existence of laws in biology. In order of it the argumentation of J.J.C. Smart against their existence and the discussion of it made by M. Ruse and R. Munson are first reconstructed. The examination of this controversy shows that, despite of the differences between the first of the authors mentioned and the other two in relation to the problem of laws in biology, the three share the (...)
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  23. Pablo Lorenzano (1995). Geschichte und Struktur der klassischen Genetik.
    Der orthodoxen Interpretation zufolge wird die Genetik als eine Disziplin dargestellt, deren Geschichte (von ihrem vermuteten Ursprung mit dem Werk Mendels an über die Werke der sogenannten «Wiederentdecker» de Vries, Correns und Tschermak und des englischen Mendelianers Bateson bis hin zur Arbeit Morgans) kontinuierlich, kumulativ und linear verlaufen sei. Im ersten Teil des Buches wird hingegen die Diskontinuität dieses Prozesses betont. Innerhalb der strukturalistischen Auffassung wissenschaftlicher Theorien wird die klassische Genetik im zweiten Teil in einer Weise rekonstruiert und formal analysiert, (...)
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  24. Robert W. P. Luk (forthcoming). A Theory of Scientific Study. Foundations of Science:1-28.
    This paper presents a theory of scientific study which is regarded as a social learning process of scientific knowledge creation, revision, application, monitoring and dissemination with the aim of securing good quality, general, objective, testable and complete scientific knowledge of the domain. The theory stipulates the aim of scientific study that forms the basis of its principles. It also makes seven assumptions about scientific study and defines the major participating entities. It extends a recent process model of scientific study into (...)
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  25. Sebastian Lutz, Empirically Adequate but Observably False Theories.
    I show that a theory may be empirically adequate according to van Fraassen's definition even though it can be observationally determined that the theory is false. I suggest a modification of empirical adequacy that avoids this result.
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  26. Sebastian Lutz, Generalizing Empirical Adequacy II: Partial Structures.
    The companion piece to this article captures and generalizes empirical adequacy in terms of vagueness sets. In this article, I show that previous attempts to capture and generalize empirical adequacy in terms of partial structures fail. Indeed, the motivations for the partial structures approach are better met by vagueness sets, which can be used to generalize the partial structure approach.
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  27. Sebastian Lutz (2014). Generalizing Empirical Adequacy I: Multiplicity and Approximation. Synthese 191 (14):3195-3225.
    I provide an explicit formulation of empirical adequacy, the central concept of constructive empiricism, and point out a number of problems. Based on one of the inspirations for empirical adequacy, I generalize the notion of a theory to avoid implausible presumptions about the relation of theoretical concepts and observations, and generalize empirical adequacy with the help of approximation sets to allow for lack of knowledge, approximations, and successive gain of knowledge and precision. As a test case, I provide an application (...)
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  28. Ulrich Meyer (2002). Is Science First-Order? Analysis 62 (276):305-308.
    It is a popular view amongst some philosophers, most notably those with Quinean views about ontological commitment, that scientific theories are first-orderizable; that we can regiment all such theories in an extensional first-order language. I argue that this view is false, and that any acceptable account of science needs to take some modal notion as primitive.
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  29. Cartwright Nancy, Towfic Shomar & Mauricio Suárez (1995). The Tool‐Box of Science. In HerfelWilliam (ed.), Theories and Models in Scientific Processes. Rodopi 137--149.
    We call for a new philosophical conception of models in physics. Some standard conceptions take models to be useful approximations to theorems, that are the chief means to test theories. Hence the heuristics of model building is dictated by the requirements and practice of theory-testing. In this paper we argue that a theory-driven view of models can not account for common procedures used by scientists to model phenomena. We illustrate this thesis with a case study: the construction of one of (...)
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  30. Varanasi Ramabrahmam (2009). THE ACOUSTO-MECHANOTRONICS OF HUMAN LANGUAGE ACQUISITION AND COMMUNICATION. In Proceedings of Eighteenth National Symposium on Ultrasonics, at VIT University, Vellore, December, 21-23, 2009. 87-103.
    The insight and ideas available in the Upanishads, the Advaita philosophy, the SphotaVada and the Sabdabrahma Siddhanta on the theory of language acquisition and communication by humans will be translated and presented in modern scientific terms. The acousto-mechanotronics involved therein will be elaborated and four modes of language acquisition and communication will be elucidated. The reversible becoming phenomenon inherent in the language theory will be described. The transformations of sound energy uttered /heard through transducers and reversible transformations of tuned infrasonic (...)
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  31. Towfic Shomar (2008). Bohr as a Phenomenological Realist. Journal for General Philosophy of Science / Zeitschrift für Allgemeine Wissenschaftstheorie 39 (2):321 - 349.
    There is confusion among scholars of Bohr as to whether he should be categorized as an instrumentalist (see Faye 1991 ) or a realist (see Folse 1985 ). I argue that Bohr is a realist, and that the confusion is due to the fact that he holds a very special view of realism, which did not coincide with the philosophers’ views. His approach was sometimes labelled instrumentalist and other times realist, because he was an instrumentalist on the theoretical level, but (...)
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  32. Towfic Shomar (2008). Bohr as a Phenomenological Realist. Journal for General Philosophy of Science / Zeitschrift für Allgemeine Wissenschaftstheorie 39 (2):321-349.
    There is confusion among scholars of Bohr as to whether he should be categorized as an instrumentalist (see Faye 1991) or a realist (see Folse 1985). I argue that Bohr is a realist, and that the confusion is due to the fact that he holds a very special view of realism, which did not coincide with the philosophers’ views. His approach was sometimes labelled instrumentalist and other times realist, because he was an instrumentalist on the theoretical level, but a realist (...)
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  33. V. A. Smirnov (1986). Logical Relations Between Theories. Synthese 66 (1):71 - 87.
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  34. Jacob Stegenga (2009). Angela N. H. Creager, Elizabeth Lunbeck and M. Norton Wise , Science Without Laws: Model Systems, Cases, Exemplary Narratives. Durham, NC and London: Duke University Press, 2007. ISBN 978-0-8223-4068-3. £12.99. [REVIEW] British Journal for the History of Science 42 (4):626.
  35. Jonathan Y. Tsou (2015). Reconsidering the Carnap-Kuhn Connection. In Kuhn’s Structure of Scientific Revolutions - 50 Years On. Springer International Publishing
    Recently, some philosophers of science (e.g., Gürol Irzik, Michael Friedman) have challenged the ‘received view’ on the relationship between Rudolf Carnap and Thomas Kuhn, suggesting that there is a close affinity (rather than opposition) between their philosophical views. In support of this argument, these authors cite Carnap and Kuhn’s similar views on incommensurability, theory-choice, and scientific revolutions. Against this revisionist view, I argue that the philosophical relationship between Carnap and Kuhn should be regarded as opposed rather than complementary. In particular, (...)
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  36. Maarten Van Dyck (2009). On the Epistemological Foundations of the Law of the Lever. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 40 (3):315-318.
    In this paper I challenge Paolo Palmieri’s reading of the Mach-Vailati debate on Archimedes’s proof of the law of the lever. I argue that the actual import of the debate concerns the possible epistemic (as opposed to merely pragmatic) role of mathematical arguments in empirical physics, and that construed in this light Vailati carries the upper hand. This claim is defended by showing that Archimedes’s proof of the law of the lever is not a way of appealing to a non-empirical (...)
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  37. Franck Varenne (2013). Théorie mathématique des catégories en biologie et notion d’équivalence naturelle chez Robert Rosen. Revue d'Histoire des Sciences 66 (1):167-197.
    The aim of this paper is to describe and analyze the epistemological justification of a proposal initially made by the bio-mathematician Robert Rosen in 1958. In this theoretical proposal, Rosen suggests using the mathematical concept of « category » and the correlative concept of « natural equivalence » in mathematical modeling applied to living beings. Our questions are the following: according to Rosen, to what extent does the mathematical notion of category give access to more « natural » formalisms in (...)
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  38. Steven E. Wallis (ed.) (2010). The Structure of Theory and the Structure of Scientific Revolutions: What Constitutes an Advance in Theory? IGI Global.
    From a Kuhnian perspective, a paradigmatic revolution in management science will significantly improve our understanding of the business world and show practitioners (including managers and consultants) how to become much more effective. Without an objective measure of revolution, however, the door is open for spurious claims of revolutionary advance. Such claims cause confusion among scholars and practitioners and reduce the legitimacy of university management programs. Metatheoretical methods, based on insights from systems theory, provide new tools for analyzing the structure of (...)
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  39. Anne Schulherr Waters, Broadening the Scope of American Philosophy at the Turn of a New Millennium. American Philosophical Association Newsletter on American Indians in Philosophy.
    This paper argues that Renaissance ideas of great thinkers like Copernicus and Galileo were already integrated in indigenous thought and life. And this, indigenous thought rather than the European import commonly labelled "American" philosophy, is Turtle Island philosophy, or "American philosophy," and should be properly named and rightfully recognized as such, throughout the Americas. Waters argues that in the USA, articulating the metaphysics and epistemology of survival experience of American Indigenous, African Indigenous, and other global indigenous cultures may philosophically lead (...)
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  40. Rasmus Grønfeldt Winther (2015). The Structure of Scientific Theories. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
    Scientific inquiry has led to immense explanatory and technological successes, partly as a result of the pervasiveness of scientific theories. Relativity theory, evolutionary theory, and plate tectonics were, and continue to be, wildly successful families of theories within physics, biology, and geology. Other powerful theory clusters inhabit comparatively recent disciplines such as cognitive science, climate science, molecular biology, microeconomics, and Geographic Information Science (GIS). Effective scientific theories magnify understanding, help supply legitimate explanations, and assist in formulating predictions. Moving from their (...)
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  41. Raymond Aaron Younis (2010). Science Religion and the Limits of Reason. Forum Philosophicum: International Journal for Philosophy 15 (2):317-335.
  42. Raymond Aaron Younis (1998). Shattering the Mirror of Nature. [REVIEW] Metascience 7 (1):216-221.