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  1. Robert J. Ackermann (1966). Confirmatory Models of Theories. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 16 (64):312-326.
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  2. Matthias Adam (2004). Why Worry About Theory-Dependence? Circularity, Minimal Empiricality and Reliability. International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 18 (2 & 3):117 – 132.
    It is a widely shared view among philosophers of science that the theory-dependence (or theory-ladenness) of observations is worrying, because it can bias empirical tests in favour of the tested theories. These doubts are taken to be dispelled if an observation is influenced by a theory independent of the tested theory and thus circularity is avoided, while (partially) circular tests are taken to require special attention. Contrary to this consensus, it is argued that the epistemic value of theory-dependent tests has (...)
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  3. Michael D. Alder (1973). On Theories. Philosophy of Science 40 (2):213-226.
    An axiom set is given which purports to formalize the notion of a "theory involving measurement." The abstract objects satisfying these axioms are examined, and some candidates for measures of complexity are considered. This framework allows us to discuss some forms of a degree of confirmation. Both "complexity" and "degree of confirmation" appear to be intimately bound up with geometrical aspects of these "theories" which derive from measurement considerations, suggesting that the concepts may be inapplicable to more "general theories." The (...)
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  4. Peter Alexander (1958). Theory-Construction and Theory-Testing. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 9 (33):29-38.
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  5. Wolfgang Balzer & Carlos Ulises Moulines (eds.) (1996). Structuralist Theory of Science: Focal Issues, New Results. Walter De Gruyter.
  6. Wolfgang Balzer & Joseph D. Sneed (1978). Generalized Net Structures of Empirical Theories. II. Studia Logica 37 (2):167 - 194.
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  7. Wolfgang Balzer & Joseph D. Sneed (1977). Generalized Net Structures of Empirical Theories. I. Studia Logica 36 (3):195 - 211.
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  8. Michael Baur (1990). On the Aim of Scientific Theories in Relating to the World: A Defence of the Semantic Account. Dialogue 29 (03):323-.
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  9. John Beatty (1987). On Behalf of the Semantic View. Biology and Philosophy 2 (1):17-23.
    responses to Sloep and Van der Steen, Biol. Philos. 1987 (2)33.
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  10. Simon W. Blackburn (1992). Theory, Observation, and Drama. Mind and Language 7 (1-2):187-203.
  11. Ingo Brigandt (2016). Do We Need a ‘Theory’ of Development? Biology and Philosophy 31 (4):603-617.
    Edited by Alessandro Minelli and Thomas Pradeu, Towards a Theory of Development gathers essays by biologists and philosophers, which display a diversity of theoretical perspectives. The discussions not only cover the state of art, but broaden our vision of what development includes and provide pointers for future research. Interestingly, all contributors agree that explanations should not just be gene-centered, and virtually none use design and other engineering metaphors to articulate principles of cellular and organismal organization. I comment in particular on (...)
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  12. David Craig, A Theory of Theories.
    On the basis of examples from mathematical physics, theoretical hypotheses are distinguished from generative theories. An example of the former is Green’s claim that light is the vibrations of a certain type of elastic solid. An example of the later is the wave theory of light. Both hypotheses and theories are characterized in terms of theoretical principles and models, but unique to a theory is a language frame for generating its many models. The aim of theory is defined in terms (...)
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  13. Michael E. Cuffaro (2014). Review Of: Christopher G. Timpson, Quantum Information Theory and the Foundations of Quantum Mechanics. [REVIEW] Philosophy of Science 81 (4):681-684,.
  14. R. D. (1957). The Validation of Scientific Theories. [REVIEW] Review of Metaphysics 10 (4):718-718.
  15. Wayne A. Davis (1983). The Science of Philosophy. Review of Metaphysics 36 (4):929-930.
  16. Catherine Z. Elgin (1993). Understanding: Art and Science. Synthese 95 (1):196-208.
    The arts and the sciences perform many of the same cognitive functions, both serving to advance understanding. This paper explores some of the ways exemplification operates in the two fields. Both scientific experiments and works of art highlight, underscore, display, or convey some of their own features. They thereby focus attention on them, and make them available for examination and projection. Thus, the Michelson-Morley experiment exemplifies the constancy of the speed of light. Jackson Pollock'sNumber One exemplifies the viscosity of paint. (...)
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  17. Jan Faye, Models, Theories, and Language.
    The semantic view on theories has been much in vogue over four decades as the successor of the syntactic view. In the present paper, I take issue with this approach by arguing that theories and models must be separated and that a theory should be considered to be a linguistic systems consisting of a vocabulary and a set of rules for the use of that vocabulary.
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  18. Volker Gadenne (1985). Theoretische Begriffe Und Die Prüfbarkeit Von Theorien. Journal for General Philosophy of Science / Zeitschrift für Allgemeine Wissenschaftstheorie 16 (1):19-24.
    Summary The non-statement view of scientific theories contains a new conception of theoreticity: A function is „T-theoretical if T must be presupposed for its calculation. On the basis of this conception some philosophers came to the conclusion that scientific theories are not empirically testable because they contain T-theoretical functions. It is claimed that the attempt to test them ends in a circularity: The test of T presupposes T itself.
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  19. Robert P. George & Natural Law (1999). Rooks Received. American Catholic Philosophical Quarterly 73 (4).
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  20. Ronald Giere (1988). Laws, Theories, and Generalizations. In A. Grünbaum & W. Salmon (eds.), The Limits of Deductivism. University of California Press, Berkeley, Ca 37--46.
  21. Ronald N. Giere (1986). Cognitive Models in the Philosophy of Science. PSA: Proceedings of the Biennial Meeting of the Philosophy of Science Association 1986:319 - 328.
    This paper provides a general defense of the idea that the cognitive sciences provide models that are useful for exploring issues that have traditionally occupied philosophers of science. Questions about the nature of theories, for example, are assimilated into studies of the nature of cognitive representations, while questions concerning the choice of theories fall under studies of human judgment and decision making. The implications of adopting "a cognitive approach" are explored, particularly the rejection of foundationist epistemologies which might provide a (...)
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  22. Carl F. Graver (2002). Structures of Scientific Theories1. In Peter Machamer Michael Silberstein (ed.), The Blackwell Guide to the Philosophy of Science. Blackwell 7--55.
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  23. Michael Hallett (1979). Towards a Theory of Mathematical Research Programmes (I). British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 30 (1):1-25.
  24. Michael Hallett (1979). Towards a Theory of Mathematical Research Programmes (II). British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 30 (2):135-159.
  25. D. Wade Hands (2003). Reconsidering the Received View of the 'Received View': Kant, Kuhn, and the Demise of Positivist Philosophy of Science. Social Epistemology 17 (2 & 3):169 – 173.
  26. Carl G. Hempel (1988). Provisoes: A Problem Concerning the Inferential Function of Scientific Theories. [REVIEW] Erkenntnis 28 (2):147 - 164.
  27. Robin F. Hendry & Stathis Psillos (2007). How to Do Things with Theories: An Interactive View of Language and Models in Science. In Jerzy Brzeziński, Andrzej Klawiter, Theo A. F. Kuipers, Krzysztof Łastowski, Katarzyna Paprzycka & Piotr Przybysz (eds.), The Courage of Doing Philosophy: Essays Dedicated to Leszek Nowak. Rodopi 123--157.
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  28. Mary Hesse (1967). Laws and Theories. In Paul Edwards (ed.), The Encyclopedia of Philosophy. New York, Macmillan 4--404.
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  29. C. A. Hooker (1975). On Global Theories. Philosophy of Science 42 (2):152-179.
    Contrary to the Empiricist model of science, successful sufficiently fundamental theories not only fit and unify their data fields but also prescribe the general terms in which relevantly to describe observation; specify what is and is not observable; specify the conditions under which what is observable, is observable; specify the instrumental means and reliability by which what is measurable is measured; specify what is causally, statistically, and merely accidentally connected. Moreover, such theories typically require all or most of the entire (...)
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  30. Colin Howson & John Worrall (1974). The Contemporary State of Philosophy of Science in Britain. Journal for General Philosophy of Science / Zeitschrift für Allgemeine Wissenschaftstheorie 5 (2):363-374.
    Some of the problem areas in which British philosophers of science have recently been engaged are described and some of the major contributions noted. Two sets of problems are given special attention: one concerned with the analysis of probability statements and one concerned with the appraisal of scientific theories. Three traditions in the approach to this second set of problems are distinguished. These might be called the Carnapian, the Popperian and the Wittgensteinian traditions.
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  31. Nick Huggett (2000). Local Philosophies of Science. Philosophy of Science 67 (3):137.
    Since the collapse of the 'received view' consensus in the late 1960s, the question of scientific realism has been a major preoccupation of philosophers of science. This paper sketches the history of this debate, which grew from developments in the philosophy of language, but eventually took on an autonomous existence. More recently, the debate has tended towards more 'local' considerations of particular scientific episodes as a way of getting purchase on the issues. The paper reviews two such approaches, Fine's and (...)
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  32. Nick Huggett, Steven French & Frederick Suppe (2000). Metaphilosophy and the History of the Philosophy of Science-The Structure of Scientific Theories Thirty Years On-Understanding Scientific Theories: An Assessment of Developments, 1969-1998. [REVIEW] Philosophy of Science 67 (3).
  33. Kevin Kelly, Simplicity, Truth, and the Unending Game of Science.
    This paper presents a new explanation of how preferring the simplest theory compatible with experience assists one in finding the true answer to a scientific question when the answers are theories or models. Inquiry is portrayed as an unending game between science and nature in which the scientist aims to converge to the true theory on the basis of accumulating information. Simplicity is a topological invariant reflecting sequences of theory choices that nature can force an arbitrary, convergent scientist to produce. (...)
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  34. Noretta Koertge, A Methodological Critique of the Semantic Conception of Theories.
    A new PhD slated to teach a beginning undergraduate course on scientific reasoning recently asked me to recommend topics. I launched into a description of my “baby-Popper-plus-statistics” class – give them enough deductive logic to understand the Duhemian problem, do the Galileo case study, use the notion of severe test to introduce a bit of probability theory, then segue to the problem of testing statistical hypotheses…. My interlocutor was looking impatient. “But I’m a strong adherent of the Semantic Conception of (...)
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  35. S. Körner (1967). Some Relations Between Philosophical and Scientific Theories. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 17 (4):265-278.
    Since the question of the relations between philosophy and science is never very far from the minds of philosophers of science, an occasional attempt at answering it seems permissible and may even be useful. The paper is divided into three parts. First, philosophical and scientific theories are compared by reference to commonsense thought. Secondly, some of the reasonable and unreasonable constraints will bediscussed which philosophical theories may impose upon scientific ones, and scientific theories upon philosophical ones. In the third part (...)
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  36. I. V. Kuznetsov (1968). The Structure of the Scientific Theory and the Structure of the Object. Russian Studies in Philosophy 7 (2):15-26.
    Knowledge is systemic by its nature. The highest expression of the systematic character of knowledge is to be found in scientific theories. Any scientific theory is a rigorously organized conceptual system, quite complex in structure. What defines the manner in which knowledge is organized in a theory? Is it independent of the nature and structural features of that sphere of the material world for cognition of which the theory was created, or is it conditioned by these features and does it (...)
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  37. Hugh Lehman (1974). Robert C. Colodny , "The Nature and Function of Scientific Theories, Essays in Contemporary Science and Philosophy". Theory and Decision 4 (3/4):385.
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  38. Jean Leroux (2001). "Picture Theories" as Forerunners of the Semantic Approach to Scientific Theories. International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 15 (2):189 – 197.
  39. Michael Lissack, Second Order Science: Putting the Metaphysics Back Into the Practice of Science.
    The traditional sciences have always had trouble with ambiguity. Through the imposition of “enabling constraints” -- making a set of assumptions and then declaring ceteris paribus -- science can bracket away ambiguity. These enabling constraints take the form of uncritically examined presuppositions or “uceps.” Second order science examines variations in values assumed for these uceps and looks at the resulting impacts on related scientific claims. After rendering explicit the role of uceps in scientific claims, the scientific method is used to (...)
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  40. Elisabeth A. Lloyd (1988). The Semantic Approach and Its Application to Evolutionary Theory. PSA: Proceedings of the Biennial Meeting of the Philosophy of Science Association 1988:278 - 285.
    In this talk I do three things. First, I review what I take to be fruitful applications of the semantic view of theory structure to evolutionary theory. Second, I list and correct three common misunderstandings about the semantic view. Third, I evaluate the weaknesses and strengths of Horan's paper in this symposium. Specifically, I argue that the criticisms leveled against the semantic view by Horan are inappropriate because they incorporate some basic misconceptions about the semantic view itself.
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  41. Kuno Lorenz (1981). About Limits of Growth for Scientific Theories. Grazer Philosophische Studien 12:79-83.
    If self-determination shall apply as a norm also to scientific research and presentation, there are beside empirical limitations regarding data production, also conceptual limitations to data processing, because nobody can rely on knowledge by firsthand authority only. A transfer-condition (knowledge by n-th hand authority should " in principle" be available by first-hand authority) in order to save scientific rationality is shown to be equivalent with following "open" discourses, i.e. argumentations which combine competition and cooperation through developing the means to overcome (...)
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  42. P. D. Magnus, What SPECIES Can Teach Us About THEORY.
    This paper argues against the common, often implicit view that theories are some specific kind of thing. Instead, I argue for theory concept pluralism: There are multiple distinct theory concepts which we legitimately use in different domains and for different purposes, and we should not expect this to change. The argument goes by analogy with species concept pluralism, a familiar position in philosophy of biology. I conclude by considering some consequences for philosophy of science if theory concept pluralism is correct.
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  43. Klaus Manhart (1998). Theorienreduktion in den Sozialwissenschaften. Eine Fallstudie Am Beispiel der Balancetheorien. Journal for General Philosophy of Science / Zeitschrift für Allgemeine Wissenschaftstheorie 29 (2):301-326.
    Theory Reduction in the Social Sciences. The example of balance theories. A central topic both in philosophy of science as well as in the empirical sciences is the reconstruction of the relations between theories. In the past comparisons of theories by means of traditional linguistic methods have proved to be extremely difficult and complicated. In this article the reconstruction of intertheoretical relations based on model-theoretical terms is propagated, as formulated within the structuralist view of theories. The efficiency of a model (...)
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  44. Tihamér Margitay (1998). Theories in Contexts on the Interpretation of Scientific Theories. Monograph Collection (Matt - Pseudo).
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  45. Thomas Mormann (2007). The Structure of Scientific Theories in Logical Empiricism. In A. Richardson & T. Uebel (eds.), The Cambridge Companion to Logical Empiricism. CUP
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  46. Margaret Morrison (1988). Reduction and Realism. PSA: Proceedings of the Biennial Meeting of the Philosophy of Science Association 1988:286 - 293.
    In The Foundations of Space-Time Theories Friedman argues for a literal realistic interpretation about theoretical structures that participate in theory unification. His account of the relationship between observational and theoretical structure is characterized as that of model to submodel and involves a reductivist strategy that allows for the conjunction of certain theoretical structures with other structures which, taken together, form a truly unified theory. Friedman criticizes the representational account for its failure to allow for a literal interpretation and conjunction of (...)
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  47. Frederik A. Muller (2003). Refutability Revamped: How Quantum Mechanics Saves the Phenomena. Erkenntnis 58 (2):189 - 211.
    On the basis of the Suppes–Sneed structuralview of scientific theories, we take a freshlook at the concept of refutability,which was famously proposed by K.R. Popper in 1934 as a criterion for the demarcation of scientific theories from non-scientific ones, e.g., pseudo-scientificand metaphysical theories. By way of an introduction we argue that a clash between Popper and his critics on whether scientific theories are, in fact, refutablecan be partly explained by the fact Popper and his criticsascribed different meanings to the term (...)
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  48. Mark W. Risjord (2010). Nursing Knowledge: Science, Practice, and Philosophy. Wiley-Blackwell Pub..
    The final chapter of the book 'redraws the map', to create a new picture of nursing science based on the following principles: Problems of practice should guide ...
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  49. Gerhard Schurz (1990). Paradoxical Consequences of Balzer's and Gähde's Criteria of Theoreticity. Results of an Application to ten Scientific Theories. Erkenntnis 32 (2):161 - 214.
    It is shown that the criteria of T-theoreticity proposed by Balzer and Gähde lead to strongly counterintuitive and in this sense paradoxical results: most of the obviously empirical or at least nontheoretical terms come out as theoretical. This is demonstrated for a lot of theories in different areas. On the way, some improved and some new structuralist theory-reconstructions are given. The conclusion is drawn that the T-theoreticity of a term cannot possibly be proved on the basis of the mathematical structure (...)
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  50. Gerhard Schurz & Ioannis Votsis, A Preliminary Application of Frame-Theory to the Philosophy of Science: The Phlogiston-Oxygen Case.
    In the first part of this paper we investigate how scientific theories can be represented by frames. Different kinds of scientific theories can be distinguished in terms of the systematic power of their frames. In the second part we outline the central questions and goals of our research project. In the third and final part of this paper we show that frame-representation is a useful tool in the comparison of the theories of phlogiston and oxygen, despite those theories being traditionally (...)
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