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Siblings:History/traditions: The Synthetic A Priori
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  1. Henry E. Allison (1981). Transcendental Schematism and The Problem of the Synthetic A Priori. Dialectica 35 (1):57-83.
    SummaryThe paper is concerned with the connection between Kant's conception of transcendental schematism and his analysis of the conditions of the possibility of synthetic a priori judgments. After dealing with some of the standard objections to Kant's theory, I argue that transcendental schemata must be construed as pure intuitions. I then point out that the Principles of Pure Understanding are a set of synthetic a priori judgments which assert the function of the various schemata as necessary conditions of the possibility (...)
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  2. R. Lanier Anderson (2001). Synthesis, Cognitive Normativity, and the Meaning of Kant's Question, 'How Are Synthetic Cognitions a Priori Possible?'. European Journal of Philosophy 9 (3):275–305.
  3. Constantin Antonopoulos (2011). Passive Knowledge: How to Make Sense of Kant's A Priori——Or How Not to Be “Too Busily Subsuming”. Open Journal of Philosophy 1 (2):39.
    Subjectivists, taking the “collapse” of the observation-interpretation contrast much too seriously, are led to imagine that even perceptual knowledge is active. And therefore subject dependent. Turning the tables on this popular trend, I argue that even conceptual knowledge is passive. Kant’s epistemology is conceptual. But if also active, then incoherent. If synthetic a priori truths are to follow upon our mental activity, they were neither true nor, far less, a priori before that activity. “A priori” and “active” are contradictory attributes (...)
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  4. Robert Audi (2004). The a Priori Authority of Testimony. Philosophical Issues 14 (1):18–34.
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  5. Jason S. Baehr, A Priori and a Posteriori. Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
    The terms "a priori" and "a posteriori" refer primarily to how or on what basis a proposition might be known. A proposition is knowable a priori if it is knowable independently of experience. A proposition is knowable a posteriori if it is knowable on the basis of experience. The a priori/a posteriori distinction is epistemological and should not be confused with the metaphysical distinction between the necessary and the contingent or the semantical or logical distinction between the analytic and the (...)
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  6. Gilead Bar-Elli (1982). Identity and the Formation of the Notion of Object. Or: The Identity of Indiscernibles: A Synthetic a Priori. Erkenntnis 17 (2):229 - 248.
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  7. Lewis White Beck (1957). On the Meta-Semantics of the Problem of the Synthetic a Priori. Mind 66 (262):228-232.
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  8. Claus Beisbart (2008). Review of M. Wille, Mathematics and the Synthetic A Priori: Epistemological Investigations Into the Status of Mathematical Axioms. [REVIEW] Philosophia Mathematica 16 (1):130-132.
    Kant famously thought that mathematics contains synthetic a priori truths. In his book, Wille defends a version of the Kantian thesis on not-so-Kantian grounds. Wille calls his account neo-Kantian , because it makes sense of Kantian tenets by using a methodology that takes the linguistic and pragmatic turns seriously .Wille's work forms part of a larger project in which the statuses of mathematics and proof theory are investigated . The official purpose of the present book is to answer the question: (...)
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  9. José Benardete (1994). AI and The Synthetic A Priori. In John O'Leary-Hawthorne & Michaelis Michael (eds.), Philosophy in Mind. Kluwer 9--22.
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  10. Gustav Bergmann, Synthetic a Priori.
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  11. Christian Bonnet & Ronan De Calan, Moritz Schlick, Between Synthetic a Priori Judgment and Conventionalism.
    The present article aims at tracing Moritz Schlick's theoretical route from 1915 to 1936 - the year he was assassinated. The authors describe this route as Schlick's attempt at successively evading what one could define as two flaws in modern philosophy - the Charybdis of Kantian epistemology and the Scylla of radical conventionalism. Such an original and daring guideline also deviates from all great epistemological philosophies dating from the beginning of the century with which the Vienna Circle's founder engaged in (...)
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  12. Davide Bordini (2011). Analitico, sintetico e a priori: questioni di forma. Il dibattito tra fenomenologia husserliana e empirismo logico. Rivista di Storia Della Filosofia 2.
    This article sketches out the key features of the debate on the analytic-synthetic distinction between phenomenology and logical empiricism, which took place in the early part of the twentieth century. On the one side, the author reconstructs the debate itself from an historical angle; on the other, he gives a theoretical account of the different positions and arguments. In particular, he has three main aims: a) to clarify how, according to Husserl, the analyticsynthetic opposition is to be understood as the (...)
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  13. Davide Bordini (2011). The Analytic, the Synthetic and the a Priori: A Matter of Form. The Debate Between Husserlian Phenomenology and Logical Empiricism. Rivista di Storia Della Filosofia 66 (2):205-230.
  14. C. D. Broad, A. J. D. Porteous & Reginald Jackson (1936). Are There Synthetic A Priori Truths? Aristotelian Society Supplementary Volume 15:102-153.
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  15. C. D. Broad, A. J. D. Porteous & Reginald Jackson (1936). Symposium: Are There Synthetic A Priori Truths? Aristotelian Society Supplementary Volume 15:102 - 153.
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  16. B. Byrd & Joachim Hruschka (2006). Der usrprüngliche und a priori vereinigte Wille und seine Konsequenzen in Kants Rechtslehre. Jahrbuch für Recht Und Ethik 14.
    Der Beitrag bestimmt den logischen Standort und die Funktion des ursprünglich und a priori vereinigten Willens in Kants Rechtslehre. Der ursprünglich und a priori vereinigte Wille wird von einer ursprünglichen Gemeinschaft aller Menschen am Erdboden hervorgebracht, die ihrerseits auf einem ursprünglichen Recht eines jeden auf einen Platz auf dieser Erde gründet. Das ursprüngliche Recht auf einen Platz selbst folgt aus dem ursprünglichen Freiheitsrecht. Der ursprünglich vereinigte Wille richtet sich auf die Aufteilung des Erdbodens. Dadurch wird der ursprüngliche Erwerb von Sachen, (...)
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  17. Ronan De Calan (forthcoming). Les « Relations of Ideas » Une Matrice du Synthétique « a Priori » ? Revue de Métaphysique et de Morale.
    On défend ici l'hypothèse selon laquelle les relations d'idées humiennes ont pu servir de matrice à la constitution d'un a priori phénoménologique, en un sens particulier : conçues d'abord comme relations internes, elles ont dû être partiellement arrachées à un modèle représentationnel hérité de Brentano et insérées dans un dispositif ontologique, s'exprimant alors selon une modalité qui est celle du rapport d'essence. One suggests the possibility that Hume's relations of ideas must have constituted the basis of the phenomenological synthetic a (...)
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  18. Emily Carson (2013). Pure Intuition and Kant's Synthetic A Priori. In Stewart Duncan & Antonia LoLordo (eds.), Debates in Modern Philosophy: Essential Readings and Contemporary Responses. Routledge 307.
  19. James Roland Carter (1980). The Sources of a Priori Knowledge: A Commentary on Kant's Notions of Sensibility, Understanding, and Reason. Dissertation, The Ohio State University
    In chapter five I examine the work of Thomas Kuhn and discuss some points of agreement and disagreement between Kant's thought and Kuhn's methodological and historiographic discoveries, including some treatment of implications of Kant's thought, as explicated in the present study, for issues that Kuhn raises in the philosophy of science. This contrast with Kuhn points up the fundamentally philosophical character of Kant's notions of sensibility, understanding, and reason as the sources of our a priori knowledge. ;Chapter four explicates Kant's (...)
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  20. Albert Casullo, A Contemporary Perspective on A Priori Knowledge.
    (K1) All knowledge of necessary propositions is a priori. (K2) All propositions known a priori are necessary. (K3) All knowledge of analytic propositions is a priori; and (K4) Some propositions known a priori are synthetic.
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  21. Albert Casullo, Intuition, Thought Experiments, and the A Priori.
    There has been a significant shift in the discussion of a priori knowledge. The shift is due largely to the influence of Quine. The traditional debate focused on the epistemic status of mathematics and logic. Kant, for example, maintained that arithmetic and geometry provide clear examples of synthetic a priori knowledge and that principles of logic, such as the principle of contradiction, provide the basis for analytic a priori knowledge. Quine’s rejection of the analytic-synthetic distinction and his holistic empiricist account (...)
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  22. Álvaro J. Peláez Cedrés (2007). Kant y Los Principios a Priori de la Ciencia Natural. Signos Filosóficos 60 (17):139-162.
    This paper considers the kantian statement that the natural science, the same as the mathematics, it contains synthetic a priori judgments as principles. However, a comparative study among the principles of both sciences, as well as of the foundations of their constitution, it throws the primary ..
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  23. Álvaro Peláez Cedres (2007). Kant y los principios a priori de la ciencia natural. Signos Filosóficos 9:139-162.
    Este artí­culo considera la afirmación kantiana de que la ciencia natural, al igual que las matemáticas, contiene juicios sintéticos a priori como principios. Sin embargo, un estudio comparativo entre los principios de ambas ciencias, así­ como de los fundamentos de su constitución, arroja el resultado primario de que sólo es posible hablar de principios propiamente a priori en las matemáticas, manteniendo para los de la ciencia natural un estatus diferente. La elucidación de la naturaleza y modo de construcciún de estos (...)
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  24. Roderick M. Chisholm (1951). Review: Arthur Pap, Logic and the Synthetic a Priori. [REVIEW] Journal of Symbolic Logic 16 (2):140-140.
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  25. Noam Chomsky (1957). Review: Wilfrid Sellars, Is There a Synthetic a Priori? [REVIEW] Journal of Symbolic Logic 22 (4):402-402.
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  26. Alonzo Church (1950). Review: Atwell R. Turquette, Godel and the Synthetic a Priori. [REVIEW] Journal of Symbolic Logic 15 (3):221-222.
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  27. Alonzo Church (1950). Review: Irving M. Copi (Copilowish), Modern Logic and the Synthetic a Priori. [REVIEW] Journal of Symbolic Logic 15 (3):221-221.
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  28. Dorothy P. Coleman (1979). Is Mathematics for Hume Synthetic a Priori? Southwestern Journal of Philosophy 10 (2):113-126.
  29. Antonopoulos Constantin (2011). Passive Knowledge: How to Make Sense of Kant's A Priori - Or How Not to Be “Too Busily Subsuming”. Open Journal of Philosophy 1 (2):39.
    Subjectivists, taking the “collapse” of the observation-interpretation contrast much too seriously, are led to imagine that even perceptual knowledge is active. And therefore subject dependent. Turning the tables on this popular trend, I argue that even conceptual knowledge is passive. Kant’s epistemology is conceptual. But if also active, then incoherent. If synthetic a priori truths are to follow upon our mental activity, they were neither true nor, far less, a priori before that activity. “A priori” and “active” are contradictory attributes (...)
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  30. Irving M. Copi (1950). Gödel and the Synthetic a Priori: A Rejoinder. Journal of Philosophy 47 (22):633-636.
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  31. Irving M. Copi (1949). Modern Logic and the Synthetic a Priori. Journal of Philosophy 46 (8):243-245.
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  32. Fabrice Correia (forthcoming). Review of Wojciech Żełaniec, The Recalcitrant Synthetic A Priori. [REVIEW] Dialectica.
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  33. Marian David (1997). Two Conceptions of the Synthetic A Priori. In L. E. Hahn (ed.), The Philosophy of Roderick Chisholm (The Library of Living Philosophers). Chicago: Open Court 629--651.
    Roderick Chisholm appears to agree with Kant on the question of the existence of synthetic a priori knowledge. But Chisholm’s conception of the a priori is a traditional Aristotelian conception and differs markedly from Kant’s. Closer scrutiny reveals that their agreement on the question of the synthetic a priori is merely verbal: what Kant meant to affirm, Chisholm denies. Curiously, it looks as if Chisholm agreed on all substantive issues with the empiricist rejection of Kant’s synthetic a priori. In the (...)
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  34. Karin de Boer (2011). Kant, Reichenbach, and the Fate of A Priori Principles. European Journal of Philosophy 19 (4):507-531.
    Abstract: This article contends that the relation of early logical empiricism to Kant was more complex than is often assumed. It argues that Reichenbach's early work on Kant and Einstein, entitled The Theory of Relativity and A Priori Knowledge (1920) aimed to transform rather than to oppose Kant's Critique of Pure Reason. One the one hand, I argue that Reichenbach's conception of coordinating principles, derived from Kant's conception of synthetic a priori principles, offers a valuable way of accounting for the (...)
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  35. Juan Cano de Pablo (2008). Álgebra de la experiencia y su aplicación a la Teoría de la relatividad. Anales Del Seminario de Historia de la Filosofía 25:459-485.
    El problema fundamental para que la Teoría de la relatividad pueda ser acorde con la filosofía de Kant es el de la utilización de una geometría no euclídea. Que sus principios sean interpretados como juicios sintéticos a priori es, a nuestro entender, un problema secundario. Si queremos que los principios de una ciencia de la naturaleza sean universales y necesarios sin recurrir a dogmatismos, no queda otra posibilidad que entenderlos trascendentalmente. Como se observa en el principio de relatividad, Einstein también (...)
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  36. Juan Cano de Pablo (2004). Apriorismo en la teoría de la relatividad (Respondiendo a Schlick). Logos: Anales Del Seminario de Metafísica 37 (2):171-194.
    A la teoría de la relatividad se la ha considerado una teoría empírica. Sobre esta interpretación se ha preconizado el triunfo del empirismo sobre cualquier otra concepción filosófica. Moritz Schlick vaticinó que no se podrían encontrar los principios sintéticos a priori de esta ciencia porque tal cosa no existía. Este artículo demuestra no ya sólo que se pueden encontrar, sino que ya estaban en posesión de Kant. La introducción de algunas pocas precisiones nos bastará para adaptar a la teoría de (...)
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  37. Robert DiSalle (2010). Synthesis, the Synthetic a Priori, and the Origins of Modern Space-Time Theory. In Michael Friedman, Mary Domski & Michael Dickson (eds.), Discourse on a New Method: Reinvigorating the Marriage of History and Philosophy of Science. Open Court
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  38. Michael Drieschner (2005). Popper and Synthetic Judgements a Priori. Journal for General Philosophy of Science / Zeitschrift für Allgemeine Wissenschaftstheorie 36 (1):49 - 61.
    Popper uses the "Humean challenge" as a justification for his falsificationism. It is claimed that in his basic argument he confuses two different doubts: (a) the Humean doubt (Popper's problem of induction), and (b) the "Popperean" doubt whether - presupposing that there are laws of nature - the laws we accept are in fact valid. Popper's alleged solution of the problem of induction does not solve the problem in a straightforward way (as Levison and Salmon have remarked before). But if (...)
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  39. Frederick Eberhardt (2011). Reliability Via Synthetic a Priori: Reichenbach's Doctoral Thesis on Probability. Synthese 181 (1):125 - 136.
    Hans Reichenbach is well known for his limiting frequency view of probability, with his most thorough account given in The Theory of Probability in 1935/1949. Perhaps less known are Reichenbach's early views on probability and its epistemology. In his doctoral thesis from 1915, Reichenbach espouses a Kantian view of probability, where the convergence limit of an empirical frequency distribution is guaranteed to exist thanks to the synthetic a priori principle of lawful distribution. Reichenbach claims to have given a purely objective (...)
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  40. J. Fang (1989). “DEUS EX MACHINA” REDIVIVUS: The “Synthetic A Priori” in the Computer Age. Philosophia Mathematica (2):217-232.
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  41. William E. Felch (1950). Are There Synthetic a Priori Truths? Journal of Philosophy 47 (20):579-584.
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  42. Michael Friedman (2010). Einstein, Kant, and the A Priori. In Mauricio Suarez, Mauro Dorato & Miklos Redei (eds.), Royal Institute of Philosophy Supplement. Springer 65--73.
    Kant's original version of transcendental philosophy took both Euclidean geometry and the Newtonian laws of motion to be synthetic a priori constitutive principles—which, from Kant's point of view, function as necessary presuppositions for applying our fundamental concepts of space, time, matter, and motion to our sensible experience of the natural world. Although Kant had very good reasons to view the principles in question as having such a constitutively a priori role, we now know, in the wake of Einstein's work, that (...)
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  43. Michael Friedman (1995). Poincaré's Conventionalism and the Logical Positivists. Foundations of Science 1 (2):299-314.
    The logical positivists adopted Poincare's doctrine of the conventionality of geometry and made it a key part of their philosophical interpretation of relativity theory. I argue, however, that the positivists deeply misunderstood Poincare's doctrine. For Poincare's own conception was based on the group-theoretical picture of geometry expressed in the Helmholtz-Lie solution of the space problem, and also on a hierarchical picture of the sciences according to which geometry must be presupposed be any properly physical theory. But both of this pictures (...)
    Scientific Conventionalism in General Philosophy of Science
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  44. Kenneth T. Gallagher (1972). Kant and Husserl on the Synthetic A Priori. Kant-Studien 63 (1-4):341-352.
  45. Joshua Gert (2009). Toward an Epistemology of Certain Substantive a Priori Truths. Metaphilosophy 40 (2):214-236.
    Abstract: This article explains and motivates an account of one way in which we might have substantive a priori knowledge in one important class of domains: domains in which the central concepts are response-dependent. The central example will be our knowledge of the connection between something's being harmful and the fact that it is irrational for us to fail to be averse to that thing. The idea is that although the relevant responses (basic aversion in the case of harm, and (...)
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  46. Alessandro Giordani (2009). Synthetic a priori judgments. Rivista di Filosofia Neo-Scolastica 17:297 - 313.
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  47. Peter Glassen (1958). Reds, Greens, and the Synthetic a Priori. Philosophical Studies 9 (3):33 - 38.
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  48. Charles Hanly (1975). Emotion, Anatomy and the Synthetic A Priori. Dialogue 14 (01):101-118.
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  49. Wojciech Hanuszkiewicz (2012). Problem syntetyczności sądów a priori w ujęciu Hermanna Lotzego. ARGUMENT 2 (2):363-375.
    English title: The Problem of the Synthetic a priori Judgements According to Hermann Lotze. The present article compares Kant’s and Lotze’s concepts of synthetic judgements. Lotze’s aim is a renewing of the Kant’s solutions, what he achieves thanks to introduction of the distinction between analytic (identical) content and synthetic form of these judgements which Kant recognised as synthetic. This distinction makes possible to lay down the concept of intentional sense which has influence over Frege and Husserl.
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  50. Kay Herrmann (2012). Apriori im Wandel. Für und wider eine kritische Metaphysik der Natur. Winter.
    In the 19th century, a transition took place from the classical to the modern ideal of science: Science would no longer be regarded as a categorical-deductive system of absolute truths, but instead as a hypothetical-deductive system of problematically conditional propositions. In this process, the synthetic a priori also took on more and more of the status of something problematically conditional, which could be found out and corrected empirically, and was itself even ultimately contingent upon empiricism. Along the way, it lost (...)
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