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Siblings:History/traditions: The Synthetic A Priori
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  1. Robert Audi (2004). The a Priori Authority of Testimony. Philosophical Issues 14 (1):18–34.
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  2. Lewis White Beck (1957). On the Meta-Semantics of the Problem of the Synthetic a Priori. Mind 66 (262):228-232.
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  3. Claus Beisbart (2008). Review of M. Wille, Mathematics and the Synthetic A Priori: Epistemological Investigations Into the Status of Mathematical Axioms. [REVIEW] Philosophia Mathematica 16 (1):130-132.
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  4. Gustav Bergmann, Synthetic a Priori.
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  5. Irving M. Copi (1950). Gödel and the Synthetic a Priori: A Rejoinder. Journal of Philosophy 47 (22):633-636.
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  6. Irving M. Copi (1949). Modern Logic and the Synthetic a Priori. Journal of Philosophy 46 (8):243-245.
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  7. Marian David (1997). Two Conceptions of the Synthetic A Priori. In L. E. Hahn (ed.), The Philosophy of Roderick Chisholm (The Library of Living Philosophers). Chicago: Open Court. 629--651.
    Roderick Chisholm appears to agree with Kant on the question of the existence of synthetic a priori knowledge. But Chisholm’s conception of the a priori is a traditional Aristotelian conception and differs markedly from Kant’s. Closer scrutiny reveals that their agreement on the question of the synthetic a priori is merely verbal: what Kant meant to affirm, Chisholm denies. Curiously, it looks as if Chisholm agreed on all substantive issues with the empiricist rejection of Kant’s synthetic a priori. In the (...)
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  8. Robert DiSalle (2010). Synthesis, the Synthetic a Priori, and the Origins of Modern Space-Time Theory. In Michael Friedman, Mary Domski & Michael Dickson (eds.), Discourse on a New Method: Reinvigorating the Marriage of History and Philosophy of Science. Open Court.
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  9. Frederick Eberhardt (2011). Reliability Via Synthetic a Priori: Reichenbach's Doctoral Thesis on Probability. Synthese 181 (1):125 - 136.
    Hans Reichenbach is well known for his limiting frequency view of probability, with his most thorough account given in The Theory of Probability in 1935/1949. Perhaps less known are Reichenbach's early views on probability and its epistemology. In his doctoral thesis from 1915, Reichenbach espouses a Kantian view of probability, where the convergence limit of an empirical frequency distribution is guaranteed to exist thanks to the synthetic a priori principle of lawful distribution. Reichenbach claims to have given a purely objective (...)
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  10. J. Fang (1989). “DEUS EX MACHINA” REDIVIVUS: The “Synthetic A Priori” in the Computer Age. Philosophia Mathematica (2):217-232.
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  11. William E. Felch (1950). Are There Synthetic a Priori Truths? Journal of Philosophy 47 (20):579-584.
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  12. Joshua Gert (2009). Toward an Epistemology of Certain Substantive a Priori Truths. Metaphilosophy 40 (2):214-236.
    Abstract: This article explains and motivates an account of one way in which we might have substantive a priori knowledge in one important class of domains: domains in which the central concepts are response-dependent. The central example will be our knowledge of the connection between something's being harmful and the fact that it is irrational for us to fail to be averse to that thing. The idea is that although the relevant responses (basic aversion in the case of harm, and (...)
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  13. Peter Glassen (1958). Reds, Greens, and the Synthetic a Priori. Philosophical Studies 9 (3):33 - 38.
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  14. Charles Hanly (1975). Emotion, Anatomy and the Synthetic A Priori. Dialogue 14 (01):101-118.
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  15. Jaakko Hintikka (1968). Are Mathematical Truths Synthetic a Priori? Journal of Philosophy 65 (20):640-651.
  16. Shadworth H. Hodgson (1877). Kant's Analytic and Synthetic Judgments, and His Question, How Synthetic à Priori Judgments Are Possible. Mind 2 (5):118-122.
  17. Glen Hoffmann (2011). Two Kinds of A Priori Infallibility. Synthese 181 (2):241-253.
    On rationalist infallibilism, a wide range of both (i) analytic and (ii) synthetic a priori propositions can be infallibly justified (or absolutely warranted), i.e., justified to a degree that entails their truth and precludes their falsity. Though rationalist infallibilism is indisputably running its course, adherence to at least one of the two species of infallible a priori justification refuses to disappear from mainstream epistemology. Among others, Putnam (1978) still professes the a priori infallibility of some category (i) propositions, while Burge (...)
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  18. Oliver A. Johnson (1960). Denial of the Synthetic "A Priori". Philosophy 35 (134):255 - 264.
    In his essay “Logical Empiricism”, in the anthology Twentieth Century Philosophy, Professor Feigl writes: “All forms of empiricism agree in repudiating the existence of synthetic a priori knowledge.” Schlick makes the same point even more forcibly: “The empiricism which I represent believes itself to be clear on the point that, as a matter of principle, all propositions are either synthetic a posteriori or tautologous; synthetic a priori propositions seem to it to be a logical impossibility.” The denial of synthetic a (...)
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  19. Chris Korsgaard, Normativity, Necessity, and the Synthetic a Priori a Response to Derek Parfit.
    If I understand him correctly, Derek Parfit’s views place us, philosophically speaking, in a very small box. According to Parfit, normativity is an irreducible non-natural property that is independent of the human mind. That is to say, there are normative truths - truths about what we ought to do and to want, or about reasons for doing and wanting things. The truths in question are synthetic a priori truths, and accessible to us only by some sort of rational intuition. Parfit (...)
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  20. Daya Krishna (1961). The "Synthetic a Priori": Some Considerations. Philosophy 36 (137):211 - 215.
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  21. C. H. Langford (1949). A Proof That Synthetic a Priori Propositions Exist. Journal of Philosophy 46 (1):20-24.
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  22. Seung-Kee Lee (2009). The Synthetic a Priori in Kant and German Idealism. Archiv für Geschichte der Philosophie 91 (3):288-328.
    In twentieth-century Kant scholarship, few have provided an account of the analytic-synthetic distinction and of the problem of the synthetic a priori that takes into consideration the views of Kant's idealist successors such as Maimon, Fichte, Schelling, and Hegel. I first explain how Kant formulates the analytic-synthetic distinction in terms of the determinate-indeterminate distinction, which, in turn, is based on the distinction between general and transcendental logic. Kant's problem of the synthetic a priori , then, is the problem of showing (...)
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  23. James Wilkinson Miller (1975). The Logic of the Synthetic a Priori. Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic 16 (4):465-475.
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  24. Thomas H. Morawetz (1974). Wittgenstein and Synthetic a Priori Judgments. Philosophy 49 (190):429 - 434.
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  25. M. E. Olds (1958). Ostension and Analyticity. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 18 (3):359-367.
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  26. Arthur Pap (1957). Once More: Colors and the Synthetic a Priori. Philosophical Review 66 (1):94-99.
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  27. Arthur Pap (1950). Logic and the Synthetic a Priori. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 10 (4):500-514.
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  28. Tommaso Piazza (2004). The Quest for the Synthetic a Priori: Husserl and Schlick's Debate Revisited. In Arkadiusz Chrudzimski & Wolfgang Huemer (eds.), Phenomenology and Analysis: Essays on Central European Philosophy. Ontos.
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  29. Robert Richman (1964). Why Are Synthetic A Priori Judgments Necessary? Theoria 30 (1):5-20.
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  30. Dennis Schulting (2005). Hegel on Kant's 'Synthetic A Priori' in "Glauben Und Wissen&Quot;. In Andreas Arndt, Henning Ottman & Karol Bal (eds.), Hegel-Jahrbuch. Glauben und Wissen. Dritter Teil. Akademie Verlag.
    This is the published version of a paper presented at the Hegel conference on the occasion of 200 years of Hegel's essay Glauben und Wissen, held in Jena in 2002. It concerns a critical Kantian account of Hegel's critique of Kant.
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  31. Wilfrid Sellars (1953). Is There a Synthetic a Priori? Philosophy of Science 20 (2):121-138.
  32. Yaron M. Senderowicz (2004). Figurative Synthesis and Synthetic a Priori Knowledge. Review of Metaphysics 57 (4):755 - 785.
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  33. Michael J. Shaffer (2011). The Constitutive A Priori and Epistemic Justification. In Michael J. Shaffer & Michael Veber (eds.), What Place for the A Priori? Open Court. 193.
    In this paper I argue that Michael Friedman's conception of the contitutive a priori faces two serious problems. These two problems show that the view collapses into a form of conventionalism.
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  34. Barry Smith (1992). An Essay on Material Necessity. In P. Hanson & B. Hunter (eds.), Return of the a Priori. Canadian Journal of Philosophy, Supplementary Volume 18. 301-322.
    Where Humeans rule out the possibility of material or non-logical necessity, and thus of any associated knowledge a priori, the German legal philosopher Adolf Reinach defends the existence of a wide class of material necessities falling within the domain of what can be known a priori, for example in fields such as color and shape, rational psychology, law and economics. Categories such as promise or claim or obligation are, in Reinach’s view, exist as nodes in a system of necessary relations, (...)
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  35. Barry Smith & Wojciech Zelaniec (2012). Laws of Essence or Constitutive Rules? Reinach Vs. Searle on the Ontology of Social Entities. In Francesca De Vecchi (ed.), Eidetica del Diritto e Ontologia Sociale. Il Realismo di Adolf Reinach. Mimesis. 83-108.
    Amongst the entities making up social reality, are there necessary relations whose necessity is not a mere reflection of the logical connections between corresponding concepts? We distinguish three main groups of answers to this question, associated with Hume and Adolf Reinach at opposite extremes, and with Searle who occupies a position somewhere in the middle. We first set forth Reinach’s views on what he calls ‘material necessities’ in the realm of social entities. We then attempt to show that Searle has (...)
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  36. Pirmin Stekeler-Weithofer (1987). Sind Die Urteile der Arithmetik Synthetisch a Priori? Journal for General Philosophy of Science 18 (1-2):215-238.
    According to Kant, arithmetic judgements are not analytic since they are about our practice of operating with figures and things in a certain way. Hence the empiricist thesis that any meaningful assertion is either analytic or synthetic a posteriori seems to be refuted (§§ 1, 2). Using syntax and semantics of truth-conditional logic Frege nevertheless shows that arithmetic can be understood as a system of quasi-analytic sentences speaking about numbers as abstract entities (§§ 3, 4). Axiomatic set theory, however, conceals (...)
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  37. Tuomas E. Tahko (2011). A Priori and A Posteriori: A Bootstrapping Relationship. Metaphysica 12 (2):151-164.
    The distinction between a priori and a posteriori knowledge has been the subject of an enormous amount of discussion, but the literature is biased against recognizing the intimate relationship between these forms of knowledge. For instance, it seems to be almost impossible to find a sample of pure a priori or a posteriori knowledge. In this paper, it will be suggested that distinguishing between a priori and a posteriori is more problematic than is often suggested, and that a priori and (...)
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  38. Atwell R. Turquette (1950). Gobel and the Synthetic a Priori. Journal of Philosophy 47 (5):125-129.
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  39. David Tyfield (2007). Tracking Down the Transcendental Argument and the Synthetic a Priori : Chasing Fairies or Serious Ontological Business. In Clive Lawson, John Latsis & Nuno Martins (eds.), Contributions to Social Ontology. Routledge. 15--142.
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  40. Ralph Wedgwood (2011). Primitively Rational Belief-Forming Processes. In Andrew Reisner & Asbjørn Steglich-Petersen (eds.), Reasons for Belief. Cambridge University Press. 180--200.
    Intuitively, it seems that some belief-forming practices have the following three properties: 1. They are rational practices, and the beliefs that we form by means of these practices are themselves rational or justified beliefs. 2. Even if in most cases these practices reliably lead to correct beliefs (i.e., beliefs in true propositions), they are not infallible: it is possible for beliefs that are formed by means of these practices to be incorrect (i.e., to be beliefs in false propositions). 3. The (...)
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