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Summary The Turing test is a test for intelligence in machines.  In 1950, Alan Turing published "Computing Machinery and Intelligence" where he described a game he called the "imitation game" involving a human judge conversing only in written text with a second human and a language-using computer, each hidden away in separate rooms (3 rooms total).  The point of the game is for the computer to converse in such a human-like way with the judge that the judge cannot tell the second human from the computer (in usual renditions of the Test, the second human also tries to convince the judge that he or she is the human, so the test becomes a contest).  The computer wins if the judge cannot tell which conversant is the human and which is the computer.  Turing's point is that were a computer to successfully and repeatedly pass such a test, we should then regard the computer as intelligent on the human level. To date, no computer has passed the Test reliably and often.
Key works Turing 1950; Weizenbaum, Joseph (January 1966), "ELIZA—A Computer Program For the Study of Natural Language Communication Between Man And Machine", Communications of the ACM 9 (1): 36–45.
Introductions McCorduck, Pamela (2004), Machines Who Think (2nd ed.), Natick, MA: A. K. Peters, Ltd.; Weizenbaum, Joseph (1976), Computer power and human reason: from judgment to calculationW. H. Freeman and CompanyISBN 0-7167-0463-3; Robert Epstein, Gary Roberts, Grace Beber (eds.) (2008), Parsing the Turing Test: Philosophical and Methodological Issues in the Quest for the Thinking Computer; Searle 1980
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  1. &Na (2009). Ce Test Questions. Jona's Healthcare Law, Ethics, and Regulation 11 (3):100-101.
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  2. &Na (2003). CE Test. Jona's Healthcare Law, Ethics, and Regulation 5 (2):32-33.
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  3. &Na (2003). CE Test. Jona's Healthcare Law, Ethics, and Regulation 5 (1):11-12.
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  4. &Na (2003). CE Test. Jona's Healthcare Law, Ethics, and Regulation 5 (3):58-59.
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  5. Darren Abramson (2011). Philosophy of Mind Is (in Part) Philosophy of Computer Science. Minds and Machines 21 (2):203-219.
    In this paper I argue that whether or not a computer can be built that passes the Turing test is a central question in the philosophy of mind. Then I show that the possibility of building such a computer depends on open questions in the philosophy of computer science: the physical Church-Turing thesis and the extended Church-Turing thesis. I use the link between the issues identified in philosophy of mind and philosophy of computer science to respond to a prominent argument (...)
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  6. Darren Abramson (2008). Turing's Responses to Two Objections. Minds and Machines 18 (2):147-167.
    In this paper I argue that Turing’s responses to the mathematical objection are straightforward, despite recent claims to the contrary. I then go on to show that by understanding the importance of learning machines for Turing as related not to the mathematical objection, but to Lady Lovelace’s objection, we can better understand Turing’s response to Lady Lovelace’s objection. Finally, I argue that by understanding Turing’s responses to these objections more clearly, we discover a hitherto unrecognized, substantive thesis in his philosophical (...)
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  7. Varol Akman & Patrick Blackburn (2000). Editorial: Alan Turing and Artificial Intelligence. [REVIEW] Journal of Logic, Language and Information 9 (4):391-395.
    Department of Computer Engineering, Bilkent University, 06533 Ankara, Turkey E-mail: akman@cs.bilkent.edu.tr; http://www.cs.bilkent.edu.tr/?akman..
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  8. Samuel Alexander (2011). A Paradox Related to the Turing Test. The Reasoner 5 (6):90-90.
  9. G. Alper (1990). A Psychoanalyst Takes the Turing Test. Psychoanalytic Review 77:59-68.
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  10. Reza Amini, Catherine Sabourin & Joseph de Koninck (2011). Word Associations Contribute to Machine Learning in Automatic Scoring of Degree of Emotional Tones in Dream Reports. Consciousness and Cognition 20 (4):1570-1576.
    Scientific study of dreams requires the most objective methods to reliably analyze dream content. In this context, artificial intelligence should prove useful for an automatic and non subjective scoring technique. Past research has utilized word search and emotional affiliation methods, to model and automatically match human judges’ scoring of dream report’s negative emotional tone. The current study added word associations to improve the model’s accuracy. Word associations were established using words’ frequency of co-occurrence with their defining words as found in (...)
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  11. Günter Asser (1959). Turing‐Maschinen und Markowsche Algorithmen. Mathematical Logic Quarterly 5 (14‐24):346-365.
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  12. John Barresi (1987). Prospects for the Cyberiad: Certain Limits on Human Self-Knowledge in the Cybernetic Age. Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour 17 (March):19-46.
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  13. Patricia J. Bauer (2006). Elicited Imitation: A Non-Verbal Test of Recall. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 10 (4):175-181.
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  14. Andrew beedle (1998). Sixteen Years of Artificial Intelligence: Mind Design and Mind Design II. Philosophical Psychology 11 (2):243 – 250.
    John Haugeland's Mind design and Mind design II are organized around the idea that the fundamental idea of cognitive science is that, “intelligent beings are semantic engines — in other words, automatic formal systems with interpretations under which they consistently make sense”. The goal of artificial intelligence research, or the problem of “mind design” as Haugeland calls it, is to develop computers that are in fact semantic engines. This paper canvasses the changes in artificial intelligence research reflected in the different (...)
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  15. Christian Beenfeldt (2006). The Turing Test: An Examination of its Nature and its Mentalistic Ontology. Danish Yearbook of Philosophy 40:109-144.
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  16. Hanoch Ben-Yami (2005). Behaviorism and Psychologism: Why Block's Argument Against Behaviorism is Unsound. Philosophical Psychology 18 (2):179-186.
    Ned Block ((1981). Psychologism and behaviorism. Philosophical Review, 90, 5-43.) argued that a behaviorist conception of intelligence is mistaken, and that the nature of an agent's internal processes is relevant for determining whether the agent has intelligence. He did that by describing a machine which lacks intelligence, yet can answer questions put to it as an intelligent person would. The nature of his machine's internal processes, he concluded, is relevant for determining that it lacks intelligence. I argue against Block (...)
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  17. Ned Block (1981). Psychologism and Behaviorism. Philosophical Review 90 (1):5-43.
    Let psychologism be the doctrine that whether behavior is intelligent behavior depends on the character of the internal information processing that produces it. More specifically, I mean psychologism to involve the doctrine that two systems could have actual and potential behavior _typical_ of familiar intelligent beings, that the two systems could be exactly alike in their actual and potential behavior, and in their behavioral dispositions and capacities and counterfactual behavioral properties (i.e., what behaviors, behavioral dispositions, and behavioral capacities they would (...)
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  18. Brian P. Bloomfield & Theo Vurdubakis (2003). Imitation Games: Turing, Menard, Van Meegeren. [REVIEW] Ethics and Information Technology 5 (1):27-38.
    For many, the very idea of an artificialintelligence has always been ethicallytroublesome. The putative ability of machinesto mimic human intelligence appears to callinto question the stability of taken forgranted boundaries between subject/object,identity/similarity, free will/determinism,reality/simulation, etc. The artificiallyintelligent object thus appears to threaten thehuman subject with displacement and redundancy.This article takes as its starting point AlanTuring''s famous ''imitation game,'' (the socalled ''Turing Test''), here treated as aparable of the encounter between human originaland machine copy – the born and the made. Thecultural (...)
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  19. Paul Richard Blum, Michael Polanyi: Can the Mind Be Represented by a Machine? Existence and Anthropology.
    On the 27th of October, 1949, the Department of Philosophy at the University of Manchester organized a symposium "Mind and Machine", as Michael Polanyi noted in his Personal Knowledge (1974, p. 261). This event is known, especially among scholars of Alan Turing, but it is scarcely documented. Wolfe Mays (2000) reported about the debate, which he personally had attended, and paraphrased a mimeographed document that is preserved at the Manchester University archive. He forwarded a copy to Andrew Hodges and B. (...)
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  20. Selmer Bringsjord (2010). Meeting Floridi's Challenge to Artificial Intelligence From the Knowledge-Game Test for Self-Consciousness. Metaphilosophy 41 (3):292-312.
    Abstract: In the course of seeking an answer to the question "How do you know you are not a zombie?" Floridi (2005) issues an ingenious, philosophically rich challenge to artificial intelligence (AI) in the form of an extremely demanding version of the so-called knowledge game (or "wise-man puzzle," or "muddy-children puzzle")—one that purportedly ensures that those who pass it are self-conscious. In this article, on behalf of (at least the logic-based variety of) AI, I take up the challenge—which is to (...)
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  21. Selmer Bringsjord (2000). Animals, Zombanimals, and the Total Turing Test: The Essence of Artificial Intelligence. Journal of Logic Language and Information 9 (4):397-418.
    Alan Turing devised his famous test (TT) through a slight modificationof the parlor game in which a judge tries to ascertain the gender of twopeople who are only linguistically accessible. Stevan Harnad hasintroduced the Total TT, in which the judge can look at thecontestants in an attempt to determine which is a robot and which aperson. But what if we confront the judge with an animal, and arobot striving to pass for one, and then challenge him to peg which iswhich? (...)
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  22. Selmer Bringsjord, P. Bello & David A. Ferrucci (2001). Creativity, the Turing Test, and the (Better) Lovelace Test. Minds and Machines 11 (1):3-27.
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  23. Selmer Bringsjord, Clarke Caporale & Ron Noel (2000). Animals, Zombanimals, and the Total Turing Test. Journal of Logic, Language and Information 9 (4):397-418.
    Alan Turing devised his famous test (TT) through a slight modificationof the parlor game in which a judge tries to ascertain the gender of twopeople who are only linguistically accessible. Stevan Harnad hasintroduced the Total TT, in which the judge can look at thecontestants in an attempt to determine which is a robot and which aperson. But what if we confront the judge with an animal, and arobot striving to pass for one, and then challenge him to peg which (...)
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  24. Valeriy K. Bulitko (2002). Post's Problem for Reducibilities of Bounded Complexity. Mathematical Logic Quarterly 48 (3):367-373.
    In this paper we consider the we known method by E. Post of solving the problem of construction of recursively enumerable sets that have a degree intermediate between the degrees of recursive and complete sets with respect to a given reducibility. Post considered reducibilities ≤m, ≤btt, ≤tt and ≤T and solved the problem for al of them except ≤T. Here we extend Post's original method of construction of incomplete sets onto two wide classes of sub-Turing reducibilities what were studying in (...)
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  25. Valeriy K. Bulitko (1999). About Segment Complexity of Turing Reductions. Mathematical Logic Quarterly 45 (4):561-571.
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  26. Cyril Burt (1914). The Measurement of Intelligence by the Binet Tests: Part I. The Eugenics Review 6 (1):36.
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  27. Cyril Burt (1914). The Measurement of Intelligence by the Binet Tests: Part II. The Eugenics Review 6 (2):140.
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  28. J. G. Cannon (1927). Do Linguistic Group Tests of Intelligence, Non-Linguistic Group Tests of Intelligence and Scholastic Tests Measure the Same Thing? Australasian Journal of Psychology and Philosophy 5 (3):216-226.
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  29. Penco Carlo (2012). Updating the Turing Test Wittgenstein, Turing and Symbol Manipulation. Open Journal of Philosophy 2 (3):189.
    In this paper I present an argument against the feasibility of the Imitation Game as a test for thinking or language understanding. The argument is different from the five objections presented by Turing in his original paper, although it tries to maintain his original intention. I therefore call it “the Sixth Argument” or “the Argument from Context”. I show that – although the argument works against the original version of the imitation game – it may suggest a new version of (...)
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  30. Lorenzo Carlucci & Konrad Zdanowski (2012). A Note on Ramsey Theorems and Turing Jumps. In S. Barry Cooper (ed.), How the World Computes. 89--95.
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  31. Anthony Chemero, Ascribing Moral Value and the Embodied Turing Test.
    What would it take for an artificial agent to be treated as having moral value? As a first step toward answering this question, we ask what it would take for an artificial agent to be capable of the sort of autonomous, adaptive social behavior that is characteristic of the animals that humans interact with. We propose that this sort of capacity is best measured by what we call the Embodied Turing Test. The Embodied Turing test is a test in which (...)
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  32. C. T. Chong (1987). ∑1‐Density and Turing Degrees. Zeitschrift fur mathematische Logik und Grundlagen der Mathematik 33 (2):141-145.
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  33. Thomas W. Clark (1992). The Turing Test as a Novel Form of Hermeneutics. International Studies in Philosophy 24 (1):17-31.
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  34. Roberto Colom & Oscar Garca-Lpez (2003). Secular Gains in Fluid Intelligence: Evidence From the Culture-Fair Intelligence Test. Journal of Biosocial Science 35 (1):33-39.
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  35. Roberto Colom & Oscar García-López (2003). Secular Gains in Fluid Intelligence: Evidence From the Culture-Fair Intelligence Test. Journal of Biosocial Science 35 (1):33-39.
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  36. B. Jack Copeland (ed.) (2005). Alan Turing's Automatic Computing Engine: The Master Codebreaker's Struggle to Build the Modern Computer. OUP Oxford.
    The mathematical genius Alan Turing (1912-1954) was one of the greatest scientists and thinkers of the 20th century. Now well known for his crucial wartime role in breaking the ENIGMA code, he was the first to conceive of the fundamental principle of the modern computer-the idea of controlling a computing machine's operations by means of a program of coded instructions, stored in the machine's 'memory'. In 1945 Turing drew up his revolutionary design for an electronic computing machine-his Automatic Computing Engine (...)
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  37. B. Jack Copeland (2000). The Turing Test. Minds and Machines 10 (4):519-539.
    Turing''s test has been much misunderstood. Recently unpublished material by Turing casts fresh light on his thinking and dispels a number of philosophical myths concerning the Turing test. Properly understood, the Turing test withstands objections that are popularly believed to be fatal.
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  38. Tyler Cowen & Michelle Dawson, What Does the Turing Test Really Mean? And How Many Human Beings (Including Turing) Could Pass?
    The so-called Turing test, as it is usually interpreted, sets a benchmark standard for determining when we might call a machine intelligent. We can call a machine intelligent if the following is satisfied: if a group of wise observers were conversing with a machine through an exchange of typed messages, those observers could not tell whether they were talking to a human being or to a machine. To pass the test, the machine has to be intelligent but it also should (...)
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  39. Stephen J. Cowley & Karl MacDorman (1995). Simulating Convesations: The Communion Game. [REVIEW] AI and Society 9 (2-3):116-137.
    In their enthusiasm for programming, computational linguists have tended to lose sight of what humansdo. They have conceived of conversations as independent of sound and the bodies that produce it. Thus, implicit in their simulations is the assumption that the text is the essence of talk. In fact, unlike electronic mail, conversations are acoustic events. During everyday talk, human understanding depends both on the words spoken and on fine interpersonal vocal coordination. When utterances are analysed into sequences of word-based forms, (...)
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  40. C. Crawford (1994). Notes on the Turing Test. Communications of the Association for Computing Machinery 37 (June):13-15.
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  41. L. Crockett (1994). The Turing Test and the Frame Problem: AI's Mistaken Understanding of Intelligence. Ablex.
    I have discussed the frame problem and the Turing test at length, but I have not attempted to spell out what I think the implications of the frame problem ...
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  42. Jamie Cullen (2009). Imitation Versus Communication: Testing for Human-Like Intelligence. Minds and Machines 19 (2):237-254.
    Turing’s Imitation Game is often viewed as a test for theorised machines that could ‘think’ and/or demonstrate ‘intelligence’. However, contrary to Turing’s apparent intent, it can be shown that Turing’s Test is essentially a test for humans only. Such a test does not provide for theorised artificial intellects with human-like, but not human-exact, intellectual capabilities. As an attempt to bypass this limitation, I explore the notion of shifting the goal posts of the Turing Test, and related tests such as the (...)
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  43. Se da RosenbaumEngelbrecht (1991). Turing Tests for Movement. Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society 29 (6):525-525.
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  44. Donald Davidson (1990). Turing's Test. In K. Said (ed.), Modelling the Mind. Oxford University Press.
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  45. Aurea Anguera de Sojo, Juan Ares, Juan A. Lara, David Lizcano, María A. Martínez & Juan Pazos (2013). Turing and the Serendipitous Discovery of the Modern Computer. Foundations of Science 18 (3):545-557.
    In the centenary year of Turing’s birth, a lot of good things are sure to be written about him. But it is hard to find something new to write about Turing. This is the biggest merit of this article: it shows how von Neumann’s architecture of the modern computer is a serendipitous consequence of the universal Turing machine, built to solve a logical problem.
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  46. Ma de Wachter (2000). Is Personalism an Adequate Moral System for Bioethics? The Test Case of Artificial Insemination. Analecta Husserliana 64:183-194.
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  47. Daniel C. Dennett (1984). Can Machines Think? In M. G. Shafto (ed.), How We Know. Harper & Row.
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  48. Gordana Dodig-Crnkovic (2013). Alan Turing's Legacy: Info-Computational Philosophy of Nature. In Gordana Dodig-Crnkovic Raffaela Giovagnoli (ed.), Computing Nature. 115--123.
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  49. Adam Drozdek (2001). Descartes' Turing Test. Epistemologia 24 (1):5-29.
  50. Adam Drozdek (1998). Human Intelligence and Turing Test. AI and Society 12 (4):315-321.
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