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  1. Cameron Buckner (2013). Morgan's Canon, Meet Hume's Dictum: Avoiding Anthropofabulation in Cross-Species Comparisons. Biology and Philosophy 28 (5):853-871.
    How should we determine the distribution of psychological traits—such as Theory of Mind, episodic memory, and metacognition—throughout the Animal kingdom? Researchers have long worried about the distorting effects of anthropomorphic bias on this comparative project. A purported corrective against this bias was offered as a cornerstone of comparative psychology by C. Lloyd Morgan in his famous “Canon”. Also dangerous, however, is a distinct bias that loads the deck against animal mentality: our tendency to tie the competence criteria for cognitive capacities (...)
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  2. H. G. Callaway (2014). Abduction, Competing Models and the Virtues of Hypotheses. In Lorenzo Magnani (ed.), (2014) Model-Based Reasoning in Science and Technology. Springer. 263-280.
    This paper focuses on abduction as explicit or readily formulatable inference to possible explanatory hypotheses--as contrasted with inference to conceptual innovations or abductive logic as a cycle of hypotheses, deduction of consequences and inductive testing. Inference to an explanation is often a matter of projection or extrapolation of elements of accepted theory for the solution of outstanding problems in particular domains of inquiry. I say "projections or extrapolation" of accepted theory, but I mean to point to something broader and suggest (...)
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  3. Mark Colyvan (2008). The Ontological Commitments of Inconsistent Theories. Philosophical Studies 141 (1):115 - 123.
    In this paper I present an argument for belief in inconsistent objects. The argument relies on a particular, plausible version of scientific realism, and the fact that often our best scientific theories are inconsistent. It is not clear what to make of this argument. Is it a reductio of the version of scientific realism under consideration? If it is, what are the alternatives? Should we just accept the conclusion? I will argue (rather tentatively and suitably qualified) for a positive answer (...)
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  4. Richard Dawkins (1998). Unweaving the Rainbow: Science, Delusion, and the Appetite for Wonder. Houghton Mifflin.
    Did Newton "unweave the rainbow" by reducing it to its prismatic colors, as Keats contended? Did he, in other words, diminish beauty? Far from it, says Dawkins--Newton's unweaving is the key too much of modern astronomy and to the breathtaking poetry of modern cosmology. Mysteries don't lose their poetry because they are solved: the solution often is more beautiful than the puzzle, uncovering deeper mystery. (The Keats who spoke of "unweaving the rainbow" was a very young man, Dawkins reminds us.) (...)
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  5. Heather Douglas (2014). The Value of Cognitive Values. Philosophy of Science 80 (5):796-806.
    Traditionally, cognitive values have been thought of as a collective pool of considerations in science that frequently trade against each other. I argue here that a finer-grained account of the value of cognitive values can help reduce such tensions. I separate the values into groups, minimal epistemic criteria, pragmatic considerations, and genuine epistemic assurance, based in part on the distinction between values that describe theories per se and values that describe theory-evidence relationships. This allows us to clarify why these values (...)
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  6. Malcolm Forster, Chapter 3: Simplicity and Unification in Model Selection.
    This chapter examines four solutions to the problem of many models, and finds some fault or limitation with all of them except the last. The first is the naïve empiricist view that best model is the one that best fits the data. The second is based on Popper’s falsificationism. The third approach is to compare models on the basis of some kind of trade off between fit and simplicity. The fourth is the most powerful: Cross validation testing.
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  7. Malcolm Forster, Discussion: Unification and Predictive Accuracy.
    Wayne Myrvold (2003) has captured an important feature of unified theories, and he has done so in Bayesian terms. What is not clear is whether the virtue of such unification is most clearly understood in terms of Bayesian confirmation. I argue that the virtue of such unification is better understood in terms of other truth-related virtues such as predictive accuracy.
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  8. C. Held (2011). Truth Does Not Explain Predictive Success. Analysis 71 (2):232-234.
  9. David Henderson, Rethinking the Connection Between Truth-Conducivity and Justification.
    Contents/Links I. The Referentialist's Objection and the Issues it Raises II. From Uses of Descriptions to Aspects of Concepts III. A Straightforward Understanding IV. A More Sophisticated Understanding V. What is Attributively Associated with "Justification"?
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  10. Dan Hicks (2014). A New Direction for Science and Values. Synthese 191 (14):3271-95.
    The controversy over the old ideal of “value-free science” has cooled significantly over the past decade. Many philosophers of science now agree that even ethical and political values may play a substantial role in all aspects of scientific inquiry. Consequently, in the last few years, work in science and values has become more specific: Which values may influence science, and in which ways? Or, how do we distinguish illegitimate from illegitimate kinds of influence? In this paper, I argue that this (...)
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  11. Andre Kukla (1994). Non-Empirical Theoretical Virtues and the Argument From Underdetermination. Erkenntnis 41 (2):157 - 170.
    The antirealist argument from the underdetermination of theories by data relies on the premise that the empirical content of a theory is the only determinant of its belief-worthiness (premise NN). Several authors have claimed that the antirealist cannot endorse NN, on pain of internal inconsistency. I concede this point. Nevertheless, this refutation of the underdetermination argument fails because there are weaker substitutes for NN that will serve just as well as a premise to the argument. On the other hand, antirealists (...)
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  12. Helen E. Longino (1995). Gender, Politics, and the Theoretical Virtues. Synthese 104 (3):383 - 397.
    Traits like simplicity and explanatory power have traditionally been treated as values internal to the sciences, constitutive rather than contextual. As such they are cognitive virtues. This essay contrasts a traditional set of such virtues with a set of alternative virtues drawn from feminist writings about the sciences. In certain theoretical contexts, the only reasons for preferring a traditional or an alternative virtue are socio-political. This undermines the notion that the traditional virtues can be considered purely cognitive.
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  13. Sebastian Lutz & Stephan Hartmann (2010). Conventional and Objective Invariance: Debs and Redhead on Symmetry. [REVIEW] Metascience 19:15-23.
    This review is a critical discussion of three main claims in Debs and Redhead’s thought-provoking book Objectivity, Invariance, and Convention. These claims are: (i) Social acts impinge upon formal aspects of scientific representation; (ii) symmetries introduce the need for conventional choice; (iii) perspectival symmetry is a necessary and sufficient condition for objectivity, while symmetry simpliciter fails to be necessary.
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  14. Adolfas Mackonis (2013). Inference to the Best Explanation, Coherence and Other Explanatory Virtues. Synthese 190 (6):975-995.
    This article generalizes the explanationist account of inference to the best explanation (IBE). It draws a clear distinction between IBE and abduction and presents abduction as the first step of IBE. The second step amounts to the evaluation of explanatory power, which consist in the degree of explanatory virtues that a hypothesis exhibits. Moreover, even though coherence is the most often cited explanatory virtue, on pain of circularity, it should not be treated as one of the explanatory virtues. Rather, coherence (...)
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  15. L. Taper Mark, F. Staples David & B. Shepard Bradley (2008). Model Structure Adequacy Analysis: Selecting Models on the Basis of Their Ability to Answer Scientific Questions. Synthese 163 (3).
    Models carry the meaning of science. This puts a tremendous burden on the process of model selection. In general practice, models are selected on the basis of their relative goodness of fit to data penalized by model complexity. However, this may not be the most effective approach for selecting models to answer a specific scientific question because model fit is sensitive to all aspects of a model, not just those relevant to the question. Model Structural Adequacy analysis is proposed as (...)
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  16. James W. McAllister (1996). Beauty & Revolution in Science. Cornell University Press.
  17. James W. Mcallister (1989). Truth and Beauty in Scientific Reason. Synthese 78 (1):25 - 51.
    A rationalist and realist model of scientific revolutions will be constructed by reference to two categories of criteria of theory-evaluation, denominated indicators of truth and of beauty. Whereas indicators of truth are formulateda priori and thus unite science in the pursuit of verisimilitude, aesthetic criteria are inductive constructs which lag behind the progression of theories in truthlikeness. Revolutions occur when the evaluative divergence between the two categories of criteria proves too wide to be recomposed or overlooked. This model of revolutions (...)
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  18. Kevin Meeker (2006). Pluralism, Exclusivism, and the Theoretical Virtues. Religious Studies 42 (2):193-206.
    This paper argues that John Hick's commitment to the moral principle of altruism undermines his pluralistic claim that all of the major world religions are equally efficacious from a soteriological perspective. This argument is placed in a context of a discussion evaluating the theoretical virtues of various hypotheses about religious diversity. (Published Online April 7 2006).
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  19. Michael Morreau (2013). Mr. Fit, Mr. Simplicity and Mr. Scope: From Social Choice to Theory Choice. Erkenntnis:1-16.
    An analogue of Arrow’s theorem has been thought to limit the possibilities for multi-criterial theory choice. Here, an example drawn from Toy Science, a model of theories and choice criteria, suggests that it does not. Arrow’s assumption that domains are unrestricted is inappropriate in connection with theory choice in Toy Science. There are, however, variants of Arrow’s theorem that do not require an unrestricted domain. They require instead that domains are, in a technical sense, ‘rich’. Since there are rich domains (...)
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  20. Wayne C. Myrvold & William L. Harper (2002). Model Selection, Simplicity, and Scientific Inference. Proceedings of the Philosophy of Science Association 2002 (3):S135-S149.
    The Akaike Information Criterion can be a valuable tool of scientific inference. This statistic, or any other statistical method for that matter, cannot, however, be the whole of scientific methodology. In this paper some of the limitations of Akaikean statistical methods are discussed. It is argued that the full import of empirical evidence is realized only by adopting a richer ideal of empirical success than predictive accuracy, and that the ability of a theory to turn phenomena into accurate, agreeing measurements (...)
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  21. Ilkka Niiniluoto (2008). Unification and Abductive Confirmation. Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 43:151-156.
    According to the traditional requirement, formulated already by William Whewell in his account of the “consilience of inductions” in 1840, an explanatory scientific theory should be independently testable by new kinds of phenomena. A good theory should have unifying power in the sense that it explains and predicts several mutually independent phenomena. This paper studies the prospects of Bayesianism to motivate this kind of unification criterion for abductive confirmation.
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  22. Graham Oddie (2013). The Content, Consequence and Likeness Approaches to Verisimilitude: Compatibility, Trivialization, and Underdetermination. Synthese 190 (9):1647-1687.
    Theories of verisimilitude have routinely been classified into two rival camps—the content approach and the likeness approach—and these appear to be motivated by very different sets of data and principles. The question thus naturally arises as to whether these approaches can be fruitfully combined. Recently Zwart and Franssen (Synthese 158(1):75–92, 2007) have offered precise analyses of the content and likeness approaches, and shown that given these analyses any attempt to meld content and likeness orderings violates some basic desiderata. Unfortunately their (...)
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  23. Alexander Rueger (1996). Risk and Diversification in Theory Choice. Synthese 109 (2):263 - 280.
    How can it be rational to work on a new theory that does not yet meet the standards for good or acceptable theories? If diversity of approaches is a condition for scientific progress, how can a scientific community achieve such progress when each member does what it is rational to do, namely work on the best theory? These two methodological problems, the problem of pursuit and the problem of diversity, can be solved by taking into account the cognitive risk that (...)
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  24. Stephen Scales (2002). Value-Ladenness, Theoretical Virtues, and Moral Wisdom. Teaching Ethics 2 (2):19-28.
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  25. Paul J. H. Schoemaker (2003). Huygens Versus Fermat: No Clear Winner. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 26 (6):781-782.
    How should we assess the appeal of multiple scientific theories when they can all explain a particular empirical phenomenon of interest? We contrast Huygens' and Fermat's explanations of the law of refraction of light and find that neither dominates the other when considering multiple criteria for assessing the overall appeal of a scientific theory. The absence of teleology in Huygens' account is a strong plus compared to Fermat's. But Huygens' wave theory scores less well with respect to other desiderata for (...)
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  26. Scott A. Shalkowski (1997). Theoretical Virtues and Theological Construction. International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 41 (2):71-89.
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  27. P. Thagard & C. P. Shelley (1997). Abductive Reasoning: Logic, Visual Thinking, and Coherence. In [Book Chapter].
    This paper discusses abductive reasoning---that is, reasoning in which explanatory hypotheses are formed and evaluated. First, it criticizes two recent formal logical models of abduction. An adequate formalization would have to take into account the following aspects of abduction: explanation is not deduction; hypotheses are layered; abduction is sometimes creative; hypotheses may be revolutionary; completeness is elusive; simplicity is complex; and abductive reasoning may be visual and non-sentential. Second, in order to illustrate visual aspects of hypothesis formation, the paper describes (...)
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  28. Valerie Tiberius (2012). Open-Mindedness And.. Normative Contingency. Oxford Studies in Metaethics 7:182.
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  29. Renée Weber (ed.) (1986). Dialogues with Scientists and Sages: The Search for Unity. Routledge & Kegan Paul.
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  30. Rasmus Grønfeldt Winther (2007). Estilos de Investigación Científica, Modelos E Insectos Sociales. In Edna Suárez Díaz (ed.), Variedad Infinita. Ciencia y representación. Un enfoque histórico y filosófico. UNAM and Editorial Limusa, Mexico.
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Aesthetic Virtues in Science
  1. Greg Bamford (1999). What is the Problem of Ad Hoc Hypotheses? Science and Education 8 (4):375 - 86..
    The received view of an ad hochypothesis is that it accounts for only the observation(s) it was designed to account for, and so non-ad hocness is generally held to be necessary or important for an introduced hypothesis or modification to a theory. Attempts by Popper and several others to convincingly explicate this view, however, prove to be unsuccessful or of doubtful value, and familiar and firmer criteria for evaluating the hypotheses or modified theories so classified are characteristically available. These points (...)
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  2. Angela Breitenbach (2013). Aesthetics in Science: A Kantian Proposal. Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 113 (1pt1):83-100.
    Can aesthetic judgements legitimately be linked to the success of scientific theories? I suggest that a satisfactory answer to this question should account for the persistent attraction that aesthetic considerations seem to have for scientists, while also explaining the apparent instability of the link between the beauty of a theory and its truth. I argue that two widespread tendencies in the literature, Pythagorean and subjectivist approaches, have difficulties meeting this twofold challenge. I propose a Kantian conception of aesthetic judgements as (...)
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  3. S. Chandrasekhar (1987). Truth and Beauty: Aesthetics and Motivations in Science. University of Chicago Press.
    "Sir Hermann Bondi, NatureThe late S. Chandrasekhar was best known for his discovery of the upper limit to the mass of a white dwarf star, for which he received ...
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  4. Mark Colyvan (2002). Mathematics and Aesthetic Considerations in Science. Mind 111 (441):69-74.
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  5. David Davies (1998). McAllister's Aesthetics in Science: A Critical Notice. International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 12 (1):25 – 32.
    In Beauty and Revolution in Science, James McAllister argues that a sophisticated rationalist image of science can accommodate two prominent features of actual scientific practice, namely, appeals to “aesthetic” criteria in theory choice, and the occurrence of scientific “revolutions”. The aesthetic criteria to which scientists appeal are, he maintains, inductively grounded in the empirical record of competing theories, and scientific revolutions involve changes in aestheic criteria bu continuity in empirical criteria of theory choice. I raise difficulties for McAllister's account concerning: (...)
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  6. Denis Dutton & Michael Krausz (eds.) (1981). The Concept of Creativity in Science and Art. Distributors for the U.S. And Canada, Kluwer Boston.
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  7. Tibor R. Machan (1977). Kuhn, Paradigm Choice and the Arbitrariness of Aesthetic Criteria in Science. Theory and Decision 8 (4):361-362.
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  8. Elena Mamchur (1987). The Heuristic Role of Aesthetics in Science. International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 1 (2):209 – 222.
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  9. Ulianov Montano (2013). Beauty in Science: A New Model of the Role of Aesthetic Evaluations in Science. [REVIEW] European Journal for Philosophy of Science 3 (2):133-156.
    In Beauty and Revolution in Science, James McAllister advances a rationalistic picture of science in which scientific progress is explained in terms of aesthetic evaluations of scientific theories. Here I present a new model of aesthetic evaluations by revising McAllister’s core idea of the aesthetic induction. I point out that the aesthetic induction suffers from anomalies and theoretical inconsistencies and propose a model free from such problems. The new model is based, on the one hand, on McAllister’s original model and (...)
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  10. Jason Simus (2009). Aesthetic and Other Theoretical Virtues in Science. American Society for Aesthetics Graduate E-Journal 1 (2).
    I first provide an introduction to a neglected topic in contemporary aesthetics: intellectual beauty. I then review James McAllister’s critique of autonomism and reductionism regarding the relation between empirical and aesthetic criteria in scientific theory evaluation. Finally, I critique McAllister’s “aesthetic induction” and defend an alternative model that emphasizes the holistic coherence of aesthetic and other theoretical virtues in scientific theorizing.
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  11. Cain S. Todd (2008). Unmasking the Truth Beneath the Beauty: Why the Supposed Aesthetic Judgements Made in Science May Not Be Aesthetic at All. International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 22 (1):61 – 79.
    In this article I examine the status of putative aesthetic judgements in science and mathematics. I argue that if the judgements at issue are taken to be genuinely aesthetic they can be divided into two types, positing either a disjunction or connection between aesthetic and epistemic criteria in theory/proof assessment. I show that both types of claim face serious difficulties in explaining the purported role of aesthetic judgements in these areas. I claim that the best current explanation of this role, (...)
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  12. Robert J. Valenza (2002). Aesthetic Priority in Science and Religion. Process Studies 31 (1):49-76.
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Epistemological Conservatism
  1. Paul Silva Jr (forthcoming). On Doxastic Justification and Properly Basing One's Beliefs. Erkenntnis.
    According to the orthodox account of the relationship between propositional and doxastic justification, basing one's belief in P on one's source of propositional justification to believe P suffices for having a doxastically justified belief. But in an increasingly recognized work, John Turri (2010) argues that the orthodox view fails and proposes a new view according to which having propositional justification depends on having the ability to acquire doxastic justification. Turri's novel position has surprisingly far-reaching epistemological consequences, ruling out some common (...)
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  2. Paul Silva Jr (2013). How To Be Conservative: A Partial Defense of Epistemic Conservatism. Australasian Journal of Philosophy 91 (3):501-514.
    Conservatism about perceptual justification tells us that we cannot have perceptual justification to believe p unless we also have justification to believe that perceptual experiences are reliable. There are many ways to maintain this thesis, ways that have not been sufficiently appreciated. Most of these ways lead to at least one of two problems. The first is an over-intellectualization problem, whereas the second problem concerns the satisfaction of the epistemic basing requirement on justified belief. I argue that there is at (...)
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Falsifiability
  1. Patricia Baillie (1972). Falsifiability and Probability. Australasian Journal of Philosophy 50 (1):61.
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  2. Patricia Baillie (1970). Falsifiability and Probability. Australasian Journal of Philosophy 48 (1):99 – 100.
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  3. Greg Bamford (1999). What is the Problem of Ad Hoc Hypotheses? Science and Education 8 (4):375 - 86..
    The received view of an ad hochypothesis is that it accounts for only the observation(s) it was designed to account for, and so non-ad hocness is generally held to be necessary or important for an introduced hypothesis or modification to a theory. Attempts by Popper and several others to convincingly explicate this view, however, prove to be unsuccessful or of doubtful value, and familiar and firmer criteria for evaluating the hypotheses or modified theories so classified are characteristically available. These points (...)
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  4. Pedro Beade (1989). Falsification and Falsifiability in Historical Linguistics. Philosophy of the Social Sciences 19 (2):173-181.
  5. Richard Cole (1968). Falsifiability. Mind 77 (305):133-135.
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  6. Douglas D. Daye (1979). Empirical Falsifiability And The Frequence Of Darsana Relevance In The Sixth Century Buddhist Logic Of Sankarasvamin. Logique Et Analyse 22 (March-June):223-237.
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