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Summary This category collects papers and books that discuss theories of free will that do not fit easily into the standard categories of libertarian, hard determinist, skeptical and (semi) compatibilist taxonomies. 
Key works Given the dominance of the major theories mentioned above, there are no key works in this category (many key works belong also to this category, but they are not key works qua members of this category).
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  1. Mitchell Aboulafia (1986). The Mediating Self: Mead, Sartre, and Self-Determination. Yale University Press.
  2. Jesús H. Aguilar, Andrei A. Buckareff & Keith Frankish (eds.) (2010). New Waves in Philosophy of Action. Palgrave Macmillan.
  3. Rogers Albritton (1985). Freedom of the Will and Freedom of Action. Proceedings and Addresses of the American Philosophical Association 59 (2):239-51.
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  4. Torin Alter & Russell Daw (2001). Free Acts and Robot Cats. Philosophical Studies 102 (3):345-57.
    (H1) ‘Free action’ is subject to the causal theory of reference and thus that (H2) The essential nature of free actions can be discovered only by empirical investigation, not by conceptual analysis. Heller’s proposal, if true, would have significant philosophical implications. Consider the enduring issue we will call the Compatibility Issue (hereafter CI): whether the thesis of determinism is logically compatible with the claim that..
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  5. Michael R. Ayers (1968). The Refutation of Determinism. Methuen.
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  6. Arthur Berndtson (1942). The Problem of Free-Will in Recent Philosophy. Chicago, Ill..
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  7. Mark H. Bernstein (2005). Can We Ever Be Really, Truly, Ultimately, Free? Midwest Studies in Philosophy 29 (1):1-12.
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  8. Bernard Berofsky (ed.) (1966). Free Will and Determinism. Harper and Row.
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  9. John D. Bishop (2003). Prospects for a Naturalist Libertarianism: O'Connor's Persons and Causes. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 66 (1):228-243.
  10. Vincent Blok (2013). &Quot;massive Voluntarism" or Heidegger's Confrontation with the Will. Studie Phaenomenologica 13 (1):449-465.
    One of the controversial issues in the development of Heidegger’s thought is the problem of the will. Th e communis opinio is that Heidegger embraced the concept of the will in a non-critical manner at the beginning of the thirties and , in particular, he employed it in his political speeches of 1933–1934. Jacques Derrida for instance speaks about a “massive voluntarism” in relation to Heidegger’s thought in this period. Also Brett Davis discerns a period of “existential voluntarism” in 1930–1934, (...)
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  11. Vincent Blok (2013). 'Massive Voluntarism' or Heidegger's Confrontation with the Will. Studie Phaenomenologica 13 (1):449-465.
    One of the controversial issues in the development of Heidegger’s thought is the problem of the will. Th e communis opinio is that Heidegger embraced the concept of the will in a non-critical manner at the beginning of the thirties and , in particular, he employed it in his political speeches of 1933–1934. Jacques Derrida for instance speaks about a “massive voluntarism” in relation to Heidegger’s thought in this period. Also Brett Davis discerns a period of “existential voluntarism” in 1930–1934, (...)
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  12. Susanne Bobzien (2012). A Free Will: Origins of the Notion in Ancient Thought (Review). Journal of the History of Philosophy 50 (2):292-293.
    Much of chapters 2 to 6 is in agreement with publications from the last twenty years (including those of the reviewer); so for example Frede’s points that neither Aristotle nor the Stoics had a notion of free-will; that in Epictetus (for the first time) the notions of freedom and will were combined; that an indeterminist notion of free-will occurs first in Alexander. The achievement of these chapters lies in the way Frede carefully joins them together and uses them as a (...)
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  13. Susanne Bobzien (ed.) (2011). Afterword to The Philosophy of Aristotle. Signet.
    ABSTRACT: This is a little piece directed at the newcomer to Aristotle, making some general remarks about reading Aristotle at the beginning and end, with sandwiched in between, a brief and much simplified discussion of some common misunderstandings of Aristotle's philosophy, concerning spontaneity, causal indeterminism, freedom-to-do-otherwise, free choice, agent causation, logical determinism, teleological determinism, artistic creativity and freedom (eleutheria).
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  14. Susanne Bobzien (1998). The Inadvertent Conception and Late Birth of the Free-Will Problem. Phronesis 43 (2):133-175.
    ABSTRACT: In this paper I argue that the ‘discovery’ of the problem of causal determinism and freedom of decision in Greek philosophy is the result of a combination and mix-up of Aristotelian and Stoic thought in later antiquity; more precisely, a (mis-)interpretation of Aristotle’s philosophy of deliberate choice and action in the light of Stoic theory of determinism and moral responsibility. The (con-)fusion originates with the beginnings of Aristotle scholarship, at the latest in the early 2nd century AD. It undergoes (...)
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  15. Susanne Bobzien (1997). Stoic Conceptions of Freedom and Their Relation to Ethics. Bulletin of the Institute of Classical Studies 41 (S68):71-89.
    ABSTRACT: In contemporary discussions of freedom in Stoic philosophy we often encounter the following assumptions: (i) the Stoics discussed the problem of free will and determinis; (ii) since in Stoic philosophy freedom of the will is in the end just an illusion, the Stoics took the freedom of the sage as a substitute for it and as the only true freedom; (iii) in the c. 500 years of live Stoic philosophical debate, the Stoics were largely concerned with the same philosophical (...)
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  16. H. Bok (2001). Book Review. Metaphilosophy and Free Will Richard Double. [REVIEW] Mind 110 (438):452-455.
  17. Pratima Bowes (1971). Consciousness And Freedom: Three Views. London,: Methuen.
  18. R. D. Bradley (1958). Free Will: Problem of Pseudo-Problem? Australasian Journal of Philosophy 36 (1):33 – 45.
  19. Daniel Breyer (2013). Freedom with a Buddhist Face. Sophia 52 (2):359-379.
    This article clarifies the Buddhist position on freedom and responsibility, while arguing for three central claims. The first is that it is an open question whether Buddhists endorse causal determinism or causal indeterminism. The second claim is that the most promising contemporary interpretations of the Buddhist view fail in important respects. The final claim is that the best interpretation of the Buddhist position on freedom and responsibility is Buddhist Perspectivalism, the view that we should view ourselves as genuinely free and (...)
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  20. James Cain (2005). Fred Berthold, Jr God, Evil, and Human Learning: A Critique and Revision of the Free Will Defense in Theodicy. (Albany NY: State University of New York Press, 2004). Pp. VIII+108. $32.00 (Hbk). ISBN 0 7914 6041 X. [REVIEW] Religious Studies 41 (4):480-483.
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  21. Charles A. Campbell (1951). Is "Free Will" a Pseudoproblem? Mind 60 (240):441-65.
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  22. Gregg Caruso (ed.) (2013). Exploring the Illusion of Free Will and Moral Responsibility. Lexington Books.
    This book explores the philosophical and scientific arguments for free will skepticism and their implications. Skepticism about free will and moral responsibility has been on the rise in recent years. In fact, a significant number of philosophers, psychologists, and neuroscientists now either doubt or outright deny the existence of free will and/or moral responsibility—and the list of prominent skeptics appears to grow by the day. Given the profound importance that the concepts of free will and moral responsibility play in our (...)
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  23. Gregg Caruso (2013). Introduction: Exploring the Illusion of Free Will and Moral Responsibility. In Gregg D. Caruso (ed.), Exploring the Illusion of Free Will and Moral Responsibility. Lexington Books.
    This introductory chapter discusses the philosophical and scientific arguments for free will skepticism and their implications--including the debate between Saul Smilansky's "illusionism," Thomas Nadelhoffer's "disillusionism," Shaun Nichols' "anti-revolution," and the "optimistic skepticism" of Derk Pereboom, Bruce Waller, Tamler Sommers, and others.
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  24. Gregg Caruso (2012). Free Will and Consciousness: A Determinist Account of the Illusion of Free Will. Lexington Books.
    In recent decades, with advances in the behavioral, cognitive, and neurosciences, the idea that patterns of human behavior may ultimately be due to factors beyond our conscious control has increasingly gained traction and renewed interest in the age-old problem of free will. In this book I examine both the traditional philosophical problems long associated with the question of free will, such as the relationship between determinism and free will, as well as recent experimental and theoretical work directly related to consciousness (...)
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  25. Vere Chappell (2005). Self-Determination. In Christia Mercer (ed.), Early Modern Philosophy: Mind, Matter, and Metaphysics. Oxford University Press. 127--41.
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  26. Mary T. Clark (ed.) (1973). The Problem of Freedom. New York,Appleton-Century-Crofts.
    Eddington, A. The decline of determinism.--Heisenberg, W. and others. Dialogue concerning science and philosophical positions.--Sinnott, E. Biology and freedom.--Nuttin, J. The unconscious and freedom.--Nagel, E. Determinism in history.--Ayer, A. J. Freedom and necessity.--Campbell, C. A. Philosophical defence of freedom.--Hare, R. M. Freedom and reason.--Dewey, J. Freedom as a problem.--Sartre, J.-P. Freedom and total responsibility.--Camus, A. Freedom and rebellion.--Rand, A. Freedom and individualism.--Thévenaz, P. Freedom and action.--Luijpen, W. A. Phenomenology of freedom.--Teilhard de Chardin, P. Cosmic freedom.--Jaspers, K. Freedom and society.--Macmurray, J. (...)
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  27. Randolph Clarke (2002). Free Will. In Stephen P. Stich & Ted A. Warfield (eds.), Blackwell Guide to Philosophy of Mind. Blackwell.
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  28. Randolph Clarke (1996). Contrastive Rational Explanation of Free Choice. Philosophical Quarterly 46 (183):185-201.
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  29. Randolph Clarke (1995). Freedom and Determinism. Philosophical Books 36 (1):9-18.
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  30. E. J. Coffman (2011). How (Not) to Attack the Luck Argument. Philosophical Explorations 13 (2):157-166.
    The Luck Argument is among the most influential objections to the main brand of libertarianism about metaphysical freedom and moral responsibility. In his work, Alfred Mele [2006. Free will and luck . Oxford: Oxford University Press] develops - and then attempts to defeat - the literature's most promising version of the Luck Argument. After explaining Mele's version of the Luck Argument, I present two objections to his novel reply to the argument. I argue for the following two claims: (1) Mele's (...)
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  31. Jesse Couenhoven (2007). Augustine's Rejection of the Free-Will Defence: An Overview of the Late Augustine's Theodicy. Religious Studies 43 (3):279-298.
    Augustine is commonly considered the greatest early proponent of what we call the free-will defence, but this idea is deeply misleading, as Augustine grew increasingly dissatisfied with the view from an early point in his career, and his later explorations of the implications of his doctrines of sin and grace led him to reject free-will theodicies altogether. As a compatibilist, however, he continued to reject the idea that God is responsible for the advent of evil. His alternative was his often (...)
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  32. Michael J. Coughlan (1986). The Free Will Defence and Natural Evil. International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 20 (2/3):93 - 108.
  33. Stefaan E. Cuypers (2013). Moral Shallowness, Metaphysical Megalomania, and Compatibilist-Fatalism. Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 16 (1):173-188.
    In the debate on free will and moral responsibility, Saul Smilansky is a hard source-incompatibilist who objects to source-compatibilism for being morally shallow. After criticizing John Martin Fischer’s too optimistic response to this objection, this paper dissipates the charge that compatibilist accounts of ultimate origination are morally shallow by appealing to the seriousness of contingency in the framework of, what Paul Russell calls, compatibilist-fatalism. Responding to the objection from moral shallowness thus drives a wedge between optimists and fatalists within the (...)
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  34. Edward D'angelo (1968). The Problem Of Freedom And Determinism. Columbia: University Of Missouri Press.
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  35. Anthony Dardis (2009). Four Views on Free Will. By John Martin Fischer, Robert Kane, Derk Pereboom, and Manuel Vargas. Metaphilosophy 40 (1):147-153.
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  36. Matthew R. Dasti & Edwin F. Bryant (eds.) (2014). Free Will, Agency, and Selfhood in Indian Philosophy. Oxford University Press.
    If one were to make a list of the leading topics of debate in classical Indian philosophy, contenders might include the existence and nature of the self; the fundamental sources of knowledge; the nature of the engagement between consciousness and reality; the existence and nature of God/Brahman; the proper account of causation; the relationship between language and the world; the practices that best ensure future happiness; the most expedient method for any soteriological attainment (or not); or the fundamental constituents of (...)
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  37. Wayne A. Davis (1991). The World-Shift Theory of Free Choice. Australasian Journal of Philosophy 69 (2):206-211.
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  38. Frank B. Dilley (2004). Robert Kane (Ed.), The Oxford Handbook of Free Will. International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 55 (2):131-134.
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  39. Frank B. Dilley (1969). Predictability and Free Will. International Philosophical Quarterly 9 (June):205-213.
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  40. Ilham Dilman (1999). Free Will: An Historical and Philosophical Introduction. Routledge.
    The debate between free will and its opposing doctrine, determinism, is one of the key issues in philosophy. Ilham Dilman brings together all the dimensions of the problem of free will with examples from literature, ethics and psychoanalysis, and draws out valuable insights from both sides of the freedom-determinism divide. The book provides a comprehensive introduction to this highly important question and examines the contributions made by sixteen of the most outstanding thinkers from the time of early Greece to modern (...)
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  41. Richard Double (1997). Misdirection on the Free Will Problem. American Philosophical Quarterly 34 (3):359-68.
    The belief that only free will supports assignments of moral responsibility -- deserved praise and blame, punishment and reward, and the expression of reactive attitudes and moral censure -- has fueled most of the historical concern over the existence of free will. Free will's connection to moral responsibility also drives contemporary thinkers as diverse in their substantive positions as Peter Strawson, Thomas Nagel, Peter van Inwagen, Galen Strawson, and Robert Kane. A simple, but powerful, reason for thinking that philosophers are (...)
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  42. Richard Double (1994). How to Frame the Free Will Problem. Philosophical Studies 75 (1-2):149-72.
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  43. Richard Double (1993). The Principle of Rational Explanation Defended. Southern Journal of Philosophy 31 (2):133-142.
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  44. Richard Double (1992). How Rational Must Free Will Be? Metaphilosophy 23 (3):268-78.
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  45. Robin Douglass (2010). Free Will and the Problem of Evil: Reconciling Rousseau's Divided Thought. History of Political Thought 31 (4):639-655.
    This article aims to resolve the apparent contradiction in Rousseau's oeuvre concerning the origin of man's evil. In the Second Discourse a naturalistic explanation for the development of evil is given, whereas in Emile the Savoyard Vicar propounds a deontological account. The two can be reconciled, however, through a precise understanding of the nature and bearing of Rousseau's conception of free will. The analysis challenges O'Hagan's interpretation and suggests that the irreducible tensions within Rousseau's thought can be resolved if the (...)
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  46. Timothy J. Duggan & Bernard Gert (1979). Free Will as the Ability to Will. Noûs 13 (2):197-217.
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  47. Tomas Ekenberg (2005). Free Will and Free Action in Anselm of Canterbury. History of Philosophy Quarterly 22 (4):301 - 318.
    Free Will and Free Action in Anselm of Canterbury.
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  48. Laura W. Ekstrom (ed.) (2001). Agency and Responsibility: Essays on the Metaphysics of Freedom. Westview.
    A companion volume to Free Will: A Philosophical Study , this new anthology collects influential essays on free will, including both well-known contemporary classics and exciting recent work. Agency and Responsibility: Essays on the Metaphysics of Freedom is divided into three parts. The essays in the first section address metaphysical issues concerning free will and causal determinism. The second section groups papers presenting a positive account of the nature of free action, including competing compatibilist and incompatibilist analyses. The third section (...)
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  49. Willard F. Enteman (1967). The Problem of Free Will. New York, Scribner.
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  50. Frederick P. Ferre (1973). Self-Determinism. American Philosophical Quarterly 10 (July):165-176.
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