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Summary Theories of free will focus on two basic questions: its possibility and its nature. The possibility question is almost always concerned principally with whether freedom is compatible with causal determinism, as well as with closely related (putative) threats like God's foreknowledge. Philosophers may be either compatibilists or incompatibilists with regard to the relation between freedom and determinism. Of course philosophers are particularly concerned with whether free will is actual. Questions of the nature of free will are usually addressed in conjunction with the compatibility question: philosophers develop accounts of free will in order to show that it is or is not compatible with causal determinism. The typology of these accounts appears under the sibling category "topics in free will".
Key works Contemporary theorists of free will divide into compatibilists, incompatibilists and impossibilists in the main. The most important contemporary compatibilist is probably John Martin Fischer (Fischer & Ravizza 1998) though real self views are increasingly influential (Arpaly 2003Scanlon 2008). Incompatibilists traditionally divide into hard determinists, who hold that free will is incompatible with determinism and determinism is true and libertarians. Libertarians, in turn, divide into agent-causal theorists (e.g. O'Connor 2000) and event-causal theorists (e.g. Kane 1996). Impossibilism has never been popular but seems to be growing slightly (see for instance Strawson 1994). Derk Pereboom's near-impossibilism is also influential (Pereboom 2001). 
Introductions O'Connor 2005;McKenna 2008; Clarke & Capes ms; Levy & McKenna 2009
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  1. Nicola Abbagnano (1957). Possibilità E Libertà. Journal of Philosophy 54 (3):78-80.
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  2. Natalie Abrams (1972). Free-Will and Moral Responsibility in the Works of Charles Arthur Campbell. Dissertation, Columbia University
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  3. Todd Llewellyn Adams (1986). The American Commonsense Philosophers on Determinism and Agent Causality. Dissertation, University of Kentucky
    The focus of this dissertation is on the American commonsense philosophers in the first half of the nineteenth century. The primary issue dealt with is the agency theory of these philosophers and how that related to the debate concerning freedom and determinism. The essential Americans in this debate are Alexander Campbell, Asa Mahan, Henry Tappan, and Thomas Upham. Each one was committed to the fundamental principles of the commonsense philosophy, and so supported the view that man acts freely. They were (...)
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  4. Christian Adelt (1970). Die Letzte Revolution. F. Schöningh.
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  5. John Christopher Adorno (ed.) (forthcoming). Being, Freedom, and Method: Themes From the Philosophy of Peter van Inwagen.
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  6. Archibald B. D. Alexander (1908). Kuno Fischer: An Estimate of His Life and Work. Journal of Philosophy, Psychology and Scientific Methods 5 (3):57-64.
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  7. John Gerald Alexander (1970). An Examination of the Problem of Physical Determinism. Dissertation, University of Oregon
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  8. Peter Alward, Comments on Heidi Tiedke’s €Œis Knowledge Ever Constitutive of Freedom?€.
               According to Tiedke, in order for an act to be free it must satisfy two requirements: (PR) The agent must have been the source of the action. (PAP) It must have been possible for the agent to have done otherwise. Different accounts of freedom cash these conditions out in different ways. The Standard Compatibilist offers the following versions of these principles: (PRSC) The agent’s choice was a link in the (...)
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  9. Elizabeth Anderson (2005). Rationality and Freedom. Philosophical Review 114 (2):253-271.
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  10. Chrisoula Andreou (2003). Amartya Sen, Rationality and Freedom Reviewed By. Philosophy in Review 23 (3):217-220.
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  11. Chrisoula Andreou (2003). Amartya Sen, Rationality and Freedom. [REVIEW] Philosophy in Review 23:217-220.
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  12. G. E. M. Anscombe (1971). Causality and Determinism. Cambridge University Press.
    I IT is often declared or evidently assumed that causality is some kind of necessary connexion, or alternatively, that being caused is — non-trivially ...
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  13. Thomas Anselm & Williams (2002). Three Philosophical Dialogues on Truth, on Freedom of Choice, on the Fall of the Devil. Monograph Collection (Matt - Pseudo).
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  14. Jose Antonio Guerrero del Amo (2009). Determinism Versus Freedom in Freud. Pensamiento 65 (243):117-142.
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  15. Shigeru åowada (1993). Jiyåujin No Kiseki Kindai No Bungaku to Shisåo. Musashino Shobåo.
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  16. David Archard (1990). Freedom Not to Be Free. Philosophical Quarterly 40 (161):453.
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  17. Denise T. Askin (2004). Anagogical Vision and Comedic Form in Flannery O'Connor. Renascence 57 (1):47-62.
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  18. Robert N. Audi (1974). Moral Responsibility, Freedom, and Compulsion. American Philosophical Quarterly 11 (January):1-14.
    This paper sets out and defends an account of free action and explores the relation between free action and moral responsibility. Free action is analyzed as a certain kind of uncompelled action. The notion of compulsion is explicated in detail, And several forms of compulsion are distinguished and compared. It is argued that contrary to what is usually supposed, A person may be morally responsible for doing something even if he did not do it freely. On the basis of the (...)
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  19. A. J. Ayer (1990). The Meaning of Life and Other Essays.
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  20. A. M. B. (1974). Liberty and Community. Review of Metaphysics 28 (2):359-360.
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  21. E. B. (1879). La terminologie de M. Shadworth Hodgson. Revue Philosophique de la France Et de l'Etranger 7:477 - 479.
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  22. F. E. B. (1960). A Study of Liberty. Review of Metaphysics 13 (3):531-531.
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  23. J. E. B. (1957). The Road to Inner Freedom. Review of Metaphysics 11 (1):168-168.
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  24. R. J. B. (1971). Freedom of Mind. Review of Metaphysics 25 (1):125-126.
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  25. Bernard Baertschi & Alexandre Mauron (2011). Genetic Determinism, Neuronal Determinism, and Determinism Tout Court. In Judy Illes & Barbara J. Sahakian (eds.), Oxford Handbook of Neuroethics. Oxford University Press 151.
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  26. Julian Baggini (2001). Conference Briefing 30 Free Will and Determinism Ron Wilburn Et Al. The Philosophers' Magazine 13.
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  27. Julian Baggini (2000). Free to Choose. The Philosophers' Magazine 11:37-40.
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  28. Oded Balaban & Anan Erev (1995). The Bounds of Freedom About the Eastern and Western Approaches to Freedom.
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  29. Mark Balaguer (2012). Replies to McKenna, Pereboom, and Kane. Philosophical Studies (1):1-22.
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  30. Frank Ballard (1911). Determinism: False and True.
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  31. Eric Christian Barnes (2015). Freedom, Creativity, and Manipulation. Noûs 49 (3):560-588.
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  32. Michael Barram (forthcoming). Book Review: Less Than Two Dollars a Day: A Christian View of World Poverty and the Free Market. [REVIEW] Interpretation 62 (4):450-450.
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  33. Cyril Barrett (1973). Freedom of Mind and Other Essays. Philosophical Books 14 (2):7-9.
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  34. Z. Bauman (1991). The Social Manipulation of Morality: Moralizing Actors, Adiaphorizing Action. Theory, Culture and Society 8 (1):137-151.
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  35. L. W. Beals (1961). An Imputation Theory of Free Will. In Gerald E. Myers (ed.), Self, Religion, and Metaphysics. New York, Macmillan
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  36. Lawrence C. Becker (1971). Determinism as a Rhetorical Problem. Philosophy and Rhetoric 4 (1):20 - 28.
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  37. Helen Beebee (2014). Radical Indeterminism and Top-Down Causation. Res Philosophica 91 (3):537-545.
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  38. Yemima Ben-Menahem (2007). Free Creations of the Human Mind. Iyyun 56:141.
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  39. Erica Benner (2009). Chapter 6. Free Agency and Desires for Freedom. In Machiavelli's Ethics. Princeton University Press 213-253.
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  40. Paul H. Benson (1987). Ordinary Ability and Free Action. Canadian Journal of Philosophy 17 (June):307-335.
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  41. Paul H. Benson (1984). Freedom and Criticism: An Account of Free Action. Dissertation, Princeton University
    This essay attempts to develop an account of the abilities which free action involves. I argue that the notion of ability which is especially relevant for the purpose of understanding free action is correctly given a compatibilist interpretation. More importantly, it turns out that persons who act freely have the ability to do otherwise than they do. Acting with the ability to do otherwise is not a distinctive mark of free action, however, since anyone who merely acts intentionally possesses that (...)
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  42. Mark Bernstein (1988). Justification and Determinism - An Exchange. The Monist 71 (3):358-364.
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  43. Bernard Berofsky (1999). The Question of Free Will: A Holistic View. [REVIEW] International Studies in Philosophy 31 (4):142-143.
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  44. Bernard Berofsky (1964). Determinism and the Concept of a Person. Journal of Philosophy 61 (September):461-475.
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  45. A. Bers, R. Fox, C. G. Kuper & S. G. Lipson (1971). The Impossibility of Free Tachyons. In Charles Goethe Kuper & Asher Peres (eds.), Relativity and Gravitation. New York,Gordon and Breach Science Publishers 41.
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  46. A. H. Birch (1947). A Fifth-Century Apostle of Free Will. Hibbert Journal 46:56.
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  47. Robert Bishop (2009). Contemporary Views on Compatibilism and Incompatibilism: Dennett and Kane. Mind and Matter 7 (1):91-110.
    For a long time, Daniel Dennett, like many philosophers, has been trying to understand how to make room for free will in a world of ordered causes. A core feature of Dennett's view on these matters is that the world is deterministic and his approach to this project has been to show how determinism really is our friend rather than our enemy . His most recent foray into this arena is the ambitious book, Freedom Evolves, where he once again seeks (...)
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  48. Robert Charles Bishop (1999). Chaotic Dynamics, Indeterminacy and Free Will. Dissertation, The University of Texas at Austin
    I give a philosophical assessment of developments in modern physics such as chaos, quantum mechanics and nonequilibrium statistical mechanics. My thesis combines knowledge and expertise from both physics and philosophy in an attempt to assess the consequences of these modern developments for determinism, indeterminism and free will. I have developed some now and important insights particularly with respect to the limited applicability of determinism to physics and with regard to systematic defects in free will theories.
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  49. David Carl Blumenfeld (1966). The Psychoanalytic Concept of Freedom. Dissertation, University of California, Berkeley
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  50. J. M. Bochenski (1986). The Concept of the Free Society in Logic and Philosophy. The Monist 69 (2):207-215.
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