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Summary Theories of free will focus on two basic questions: its possibility and its nature. The possibility question is almost always concerned principally with whether freedom is compatible with causal determinism, as well as with closely related (putative) threats like God's foreknowledge. Philosophers may be either compatibilists or incompatibilists with regard to the relation between freedom and determinism. Of course philosophers are particularly concerned with whether free will is actual. Questions of the nature of free will are usually addressed in conjunction with the compatibility question: philosophers develop accounts of free will in order to show that it is or is not compatible with causal determinism. The typology of these accounts appears under the sibling category "topics in free will".
Key works Contemporary theorists of free will divide into compatibilists, incompatibilists and impossibilists in the main. The most important contemporary compatibilist is probably John Martin Fischer (Fischer & Ravizza 1998) though real self views are increasingly influential (Arpaly 2003Scanlon 2008). Incompatibilists traditionally divide into hard determinists, who hold that free will is incompatible with determinism and determinism is true and libertarians. Libertarians, in turn, divide into agent-causal theorists (e.g. O'Connor 2000) and event-causal theorists (e.g. Kane 1996). Impossibilism has never been popular but seems to be growing slightly (see for instance Strawson 1994). Derk Pereboom's near-impossibilism is also influential (Pereboom 2001). 
Introductions O'Connor 2005;McKenna 2008; Clarke & Capes ms; Levy & McKenna 2009
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  1. Archibald B. D. Alexander (1908). Kuno Fischer: An Estimate of His Life and Work. Journal of Philosophy, Psychology and Scientific Methods 5 (3):57-64.
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  2. Peter Alward, Comments on Heidi Tiedke’s €Œis Knowledge Ever Constitutive of Freedom?€.
               According to Tiedke, in order for an act to be free it must satisfy two requirements: (PR) The agent must have been the source of the action. (PAP) It must have been possible for the agent to have done otherwise. Different accounts of freedom cash these conditions out in different ways. The Standard Compatibilist offers the following versions of these principles: (PRSC) The agent’s choice was a link in the (...)
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  3. Elizabeth Anderson (2005). Rationality and Freedom. Philosophical Review 114 (2):253-271.
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  4. Chrisoula Andreou (2003). Amartya Sen, Rationality and Freedom Reviewed By. Philosophy in Review 23 (3):217-220.
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  5. G. E. M. Anscombe (1971). Causality and Determinism. Cambridge University Press.
    I IT is often declared or evidently assumed that causality is some kind of necessary connexion, or alternatively, that being caused is — non-trivially ...
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  6. Jose Antonio Guerrero del Amo (2009). Determinism Versus Freedom in Freud. Pensamiento 65 (243):117-142.
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  7. David Archard (1990). Freedom Not to Be Free. Philosophical Quarterly 40 (161):453.
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  8. Denise T. Askin (2004). Anagogical Vision and Comedic Form in Flannery O'Connor. Renascence 57 (1):47-62.
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  9. Robert N. Audi (1974). Moral Responsibility, Freedom, and Compulsion. American Philosophical Quarterly 11 (January):1-14.
    This paper sets out and defends an account of free action and explores the relation between free action and moral responsibility. Free action is analyzed as a certain kind of uncompelled action. The notion of compulsion is explicated in detail, And several forms of compulsion are distinguished and compared. It is argued that contrary to what is usually supposed, A person may be morally responsible for doing something even if he did not do it freely. On the basis of the (...)
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  10. A. M. B. (1974). Liberty and Community. Review of Metaphysics 28 (2):359-360.
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  11. F. E. B. (1960). A Study of Liberty. Review of Metaphysics 13 (3):531-531.
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  12. J. E. B. (1957). The Road to Inner Freedom. Review of Metaphysics 11 (1):168-168.
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  13. R. J. B. (1971). Freedom of Mind. Review of Metaphysics 25 (1):125-126.
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  14. Bernard Baertschi & Alexandre Mauron (2011). Genetic Determinism, Neuronal Determinism, and Determinism Tout Court. In Judy Illes & Barbara J. Sahakian (eds.), Oxford Handbook of Neuroethics. Oxford University Press. 151.
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  15. Julian Baggini (2001). Conference Briefing 30 Free Will and Determinism Ron Wilburn Et Al. The Philosophers' Magazine 13.
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  16. Julian Baggini (2000). Free to Choose. The Philosophers' Magazine 11:37-40.
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  17. Mark Balaguer (2012). Replies to McKenna, Pereboom, and Kane. Philosophical Studies (1):1-22.
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  18. Eric Christian Barnes (2013). Freedom, Creativity, and Manipulation. Noûs 49 (1).
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  19. Michael Barram (forthcoming). Book Review: Less Than Two Dollars a Day: A Christian View of World Poverty and the Free Market. [REVIEW] Interpretation 62 (4):450-450.
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  20. Cyril Barrett (1973). Freedom of Mind and Other Essays. Philosophical Books 14 (2):7-9.
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  21. Z. Bauman (1991). The Social Manipulation of Morality: Moralizing Actors, Adiaphorizing Action. Theory, Culture and Society 8 (1):137-151.
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  22. L. W. Beals (1961). An Imputation Theory of Free Will. In Gerald E. Myers (ed.), Self, Religion, and Metaphysics. New York, Macmillan.
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  23. Lawrence C. Becker (1971). Determinism as a Rhetorical Problem. Philosophy and Rhetoric 4 (1):20 - 28.
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  24. Helen Beebee (2014). Radical Indeterminism and Top-Down Causation. Res Philosophica 91 (3):537-545.
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  25. Yemima Ben-Menahem (2007). Free Creations of the Human Mind. Iyyun 56:141.
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  26. Paul H. Benson (1987). Ordinary Ability and Free Action. Canadian Journal of Philosophy 17 (June):307-335.
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  27. Mark Bernstein (1988). Justification and Determinism - An Exchange. The Monist 71 (3):358-364.
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  28. Bernard Berofsky (1999). The Question of Free Will: A Holistic View. [REVIEW] International Studies in Philosophy 31 (4):142-143.
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  29. Bernard Berofsky (1964). Determinism and the Concept of a Person. Journal of Philosophy 61 (September):461-475.
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  30. A. Bers, R. Fox, C. G. Kuper & S. G. Lipson (1971). The Impossibility of Free Tachyons. In Charles Goethe Kuper & Asher Peres (eds.), Relativity and Gravitation. New York,Gordon and Breach Science Publishers. 41.
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  31. Robert Bishop (2009). Contemporary Views on Compatibilism and Incompatibilism: Dennett and Kane. Mind and Matter 7 (1):91-110.
    For a long time, Daniel Dennett, like many philosophers, has been trying to understand how to make room for free will in a world of ordered causes. A core feature of Dennett's view on these matters is that the world is deterministic and his approach to this project has been to show how determinism really is our friend rather than our enemy . His most recent foray into this arena is the ambitious book, Freedom Evolves, where he once again seeks (...)
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  32. J. M. Bochenski (1986). The Concept of the Free Society in Logic and Philosophy. The Monist 69 (2):207-215.
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  33. Jona Boeddinghaus (2008). Wer Entscheidet, Mein Gehirn Oder Ich?: Die Möglichkeit der Freien Entscheidung Bei Augustinus Und in den Neurowissenschaften. Breyer Verlag.
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  34. Willem Boerma (2009). Augustinus over vrijheid. Bijdragen 70 (1):28-44.
    This article states that it is important for a debate on freedom and its consequences for constitutional state, to have a clear view of ‘man and the world’. On the basis of Augustine’s thoughts on the concept of ‘man and the world’ some important arguments for a debate on freedom and constitutional state are being outlined. On the basis of several texts of Augustine, human being should be seen as trinitarian imago dei. Man, characterised as such, consists even in its (...)
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  35. David Boersema (2011). Make Up Your Mind. Questions: Philosophy for Young People 11:13-13.
    A review of Porter and Girsch’s book for gifted middle and high school children, focusing on useful classroom activities. Boersema analyzes how the book accounts for multiple philosophic discussions for children, including the following: Nature vs. Nurture, Deduction vs. Induction, Absolutism vs. Relativism, Discovered Math vs. Invented Math, Reason vs. Revelation, Free Will vs. Determinism, Liberalism vs. Conservatism, Free Markets vs. Regulated Markets, Safety vs. Risk, and Melting Pot vs. Melting Not.
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  36. James Bohman (2014). Just Freedom: A Moral Compass for a Complex World, Philip Pettit (New York: W. W. Norton & Company, 2014), $26.95 Paper. [REVIEW] Ethics and International Affairs 28 (3):402-404.
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  37. Edoardo Boncinelli (2012). Quel Che Resta Dell'anima. Rizzoli.
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  38. Vernon J. Bourke (1948). On Free Will. [REVIEW] Modern Schoolman 26 (1):71-72.
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  39. Joseph M. Boyle Jr, Germain Grisez & Olaf Tollefsen (1972). Determinism, Freedom, and Self-Referential Arguments. Review of Metaphysics 26 (1):3-37.
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  40. Jason Brennan (2007). Free Will in the Block Universe. Philosophia 35 (2):207-217.
    Carl Hoefer has argued that determinism in block universes does not privilege any particular time slice as the fundamental determiner of other time slices. He concludes from this that our actions are free, insofar as they are pieces of time slices we may legitimately regard as fundamental determiners. However, I argue that Hoefer does not adequately deal with certain remaining problems. For one, there remain pervasive asymmetries in causation and the macroscopic efficacy of our actions. I suggest that what Hoefer (...)
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  41. William H. Brenner (2001). Creation, Causality and Freedom of the Will. In Robert L. Arrington & Mark Addis (eds.), Wittgenstein and Philosophy of Religion. Routledge.
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  42. Sarah Broadie (2013). Agency and Determinism in A Metaphysics for Freedom. Inquiry 56 (6):571-582.
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  43. Richard Bronaugh (1984). God, Free Will, and Morality. Philosophical Books 25 (4):224-226.
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  44. Richard N. Bronaugh (1964). Uncertainty and Free Choice. Dialogue 2 (04):446-451.
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  45. Vincent Brümmer (1987). Moral Sensitivity and the Free Will Defence. Neue Zeitschrift Für Systematische Theologie Und Religionsphilosophie 29 (1-3):86-100.
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  46. Godehard Brüntrup (2008). Self-Determination and the Brain. Gregorianum 89 (4):816-831.
    The main topic of this paper will not be the notoriously difficult metaphysical question of freedom and determinism. An act of will is either determined by a causal chain of previous events or is a mere chance event. In either case there seems to be no room for freedom. This question is of such a high level of conceptual generality that it applies not only to human freedom but to any being that acts for reasons, even beings that lack a (...)
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  47. David Buchta (2014). Dependent Agency and Hierarchical Determinism in the Theology of Madhva. In Matthew R. Dasti & Edwin F. Bryant (eds.), Free Will, Agency, and Selfhood in Indian Philosophy. Oxford University Press. 255.
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  48. A. A. Buckareff (2003). Persons & Causes: The Metaphysics of Free Will by Timothy O'Connor. Auslegung 26 (1):69-76.
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  49. J. A. Burgess (2011). Ten Moral Paradoxes * by Saul Smilansky. Analysis 71 (3):603-605.
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  50. E. S. C. (1962). An Inquiry Into the Freedom of Decision. Review of Metaphysics 16 (1):167-167.
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