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  1. José Tomás Alvarado Marambio (2008). The Notion of a Priori Justification. Discusiones Filosóficas 9 (12):97 - 122.
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  2. Bruce Aune (1963). Is There an Analytic a Priori? Journal of Philosophy 60 (11):281-291.
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  3. A. J. Ayer (1987). The a Priori. In Paul K. Moser (ed.), A Priori Knowledge. Oxford University Press
  4. A. J. Ayer (1936). Language, Truth and Logic. London, V. Gollancz, Ltd..
  5. Jason S. Baehr, A Priori and a Posteriori. Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
    The terms "a priori" and "a posteriori" refer primarily to how or on what basis a proposition might be known. A proposition is knowable a priori if it is knowable independently of experience. A proposition is knowable a posteriori if it is knowable on the basis of experience. The a priori/a posteriori distinction is epistemological and should not be confused with the metaphysical distinction between the necessary and the contingent or the semantical or logical distinction between the analytic and the (...)
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  6. George Bealer (2000). A Theory of the A Priori. Pacific Philosophical Quarterly 81 (1):1-30.
    The topic of a priori knowledge is approached through the theory of evidence. A shortcoming in traditional formulations of moderate rationalism and moderate empiricism is that they fail to explain why rational intuition and phenomenal experience count as basic sources of evidence. This explanatory gap is filled by modal reliabilism -- the theory that there is a qualified modal tie between basic sources of evidence and the truth. This tie to the truth is then explained by the theory of concept (...)
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  7. George Bealer (2000). A Priori Knowledge. The Proceedings of the Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 5:1-12.
    This paper is a condensed version of the author’s “A Theory of the A Priori” (Pacific Philosophical Quarterly, 2000) for the evidential status of intuitions, the incoherence of radical empiricism. the thesis of modal reliabilism, and the Autonomy of Philosophy Thesis (according to which the a priori disciplines are autonomous from empirical science).
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  8. George Bealer (1996). A Priori Knowledge and the Scope of Philosophy. Philosophical Studies 81 (2-3):121-142.
    This paper provides a defense of two traditional theses: the Autonomy of Philosophy and the Authority of Philosophy. The first step is a defense of the evidential status of intuitions (intellectual seemings). Rival views (such as radical empiricism), which reject the evidential status of intuitions, are shown to be epistemically self-defeating. It is then argued that the only way to explain the evidential status of intuitions is to invoke modal reliabilism. This theory requires that intuitions have a certain qualified modal (...)
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  9. George Bealer (1996). A Priori Knowledge: Replies to William Lycan and Ernest Sosa. Philosophical Studies 81 (2-3):163-174.
    This paper contains replies to comments on the author's paper "A Priori Knowledge and the Scope of Philosophy." Several points in the argument of that paper are given further clarification: the notion of our standard justificatory procedure, the notion of a basic source of evidence, and the doctrine of modal reliabilism. The reliability of intuition is then defended against Lycan's skepticism and a response is given to Lycan's claim that the scope of a priori knowledge does not include philosophically central (...)
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  10. George Bealer (1987). The Philosophical Limits of Scientific Essentialism. Philosophical Perspectives 1:289-365.
    Scientific essentialism is the view that some necessities can be known only with the aid of empirical science. The thesis of the paper is that scientific essentialism does not extend to the central questions of philosophy and that these questions can be answered a priori. The argument is that the evidence required for the defense of scientific essentialism is reliable only if the intuitions required by philosophy to answer its central questions is also reliable. Included is an outline of a (...)
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  11. David W. Benfield (1974). The a Priori--A Posteriori Distinction. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 35 (2):151-166.
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  12. Sharon Berry (2013). Default Reasonableness and the Mathoids. Synthese 190 (17):3695-3713.
    In this paper I will argue that (principled) attempts to ground a priori knowledge in default reasonable beliefs cannot capture certain common intuitions about what is required for a priori knowledge. I will describe hypothetical creatures who derive complex mathematical truths like Fermat’s last theorem via short and intuitively unconvincing arguments. Many philosophers with foundationalist inclinations will feel that these creatures must lack knowledge because they are unable to justify their mathematical assumptions in terms of the kind of basic facts (...)
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  13. Rod Bertolet (1988). Putnam on the a Priori. Philosophia 18 (2-3):253-263.
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  14. Paul A. Boghossian (2008). Content and Justification: Philosophical Papers. OUP Oxford.
    This volume presents a series of influential essays by Paul Boghossian on the theory of content and on its relation to the phenomenon of a priori knowledge. The essays are organized under four headings: the nature of content; content and self-knowledge; knowledge, content, and the a priori; and colour concepts.
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  15. Paul A. Boghossian (2003). Epistemic Analyticity: A Defense. Grazer Philosophische Studien 66 (1):15-35.
    The paper is a defense of the project of explaining the a priori via the notion of meaning or concept possession. It responds to certain objections that have been made to this project—in particular, that there can be no epistemically analytic sentences that are not also metaphysically analytic, and that the notion of implicit definition cannot explain a priori entitlement. The paper goes on to distinguish between two different ways in which facts about meaning might generate facts about entitlement—inferential and (...)
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  16. Paul Boghossian & Christopher Peacocke (eds.) (2000). New Essays on the A Priori. Oxford University Press.
    A stellar line-up of leading philosophers from around the world offer new treatments of a topic which has long been central to philosophical debate, and in ...
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  17. Laurence Bonjour (2002). New Essays on the A Priori. Mind 111 (443):647-652.
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  18. Laurence Bonjour (2002). Review: Boghossian, Paul, New Essays on the A Priori. [REVIEW] Mind 111 (443):647-652.
  19. Laurence BonJour (2000). Four Theses Concerning a Priori Justification. The Proceedings of the Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 5:13-20.
    In my book In Defense of Pure Reason, I offer an extended defense of the idea of a priori justification and, more specifically, of a rationalist conception of such justification: one according to which rational insight or intuition provides genuine justification for claims that need not be merely definitional or tautological in character. In the relatively brief space available to me on the present occasion, I want to present and defend, necessarily in rather broad strokes, four of the most central (...)
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  20. Darren Bradley (2011). Justified Concepts and the Limits of the Conceptual Approach to the A Priori. Croatian Journal of Philosophy 11 (3):267-274.
    Carrie Jenkins (2005, 2008) has developed a theory of the a priori that she claims solves the problem of how justification regarding our concepts can give us justification regarding the world. She claims that concepts themselves can be justified, and that beliefs formed by examining such concepts can be justified a priori. I object that we can have a priori justified beliefs with unjustified concepts if those beliefs have no existential import. I then argue that only beliefs without existential import (...)
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  21. Albert Casullo (2014). Essays on a Priori Knowledge and Justification. OUP Usa.
    The past twenty-five years have seen a major renewal of interest in the topic of a priori knowledge. In the sixteen essays collected here, which span this entire period, philosopher Albert Casullo documents the complex set of issues motivating the renewed interest, identifies the central epistemological questions, and provides the leading ideas of a unified response to them.
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  22. Albert Casullo (2012). Essays on a Priori Knowledge and Justification: Essays. OUP Usa.
    The past twenty-five years have seen a major renewal of interest in the topic of a priori knowledge. In the sixteen essays collected here, which span this entire period, philosopher Albert Casullo documents the complex set of issues motivating the renewed interest, identifies the central epistemological questions, and provides the leading ideas of a unified response to them.
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  23. Albert Casullo (2009). Analyzing a Priori Knowledge. Philosophical Studies 142 (1):77 - 90.
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  24. Albert Casullo (2003). A Priori Justification. Oxford University Press.
    The major divide in contemporary epistemology is between those who embrace and those who reject a priori knowledge. Albert Casullo provides a systematic treatment of the primary epistemological issues associated with the controversy. By freeing the a priori from traditional assumptions about the nature of knowledge and justification, he offers a novel approach to resolving these issues which assigns a prominent role to empirical evidence. He concludes by arguing that traditional approaches to the a priori, which focus primarily on the (...)
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  25. Hiu Man Chan, Is There a Distinction Between a Priori and a Posteriori.
    This thesis studies whether there is a tenable distinction between a priori justification and a posteriori justification. My research considers three possible conceptions of a priori: Justification Independent of Experience, Mere Meaning Based Justification and Justification by Rational Insight, and examines whether they can provide a sound and significant distinction between a priori and a posteriori. This thesis contains five chapters. Chapter 1 introduces the background knowledge of the a priori/a posteriori distinction. Chapter 2 analyzes the traditional conception of a (...)
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  26. Arthur Child (1944). Toward a Functional Definition of the a Priori. Journal of Philosophy 41 (6):155-160.
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  27. D. O. D. (1960). 'La Notion d'"A Priori". [REVIEW] Review of Metaphysics 13 (4):699-699.
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  28. Karin de Boer (2011). Kant, Reichenbach, and the Fate of A Priori Principles. European Journal of Philosophy 19 (4):507-531.
    Abstract: This article contends that the relation of early logical empiricism to Kant was more complex than is often assumed. It argues that Reichenbach's early work on Kant and Einstein, entitled The Theory of Relativity and A Priori Knowledge (1920) aimed to transform rather than to oppose Kant's Critique of Pure Reason. One the one hand, I argue that Reichenbach's conception of coordinating principles, derived from Kant's conception of synthetic a priori principles, offers a valuable way of accounting for the (...)
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  29. Sinan Dogramaci (2012). Apriority. In Gillian Russell Delia Graff Fara (ed.), The Routledge Companion to Philosophy of Language. Routledge
    After briefly expositing some fundamental issues in current debates about apriority, I go on to critically examine meaning-based explanations of how we acquire apriori justification.
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  30. Mikel Dufrenne (1966). The Notion of the a Priori. [Evanston, Ill.]Northwestern University Press.
    Author's Introduction The notion of the a -priori is one of the principal themes elaborated in Kant's philosophy, and is the very origin of his Copernican ...
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  31. Mikel Dufrenne (1960). 'La Notion d'" A Priori.". Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 21 (2):283-284.
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  32. Philip A. Ebert (2005). Transmission of Warrant-Failure and the Notion of Epistemic Analyticity. Australasian Journal of Philosophy 83 (4):505 – 521.
    In this paper I will argue that Boghossian's explanation of how we can acquire a priori knowledge of logical principles through implicit definitions commits a transmission of warrant-failure. To this end, I will briefly outline Boghossian's account, followed by an explanation of what a transmission of warrant-failure consists in. I will also show that this charge is independent of the worry of rule-circularity which has been raised concerning the justification of logical principles and of which Boghossian is fully aware. My (...)
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  33. Jeremy Fantl (2003). An Analysis of the a Priori and a Posteriori. Acta Analytica 18 (1-2):43-69.
    I present and defend a unified, non-reductive analysis of the a priori and a posteriori. It is a mistake to remove all epistemic conditions from the analysis of the a priori (as, for example, Alvin Goldman has recently suggested doing). We can keep epistemic conditions (like unrevisability) in the analysis as long as we insist that a priori and a posteriori justification admit of degrees. I recommend making the degree to which a belief’s justification is a priori or a posteriori (...)
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  34. William Eugene Felch (1944). A Pragmatic Theory of the a Priori as Applied to the Religious Problem of Value. Chicago, Ill..
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  35. Hartry Field (2005). Recent Debates About the A Priori. In Tamar Szabo Gendler & John Hawthorne (eds.), Oxford Studies in Epistemology. OUP Oxford
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  36. Michael Friedman (2000). Transcendental Philosophy and a Priori Knowledge: A Neo-Kantian Perspective. In Paul Boghossian & Christopher Peacocke (eds.), New Essays on the a Priori. Oxford University Press
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  37. Manuel García-Carpintero & Manuel Pérez Otero (2009). The Conventional and the Analytic. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 78 (2):239-274.
    Empiricist philosophers like Carnap invoked analyticity in order to explain a priori knowledge and necessary truth. Analyticity was “truth purely in virtue of meaning”. The view had a deflationary motivation: in Carnap’s proposal, linguistic conventions alone determine the truth of analytic sentences, and thus there is no mystery in our knowing their truth a priori, or in their necessary truth; for they are, as it were, truths of our own making. Let us call this “Carnapian conventionalism”, conventionalismC and cognates for (...)
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  38. Manuel García-Carpintero & Manuel Pérez Otero (2009). The Conventional and the Analytic. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 78 (2):239-274.
    Empiricist philosophers like Carnap invoked analyticity in order to explain a priori knowledge and necessary truth. Analyticity was “truth purely in virtue of meaning”. The view had a deflationary motivation: in Carnap’s proposal, linguistic conventions alone determine the truth of analytic sentences, and thus there is no mystery in our knowing their truth a priori, or in their necessary truth; for they are, as it were, truths of our own making. Let us call this “Carnapian conventionalism”, conventionalismC and cognates for (...)
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  39. Joshua Gert (2009). Toward an Epistemology of Certain Substantive a Priori Truths. Metaphilosophy 40 (2):214-236.
    Abstract: This article explains and motivates an account of one way in which we might have substantive a priori knowledge in one important class of domains: domains in which the central concepts are response-dependent. The central example will be our knowledge of the connection between something's being harmful and the fact that it is irrational for us to fail to be averse to that thing. The idea is that although the relevant responses (basic aversion in the case of harm, and (...)
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  40. Alvin I. Goldman (1999). A Priori Warrant and Naturalistic Epistemology: The Seventh Philosophical Perspectives Lecture. Philosophical Perspectives 13 (s13):1-28.
  41. D. W. Gotshalk (1933). The a Priori. Journal of Philosophy 30 (10):253-262.
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  42. Robert Greenberg (2001). Kant's Theory of a Priori Knowledge. Pennsylvania State University Press.
    Instead, Robert Greenberg argues that Kant is more fundamentally concerned with the possibility of a priori knowledge -- the very possibility of the possibility ...
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  43. Philip P. Hanson & Bruce Hunter (eds.) (1993). Return of the a Priori. University of Calgary Press.
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  44. David Henderson (2000). What Is a Priori and What Is It Good For? Southern Journal of Philosophy 38 (S1):51-86.
    The doctrine is familiar. In a sentence, a priori truths are those that are knowable on the basis of reflection alone (independent of experience) by anyone who has acquired the relevant concepts. This expresses the classical conception of the a priori. Of course, there are those who despair of finding any truths that fully meet these demands. Some of the doubters are convinced, however, that the demands, are somewhat inflated by an epistemological tradition that was nevertheless on to something of (...)
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  45. David Henderson & Terry Horgan (2001). The A Priori Isn’T All That It Is Cracked Up to Be, But It Is Something. Philosophical Topics 29 (1/2):219-250.
    Alvin Goldman’s contributions to contemporary epistemology are impressive—few epistemologists have provided others so many occasions for reflecting on the fundamental character of their discipline and its concepts. His work has informed the way epistemological questions have changed (and remained consistent) over the last two decades. We (the authors of this paper) can perhaps best suggest our indebtedness by noting that there is probably no paper on epistemology that either of us individually or jointly have produced that does not in its (...)
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  46. Kay Herrmann (2012). Apriori im Wandel. Für und wider eine kritische Metaphysik der Natur. Winter.
    In the 19th century, a transition took place from the classical to the modern ideal of science: Science would no longer be regarded as a categorical-deductive system of absolute truths, but instead as a hypothetical-deductive system of problematically conditional propositions. In this process, the synthetic a priori also took on more and more of the status of something problematically conditional, which could be found out and corrected empirically, and was itself even ultimately contingent upon empiricism. Along the way, it lost (...)
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  47. Tamara Horowitz (1985). A Priori Truth. Journal of Philosophy 82 (5):225-239.
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  48. Jonathan Ichikawa, Experimental Philosophy and Apriority.
    One of the more visible recent developments in philosophical methodology is the experimental philosophy movement. On its surface, the experimentalist challenge looks like a dramatic threat to the apriority of philosophy; ‘experimentalist’ is nearly antonymic with ‘aprioristic’. This appearance, I suggest, is misleading; the experimentalist critique is entirely unrelated to questions about the apriority of philosophical investigation. There are many reasons to resist the skeptical conclusions of negative experimental philosophers; but even if they are granted—even if the experimentalists are right (...)
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  49. Milena Ivanova & Matt Farr (2015). Conventional Principles in Science: On the Foundations and Development of the Relativized a Priori. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B: Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics 52:111-113.
  50. Henry Jackman (2001). Ordinary Language, Conventionalism and a Priori Knowledge. Dialectica 55 (4):315–325.
    This paper examines popular 'conventionalist' explanations of why philosophers need not back up their claims about how 'we' use our words with empirical studies of actual usage. It argues that such explanations are incompatible with a number of currently popular and plausible assumptions about language's 'social' character. Alternate explanations of the philosopher's purported entitlement to make a priori claims about 'our' usage are then suggested. While these alternate explanations would, unlike the conventionalist ones, be compatible with the more social picture (...)
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