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  1. Noam Agmon (1977). Relativistic Transformations of Thermodynamic Quantities. Foundations of Physics 7 (5-6):331-339.
    A unique solution is proposed to the problem of how thermodynamic processes between thermodynamic systems at relative rest “appear” to a moving observer. Assuming only transformations for entropy, pressure, and volume and the invariance of the “fundamental thermodynamic equation,” one can derive transformations for (thermodynamic) energy and temperature. The invariance of the first and second laws entails transformations for work and heat. All thermodynamic relations become Lorentz-invariant. The transformations thus derived are in principle equivalent to those of Einstein and Planck, (...)
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  2. Matías Aiello, Mario Castagnino & Olimpia Lombardi (2008). The Arrow of Time: From Universe Time-Asymmetry to Local Irreversible Processes. [REVIEW] Foundations of Physics 38 (3):257-292.
    In several previous papers we have argued for a global and non-entropic approach to the problem of the arrow of time, according to which the “arrow” is only a metaphorical way of expressing the geometrical time-asymmetry of the universe. We have also shown that, under definite conditions, this global time-asymmetry can be transferred to local contexts as an energy flow that points to the same temporal direction all over the spacetime. The aim of this paper is to complete the global (...)
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  3. Peter M. Ainsworth (2012). The Gibbs Paradox and the Definition of Entropy in Statistical Mechanics. Philosophy of Science 79 (4):542-560.
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  4. Valia Allori (2014). The Road to Maxwell's Demon: Conceptual Foundations of Statistical Mechanics. International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 27 (4):453-456.
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  5. Janet Anders, Michal Hajdušek, Damian Markham & Vlatko Vedral (2008). How Much of One-Way Computation Is Just Thermodynamics? Foundations of Physics 38 (6):506-522.
    In this paper we argue that one-way quantum computation can be seen as a form of phase transition with the available information about the solution of the computation being the order parameter. We draw a number of striking analogies between standard thermodynamical quantities such as energy, temperature, work, and corresponding computational quantities such as the amount of entanglement, time, potential capacity for computation, respectively. Aside from being intuitively pleasing, this picture allows us to make novel conjectures, such as an estimate (...)
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  6. P. Andrle (1984). Thermodynamics, Man and the Universe. Filosoficky Casopis 32 (6):901-903.
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  7. A. M. Anile (1995). Extended Thermodynamics. Foundations of Physics 25:521-521.
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  8. Ioannis E. Antoniou (2002). Caratheodory and the Foundations of Thermodynamics and Statistical Physics. Foundations of Physics 32 (4):627-641.
    Constantin Caratheodory offered the first systematic and contradiction free formulation of thermodynamics on the basis of his mathematical work on Pfaff forms. Moreover, his work on measure theory provided the basis for later improved formulations of thermodynamics and physics of continua where extensive variables are measures and intensive variables are densities. Caratheodory was the first to see that measure theory and not topology is the natural tool to understand the difficulties (ergodicity, approach to equilibrium, irreversibility) in the Foundations of Statistical (...)
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  9. Rudolf Arnheim (1971). Entropy and Art. Berkeley,University of California Press.
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  10. Robert Artigiani (1990). Thermodynamics and History: Application of Prigogine's Dissipative Structures. In Kishor Gandhi (ed.), The Odyssey of Science, Culture, and Consciousness. Abhinav Publications. 112.
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  11. H. Atmanspacher & H. Scheingraber (1987). A Fundamental Link Between System Theory and Statistical Mechanics. Foundations of Physics 17 (9):939-963.
    A fundamental link between system theory and statistical mechanics has been found to be established by the Kolmogorov entropy K. By this quantity the temporal evolution of dynamical systems can be classified into regular, chaotic, and stochastic processes. Since K represents a measure for the internal information creation rate of dynamical systems, it provides an approach to irreversibility. The formal relationship to statistical mechanics is derived by means of an operator formalism originally introduced by Prigogine. For a Liouville operator L (...)
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  12. J. H. B. (1962). Entropy and the Unity of Knowledge. [REVIEW] Review of Metaphysics 15 (4):676-677.
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  13. M. H. Badii, A. Guillen & L. A. Araiza (2010). Estimaciones Estadísticas: Un Acercamiento Analítico (Statistical Estimations: An Analitical Approach). Daena 5 (1):237-255.
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  14. Massimiliano Badino (forthcoming). Bridging Conceptual Gaps: The Kolmogorov-Sinai Entropy. Isonomía.
    The Kolmogorov-Sinai entropy is a fairly exotic mathematical concept which has recently aroused some interest on the philosophers’ part. The most salient trait of this concept is its working as a junction between such diverse ambits as statistical mechanics, information theory and algorithm theory. In this paper I argue that, in order to understand this very special feature of the Kolmogorov-Sinai entropy, is essential to reconstruct its genealogy. Somewhat surprisingly, this story takes us as far back as the beginning of (...)
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  15. Massimiliano Badino (2011). Mechanistic Slumber Vs. Statistical Insomnia: The Early Phase of Boltzmann’s H-Theorem (1868-1877). European Physical Journal - H 36 (3):353-378.
    An intricate, long, and occasionally heated debate surrounds Boltzmann’s H-theorem (1872) and his combinatorial interpretation of the second law (1877). After almost a century of devoted and knowledgeable scholarship, there is still no agreement as to whether Boltzmann changed his view of the second law after Loschmidt’s 1876 reversibility argument or whether he had already been holding a probabilistic conception for some years at that point. In this paper, I argue that there was no abrupt statistical turn. In the first (...)
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  16. Massimiliano Badino (2006). The Foundational Role of Ergodic Theory. Foundations of Science 11 (4):323-347.
    The foundation of statistical mechanics and the explanation of the success of its methods rest on the fact that the theoretical values of physical quantities (phase averages) may be compared with the results of experimental measurements (infinite time averages). In the 1930s, this problem, called the ergodic problem, was dealt with by ergodic theory that tried to resolve the problem by making reference above all to considerations of a dynamic nature. In the present paper, this solution will be analyzed first, (...)
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  17. Massimiliano Badino, Was There a Statistical Turn ? The Interaction Between Mechanics and Probability in Boltzmann's Theory of Non Equilibrium (1872-1877). [REVIEW]
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  18. Massimiliano Badino, Probability and Statistics in Boltzmann's Early Papers on Kinetic Theory.
    Boltzmann’s equilibrium theory has not received by the scholars the attention it deserves. It was always interpreted as a mere generalization of Maxwell’s work or, in the most favorable case, a sketch of some ideas more consistently developed in the 1872 memoir. In this paper, I try to prove that this view is ungenerous. My claim is that in the theory developed during the period 1866-1871 the generalization of Maxwell’s distribution was mainly a mean to get a more general scope: (...)
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  19. Massimiliano Badino (2006). The Foundational Role of Ergodic Theory. Foundations of Science 11 (4):323-347.
    The foundation of statistical mechanics and the explanation of the success of its methods rest on the fact that the theoretical values of physical quantities (phase averages) may be compared with the results of experimental measurements (infinite time averages). In the 1930s, this problem, called the ergodic problem, was dealt with by ergodic theory that tried to resolve the problem by making reference above all to considerations of a dynamic nature. In the present paper, this solution will be analyzed first, (...)
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  20. A. P. Bakulev, N. N. Bogolubov Jr & A. M. Kurbatov (1986). The Principle of Thermodynamic Equivalence in Statistical Mechanics: The Method of Approximating Hamiltonian. [REVIEW] Foundations of Physics 16 (1):71-71.
    We discuss the main ideas that lie at the foundations of the approximating Hamiltonian method (AHM) in statistical mechanics. The principal constraints for model Hamiltonians to be investigated by AHM are considered along with the main results obtainable by this method. We show how it is possible to enlarge the class of model Hamiltonians solvable by AHM with the help of an example of the BCS-type model.
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  21. William Band & James L. Park (1977). Rigorous Information-Theoretic Derivation of Quantum-Statistical Thermodynamics. II. Foundations of Physics 7 (9-10):705-721.
    Part I of the present work outlined the rigorous application of information theory to a quantum mechanical system in a thermodynamic equilibrium state. The general formula developed there for the best-guess density operator $\hat \rho$ was indeterminate because it involved in an essential way an unspecified prior probability distribution over the continuumD H of strong equilibrium density operators. In Part II mathematical evaluation of $\hat \rho$ is completed after an epistemological analysis which leads first to the discretization ofD H and (...)
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  22. Sorin Bangu (2009). Understanding Thermodynamic Singularities: Phase Transitions, Data, and Phenomena. Philosophy of Science 76 (4):488-505.
    According to standard (quantum) statistical mechanics, the phenomenon of a phase transition, as described in classical thermodynamics, cannot be derived unless one assumes that the system under study is infinite. This is naturally puzzling since real systems are composed of a finite number of particles; consequently, a well‐known reaction to this problem was to urge that the thermodynamic definition of phase transitions (in terms of singularities) should not be “taken seriously.” This article takes singularities seriously and analyzes their role by (...)
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  23. Anouk Barberousse, A Case of Irrationality?
    Were Maxwell and Boltzmann irrational to develop statistical mechanics whereas it was empirically refuted by the specific heats problem? My analysis of this historical episode departs from the current proposals about belief change. I first give a detailed description of Maxwell's and Boltzmann's epistemic states in the years they were working on statistical mechanics and then make some methodological proposals in epistemology that would account for the complexity of this case.
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  24. Peter W. Barlow (1992). A Constant of Temporal Structure in the Human Hierarchy and Other Systems. Acta Biotheoretica 40 (4):321-328.
    The levels that compose biological hierarchies each have their own energetic, spatial and temporal structure. Indeed, it is the discontinuity in energy relationships between levels, as well as the similarity of sub-systems that support them, that permits levels to be defined. In this paper, the temporal structure of living hierarchies, in particular that pertaining to Human society, is examined. Consideration is given to the period defining the lifespan of entities at each level and to a periodic event considered fundamental to (...)
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  25. Martin Barrett & Elliott Sober (1992). Is Entropy Relevant to the Asymmetry Between Retrodiction and Prediction? British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 43 (2):141-160.
    The idea that the changing entropy of a system is relevant to explaining why we know more about the system's past than about its future has been criticized on several fronts. This paper assesses the criticisms and clarifies the epistemology of the inference problem. It deploys a Markov process model to investigate the relationship between entropy and temporally asymmetric inference.
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  26. Sophie Basch (2009). Le démon de l'explicite. Cités 1 (1):51-57.
    The Collective 0-0009, the oldest and wisest of the Council, spoke and asked : « Who are you, our brother ? For you do not look like a Scholar. » « Our name is Equality 7-2521. »Depuis quelques mois, l’AERES, agence gouvernementale chargée de l’évaluation de la recherche et de l’enseignement supérieur, créée en 2006, s’efforce d’établir un classement..
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  27. Gérard Battail (2009). Living Versus Inanimate: The Information Border. [REVIEW] Biosemiotics 2 (3):321-341.
    The traditional divide between nature and culture restricts to the latter the use of information. Biosemiotics claims instead that the divide between nature and culture is a mere subdivision within the living world but that semiosis is the specific feature which distinguishes the living from the inanimate. The present paper is intended to reformulate this basic tenet in information-theoretic terms, to support it using information-theoretic arguments, and to show that its consequences match reality. It first proposes a ‘receiver-oriented’ interpretation of (...)
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  28. Robert Batterman (2005). Critical Phenomena and Breaking Drops: Infinite Idealizations in Physics. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B 36 (2):225-244.
    Thermodynamics and Statistical Mechanics are related to one another through the so-called "thermodynamic limit'' in which, roughly speaking the number of particles becomes infinite. At critical points (places of physical discontinuity) this limit fails to be regular. As a result, the "reduction'' of Thermodynamics to Statistical Mechanics fails to hold at such critical phases. This fact is key to understanding an argument due to Craig Callender to the effect that the thermodynamic limit leads to mistakes in Statistical Mechanics. I discuss (...)
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  29. Robert W. Batterman (1998). Why Equilibrium Statistical Mechanics Works: Universality and the Renormalization Group. Philosophy of Science 65 (2):183-208.
    Discussions of the foundations of Classical Equilibrium Statistical Mechanics (SM) typically focus on the problem of justifying the use of a certain probability measure (the microcanonical measure) to compute average values of certain functions. One would like to be able to explain why the equilibrium behavior of a wide variety of distinct systems (different sorts of molecules interacting with different potentials) can be described by the same averaging procedure. A standard approach is to appeal to ergodic theory to justify this (...)
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  30. Robert W. Batterman (1990). Irreversibility and Statistical Mechanics: A New Approach? Philosophy of Science 57 (3):395-419.
    I discuss a broad critique of the classical approach to the foundations of statistical mechanics (SM) offered by N. S. Krylov. He claims that the classical approach is in principle incapable of providing the foundations for interpreting the "laws" of statistical physics. Most intriguing are his arguments against adopting a de facto attitude towards the problem of irreversibility. I argue that the best way to understand his critique is as setting the stage for a positive theory which treats SM as (...)
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  31. Bernhard Baumgartner (2014). Characterizing Entropy in Statistical Physics and in Quantum Information Theory. Foundations of Physics 44 (10):1107-1123.
    A new axiomatic characterization with a minimum of conditions for entropy as a function on the set of states in quantum mechanics is presented. Traditionally unspoken assumptions are unveiled and replaced by proven consequences of the axioms. First the Boltzmann–Planck formula is derived. Building on this formula, using the Law of Large Numbers—a basic theorem of probability theory—the von Neumann formula is deduced. Axioms used in older theories on the foundations are now derived facts.
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  32. Jacob D. Bekenstein (2005). How Does the Entropy/Information Bound Work? Foundations of Physics 35 (11):1805-1823.
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  33. Yemima Ben-Menahem & Itamar Pitowsky (2001). Introduction. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B 32 (4):503-510.
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  34. Uri Ben-Ya'acov (1995). Statistical Mechanics Analysis of the “Twins Paradox”. Foundations of Physics 25 (12):1733-1740.
    The aging of the two brothers in the “twins paradox” is analyzed through the space-time evolution of the densities that correspond to their internal complex structure. Taking into account their relative motion, it is shown that the traveling brother evolves over a shorter interval of time than his twin, which makes him younger than his brother.
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  35. Gian Paolo Beretta (1987). Quantum Thermodynamics of Nonequilibrium. Onsager Reciprocity and Dispersion-Dissipation Relations. Foundations of Physics 17 (4):365-381.
    A generalized Onsager reciprocity theorem emerges as an exact consequence of the structure of the nonlinear equation of motion of quantum thermodynamics and is valid for all the dissipative nonequilibrium states, close and far from stable thermodynamic equilibrium, of an isolated system composed of a single constituent of matter with a finite-dimensional Hilbert space. In addition, a dispersion-dissipation theorem results in a precise relation between the generalized dissipative conductivity that describes the mutual interrelation between dissipative rates of a pair of (...)
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  36. George Kenneth Berger (1970). Time and Thermodynamics. Dissertation, Columbia University
  37. Jorge Berger (2007). A Nonconventional Scenario for Thermal Equilibrium. Foundations of Physics 37 (12):1738-1743.
    A nonuniform superconducting loop poses a challenge to statistical mechanics: assuming thermal equilibrium and applying the accepted rules, we obtain that the heat flow does not vanish.
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  38. Ugo Besson (2014). Teaching About Thermal Phenomena and Thermodynamics: The Contribution of the History and Philosophy of Science. In Michael R. Matthews (ed.), International Handbook of Research in History, Philosophy and Science Teaching. Springer. 245-283.
    Concerning the use of history and philosophy in science teaching, the topic of thermal phenomena and thermodynamics is fertile because it relates to various epistemological and philosophical themes, which can be accessible and useful for secondary education, and its history shows interesting debates among scientists and strong relationships between science, technology and socio-economic problems. Moreover, many students’ conceptions are similar to ideas and reasoning of ancient theories, and residues of these theories are still present in current scientific language and in (...)
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  39. L. C. Biedenharn & J. C. Solem (1995). A Quantum-Mechanical Treatment of Szilard's Engine: Implications for the Entropy of Information. [REVIEW] Foundations of Physics 25 (8):1221-1229.
    We present a quantum-mechanical analysis of Szilard's famous single-molecule engine, showing that it is analogous to the double-slit experiment. We further show that the energy derived from the engine's operation is provided by the act of observing the molecule's location. The engine can be operated with no increase in physical entropy, and the second law of thermodynamics does not compel us to relate physical entropy to informational entropy. We conclude that information per seis a subjective, idealized, concept separated from the (...)
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  40. Giinther Bierhalter (1993). Helmholtz's Mechanical Foundation of Thermodynamics. In David Cahan (ed.), Hermann von Helmholtz and the Foundations of Nineteenth-Century Science. University of California Press. 432--458.
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  41. N. N. Bogolubov & N. N. Bogolubov Jr (1985). Some Approaches to Polaron Theory. Foundations of Physics 15 (11):1079-1177.
    Here, in our approximation of polaron theory, we examine the importance of introducing theT product, which turn out to be a very convenient theoretical approach for the calculation of thermodynamical averages.We focus attention on the investigation of the so-called linear polaron Hamiltonian and present in detail the calculation of the correlation function, spectral function, and Green function for such a linear system.It is shown that the linear polaron Hamiltonian provides an exactly solvable model of our system, and the result obtained (...)
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  42. D. Bohm & B. J. Hiley (1996). Statistical Mechanics and the Ontological Interpretation. Foundations of Physics 26 (6):823-846.
    To complete our ontological interpretation of quantum theory we have to conclude a treatment of quantum statistical mechanics. The basic concepts in the ontological approach are the particle and the wave function. The density matrix cannot play a fundamental role here. Therefore quantum statistical mechanics will require a further statistical distribution over wave functions in addition to the distribution of particles that have a specified wave function. Ultimately the wave function of the universe will he required, but we show that (...)
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  43. H.-H. V. Borzeszkowski & T. Chrobok (2003). Are There Thermodynamical Degrees of Freedom of Gravitation? Foundations of Physics 33 (3):529-539.
    In discussing fundamentals of general-relativistic irreversible continuum thermodynamics, this theory is shown to be characterized by the feature that no thermodynamical degrees of freedom are ascribed to gravitation. However, accepting that black hole thermodynamics seems to oppose this harmlessness of gravitation one is called on to consider other approaches. Therefore, in brief some gravitational and thermodynamical alternatives are reviewed.
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  44. Timothy H. Boyer (1989). Scaling Symmetry and Thermodynamic Equilibrium for Classical Electromagnetic Radiation. Foundations of Physics 19 (11):1371-1383.
    At present classical physics contains two contradictory groups of derivations of the equilibrium spectrum of random classical electromagnetic radiation. One group of derivations finds Planck's spectrum based upon the use of classical electromagnetic zero-point radiation and fundamental ideas of thermodynamics. The other group of derivations finds the Rayleigh-Jeans spectrum from scattering equilibrium for non-linear mechanical systems in the limit of small charge coupling to radiation. Here we examine the scaling symmetries of classical thermal radiation. We find that, in general, classical (...)
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  45. Norman Brachefeld & Eduardo Césarman (2002). Entropy and the Myocardial Contactile State. Ludus Vitalis 10 (18):175-184.
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  46. Jamie Brassett, Entropy (Fashion) and Emergence (Fashioning).
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  47. Peter Braun, Sven Gnutzmann, Fritz Haake, Marek Kuś & Karol Życzkowski (2001). Level Dynamics and Universality of Spectral Fluctuations. Foundations of Physics 31 (4):613-622.
    The spectral fluctuations of quantum (or wave) systems with a chaotic classical (or ray) limit are mostly universal and faithful to random-matrix theory. Taking up ideas of Pechukas and Yukawa we show that equilibrium statistical mechanics for the fictitious gas of particles associated with the parametric motion of levels yields spectral fluctuations of the random-matrix type. Previously known clues to that goal are an appropriate equilibrium ensemble and a certain ergodicity of level dynamics. We here complete the reasoning by establishing (...)
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  48. Stephen Brush (1970). The Wave Theory of Heat: A Forgotten Stage in the Transition From the Caloric Theory to Thermodynamics. British Journal for the History of Science 5 (2):145-167.
    Research on thermal “black-body” radiation played an essential role in the origin of the quantum theory at the beginning of the twentieth century. This is a well-known fact, but historians of science up to now have not generally recognized that studies of radiant heat were also important in an earlier episode in the development of modern physics: the transition from caloric theory to thermodynamics. During the period 1830–50, many physicists were led by these studies to accept a “wave theory of (...)
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  49. Stephen G. Brush (1976). Statistical Mechanics and the Philosophy of Science: Some Historical Notes. PSA: Proceedings of the Biennial Meeting of the Philosophy of Science Association 1976:551 - 584.
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  50. Jeffrey Bub (2001). Maxwell's Demon and the Thermodynamics of Computation. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B 32 (4):569-579.
    It is generally accepted, following Landauer and Bennett, that the process of measurement involves no minimum entropy cost, but the erasure of information in resetting the memory register of a computer to zero requires dissipating heat into the environment. This thesis has been challenged recently in a two-part article by Earman and Norton. I review some relevant observations in the thermodynamics of computation and argue that Earman and Norton are mistaken: there is in principle no entropy cost to the acquisition (...)
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