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  1. Noam Agmon (1977). Relativistic Transformations of Thermodynamic Quantities. Foundations of Physics 7 (5-6):331-339.
    A unique solution is proposed to the problem of how thermodynamic processes between thermodynamic systems at relative rest “appear” to a moving observer. Assuming only transformations for entropy, pressure, and volume and the invariance of the “fundamental thermodynamic equation,” one can derive transformations for (thermodynamic) energy and temperature. The invariance of the first and second laws entails transformations for work and heat. All thermodynamic relations become Lorentz-invariant. The transformations thus derived are in principle equivalent to those of Einstein and Planck, (...)
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  2. Matías Aiello, Mario Castagnino & Olimpia Lombardi (2008). The Arrow of Time: From Universe Time-Asymmetry to Local Irreversible Processes. [REVIEW] Foundations of Physics 38 (3):257-292.
    In several previous papers we have argued for a global and non-entropic approach to the problem of the arrow of time, according to which the “arrow” is only a metaphorical way of expressing the geometrical time-asymmetry of the universe. We have also shown that, under definite conditions, this global time-asymmetry can be transferred to local contexts as an energy flow that points to the same temporal direction all over the spacetime. The aim of this paper is to complete the global (...)
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  3. Peter M. Ainsworth (2012). The Gibbs Paradox and the Definition of Entropy in Statistical Mechanics. Philosophy of Science 79 (4):542-560.
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  4. Janet Anders, Michal Hajdušek, Damian Markham & Vlatko Vedral (2008). How Much of One-Way Computation Is Just Thermodynamics? Foundations of Physics 38 (6):506-522.
    In this paper we argue that one-way quantum computation can be seen as a form of phase transition with the available information about the solution of the computation being the order parameter. We draw a number of striking analogies between standard thermodynamical quantities such as energy, temperature, work, and corresponding computational quantities such as the amount of entanglement, time, potential capacity for computation, respectively. Aside from being intuitively pleasing, this picture allows us to make novel conjectures, such as an estimate (...)
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  5. A. M. Anile (1995). Extended Thermodynamics. Foundations of Physics 25:521-521.
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  6. Ioannis E. Antoniou (2002). Caratheodory and the Foundations of Thermodynamics and Statistical Physics. Foundations of Physics 32 (4):627-641.
    Constantin Caratheodory offered the first systematic and contradiction free formulation of thermodynamics on the basis of his mathematical work on Pfaff forms. Moreover, his work on measure theory provided the basis for later improved formulations of thermodynamics and physics of continua where extensive variables are measures and intensive variables are densities. Caratheodory was the first to see that measure theory and not topology is the natural tool to understand the difficulties (ergodicity, approach to equilibrium, irreversibility) in the Foundations of Statistical (...)
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  7. H. Atmanspacher & H. Scheingraber (1987). A Fundamental Link Between System Theory and Statistical Mechanics. Foundations of Physics 17 (9):939-963.
    A fundamental link between system theory and statistical mechanics has been found to be established by the Kolmogorov entropy K. By this quantity the temporal evolution of dynamical systems can be classified into regular, chaotic, and stochastic processes. Since K represents a measure for the internal information creation rate of dynamical systems, it provides an approach to irreversibility. The formal relationship to statistical mechanics is derived by means of an operator formalism originally introduced by Prigogine. For a Liouville operator L (...)
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  8. G. F. Azzone (1996). The Disease: Evolutionary, Thermodynamical and Historical Aspect'. History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 17:83-106.
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  9. Massimiliano Badino (forthcoming). Bridging Conceptual Gaps: The Kolmogorov-Sinai Entropy. Isonomía.
    The Kolmogorov-Sinai entropy is a fairly exotic mathematical concept which has recently aroused some interest on the philosophers’ part. The most salient trait of this concept is its working as a junction between such diverse ambits as statistical mechanics, information theory and algorithm theory. In this paper I argue that, in order to understand this very special feature of the Kolmogorov-Sinai entropy, is essential to reconstruct its genealogy. Somewhat surprisingly, this story takes us as far back as the beginning of (...)
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  10. Massimiliano Badino (2011). Mechanistic Slumber Vs. Statistical Insomnia: The Early Phase of Boltzmann’s H-Theorem (1868-1877). European Physical Journal - H 36 (3):353-378.
    An intricate, long, and occasionally heated debate surrounds Boltzmann’s H-theorem (1872) and his combinatorial interpretation of the second law (1877). After almost a century of devoted and knowledgeable scholarship, there is still no agreement as to whether Boltzmann changed his view of the second law after Loschmidt’s 1876 reversibility argument or whether he had already been holding a probabilistic conception for some years at that point. In this paper, I argue that there was no abrupt statistical turn. In the first (...)
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  11. Massimiliano Badino, Probability and Statistics in Boltzmann's Early Papers on Kinetic Theory.
    Boltzmann’s equilibrium theory has not received by the scholars the attention it deserves. It was always interpreted as a mere generalization of Maxwell’s work or, in the most favorable case, a sketch of some ideas more consistently developed in the 1872 memoir. In this paper, I try to prove that this view is ungenerous. My claim is that in the theory developed during the period 1866-1871 the generalization of Maxwell’s distribution was mainly a mean to get a more general scope: (...)
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  12. A. P. Bakulev, N. N. Bogolubov Jr & A. M. Kurbatov (1986). The Principle of Thermodynamic Equivalence in Statistical Mechanics: The Method of Approximating Hamiltonian. [REVIEW] Foundations of Physics 16 (1):71-71.
    We discuss the main ideas that lie at the foundations of the approximating Hamiltonian method (AHM) in statistical mechanics. The principal constraints for model Hamiltonians to be investigated by AHM are considered along with the main results obtainable by this method. We show how it is possible to enlarge the class of model Hamiltonians solvable by AHM with the help of an example of the BCS-type model.
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  13. William Band & James L. Park (1977). Rigorous Information-Theoretic Derivation of Quantum-Statistical Thermodynamics. II. Foundations of Physics 7 (9-10):705-721.
    Part I of the present work outlined the rigorous application of information theory to a quantum mechanical system in a thermodynamic equilibrium state. The general formula developed there for the best-guess density operator $\hat \rho$ was indeterminate because it involved in an essential way an unspecified prior probability distribution over the continuumD H of strong equilibrium density operators. In Part II mathematical evaluation of $\hat \rho$ is completed after an epistemological analysis which leads first to the discretization ofD H and (...)
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  14. Sorin Bangu (2009). Understanding Thermodynamic Singularities: Phase Transitions, Data, and Phenomena. Philosophy of Science 76 (4):488-505.
    According to standard (quantum) statistical mechanics, the phenomenon of a phase transition, as described in classical thermodynamics, cannot be derived unless one assumes that the system under study is infinite. This is naturally puzzling since real systems are composed of a finite number of particles; consequently, a well‐known reaction to this problem was to urge that the thermodynamic definition of phase transitions (in terms of singularities) should not be “taken seriously.” This article takes singularities seriously and analyzes their role by (...)
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  15. J. L. F. Barbón & E. Rabinovici (2003). Remarks on Black Hole Instabilities and Closed String Tachyons. Foundations of Physics 33 (1):145-165.
    Physical arguments stemming from the theory of black-hole thermodynamics are used to put constraints on the dynamics of closed-string tachyon condensation in Scherk–Schwarz compactifications. A geometrical interpretation of the tachyon condensation involves an effective capping of a noncontractible cycle, thus removing the very topology that supports the tachyons. A semiclassical regime is identified in which the matching between the tachyon condensation and the black-hole instability flow is possible. We formulate a generalized correspondence principle and illustrate it in several different circumstances: (...)
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  16. Peter W. Barlow (1992). A Constant of Temporal Structure in the Human Hierarchy and Other Systems. Acta Biotheoretica 40 (4).
    The levels that compose biological hierarchies each have their own energetic, spatial and temporal structure. Indeed, it is the discontinuity in energy relationships between levels, as well as the similarity of sub-systems that support them, that permits levels to be defined. In this paper, the temporal structure of living hierarchies, in particular that pertaining to Human society, is examined. Consideration is given to the period defining the lifespan of entities at each level and to a periodic event considered fundamental to (...)
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  17. Jacob D. Bekenstein (2005). How Does the Entropy/Information Bound Work? Foundations of Physics 35 (11):1805-1823.
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  18. Yemima Ben-Menahem & Itamar Pitowsky (2001). Introduction. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B: Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics 32 (4):503-510.
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  19. Uri Ben-Ya'acov (1995). Statistical Mechanics Analysis of the “Twins Paradox”. Foundations of Physics 25 (12):1733-1740.
    The aging of the two brothers in the “twins paradox” is analyzed through the space-time evolution of the densities that correspond to their internal complex structure. Taking into account their relative motion, it is shown that the traveling brother evolves over a shorter interval of time than his twin, which makes him younger than his brother.
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  20. Gian Paolo Beretta (1987). Quantum Thermodynamics of Nonequilibrium. Onsager Reciprocity and Dispersion-Dissipation Relations. Foundations of Physics 17 (4):365-381.
    A generalized Onsager reciprocity theorem emerges as an exact consequence of the structure of the nonlinear equation of motion of quantum thermodynamics and is valid for all the dissipative nonequilibrium states, close and far from stable thermodynamic equilibrium, of an isolated system composed of a single constituent of matter with a finite-dimensional Hilbert space. In addition, a dispersion-dissipation theorem results in a precise relation between the generalized dissipative conductivity that describes the mutual interrelation between dissipative rates of a pair of (...)
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  21. Jorge Berger (2007). A Nonconventional Scenario for Thermal Equilibrium. Foundations of Physics 37 (12):1738-1743.
    A nonuniform superconducting loop poses a challenge to statistical mechanics: assuming thermal equilibrium and applying the accepted rules, we obtain that the heat flow does not vanish.
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  22. S. Bergia, F. Cannata, A. Cornia & R. Livi (1980). On the Actual Measurability of the Density Matrix of a Decaying System by Means of Measurements on the Decay Products. Foundations of Physics 10 (9-10):723-730.
    The density matrix ρ describing a decaying system can be expressed in terms of correlations among observables belonging to the subsystems. Due to this structure and to the difficulties in measuring higher rank tensors of decay products for a single decay event, it is found that the mean value of ρ cannot be determined, in general, from measurements on the decay products. We also discuss the consequences of this conclusion as far as tests of quantum mechanics are concerned.
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  23. J. D. Bernal (1972). The Extension of Man: A History of Physics Before the Quantum. Cambridge,M.I.T. Press.
  24. L. C. Biedenharn & J. C. Solem (1995). A Quantum-Mechanical Treatment of Szilard's Engine: Implications for the Entropy of Information. [REVIEW] Foundations of Physics 25 (8):1221-1229.
    We present a quantum-mechanical analysis of Szilard's famous single-molecule engine, showing that it is analogous to the double-slit experiment. We further show that the energy derived from the engine's operation is provided by the act of observing the molecule's location. The engine can be operated with no increase in physical entropy, and the second law of thermodynamics does not compel us to relate physical entropy to informational entropy. We conclude that information per seis a subjective, idealized, concept separated from the (...)
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  25. Eftichios Bitsakis (1991). Mass, Matter, and Energy. A Relativistic Approach. Foundations of Physics 21 (1):63-81.
    The debate concerning the relations between matter and motion has the same age as philosophy itself. In modern times this problem was transformed into the one concerning the relations between mass and energy. Newton identified mass with matter. Classical thermodynamics brought this conception to its logical conclusion, establishing an ontic dichotomy between mass-matter and energy. On the basis of this pre-relativistic conception, Einstein's famous equation has been interpreted as a relation of equivalence between mass-matter and energy. Nevertheless, if we reject (...)
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  26. D. I. Blokhint͡sev (1968). The Philosophy of Quantum Mechanics. New York, Humanities.
  27. N. N. Bogolubov & N. N. Bogolubov Jr (1985). Some Approaches to Polaron Theory. Foundations of Physics 15 (11):1079-1177.
    Here, in our approximation of polaron theory, we examine the importance of introducing theT product, which turn out to be a very convenient theoretical approach for the calculation of thermodynamical averages.We focus attention on the investigation of the so-called linear polaron Hamiltonian and present in detail the calculation of the correlation function, spectral function, and Green function for such a linear system.It is shown that the linear polaron Hamiltonian provides an exactly solvable model of our system, and the result obtained (...)
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  28. D. Bohm & B. J. Hiley (1996). Statistical Mechanics and the Ontological Interpretation. Foundations of Physics 26 (6):823-846.
    To complete our ontological interpretation of quantum theory we have to conclude a treatment of quantum statistical mechanics. The basic concepts in the ontological approach are the particle and the wave function. The density matrix cannot play a fundamental role here. Therefore quantum statistical mechanics will require a further statistical distribution over wave functions in addition to the distribution of particles that have a specified wave function. Ultimately the wave function of the universe will he required, but we show that (...)
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  29. H.-H. V. Borzeszkowski & T. Chrobok (2003). Are There Thermodynamical Degrees of Freedom of Gravitation? Foundations of Physics 33 (3):529-539.
    In discussing fundamentals of general-relativistic irreversible continuum thermodynamics, this theory is shown to be characterized by the feature that no thermodynamical degrees of freedom are ascribed to gravitation. However, accepting that black hole thermodynamics seems to oppose this harmlessness of gravitation one is called on to consider other approaches. Therefore, in brief some gravitational and thermodynamical alternatives are reviewed.
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  30. Timothy H. Boyer (1989). Scaling Symmetry and Thermodynamic Equilibrium for Classical Electromagnetic Radiation. Foundations of Physics 19 (11):1371-1383.
    At present classical physics contains two contradictory groups of derivations of the equilibrium spectrum of random classical electromagnetic radiation. One group of derivations finds Planck's spectrum based upon the use of classical electromagnetic zero-point radiation and fundamental ideas of thermodynamics. The other group of derivations finds the Rayleigh-Jeans spectrum from scattering equilibrium for non-linear mechanical systems in the limit of small charge coupling to radiation. Here we examine the scaling symmetries of classical thermal radiation. We find that, in general, classical (...)
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  31. Peter Braun, Sven Gnutzmann, Fritz Haake, Marek Kuś & Karol Życzkowski (2001). Level Dynamics and Universality of Spectral Fluctuations. Foundations of Physics 31 (4):613-622.
    The spectral fluctuations of quantum (or wave) systems with a chaotic classical (or ray) limit are mostly universal and faithful to random-matrix theory. Taking up ideas of Pechukas and Yukawa we show that equilibrium statistical mechanics for the fictitious gas of particles associated with the parametric motion of levels yields spectral fluctuations of the random-matrix type. Previously known clues to that goal are an appropriate equilibrium ensemble and a certain ergodicity of level dynamics. We here complete the reasoning by establishing (...)
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  32. Jeffrey Bub (1970). Book Review:The Philosophy of Quantum Mechanics D. I. Blokhintsev. [REVIEW] Philosophy of Science 37 (1):153-.
  33. H. A. Buchdahl (1979). From Phenomenological Thermodynamics to the Canonical Ensemble. Foundations of Physics 9 (11-12):819-829.
    Given the generic canonical probability in phase φ=exp[β(Ψ-H)], contact is traditionally made with phenomenological thermodynamics by comparing the identity δ〈φ〉=0 with the relationTδS=δU+δW, δ indicating an arbitrary infinitesimal variation of the thermodynamic coordinates and angular brackets ensemble means. This paper is concerned with the inverse problem of finding both the generic form of the phase functionw such thatS=〈w〉 and the explicit form φ=αexp[(F-H)/kT] of the canonical distribution on the basis of the requirement that the consequences of the phenomenological laws must (...)
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  34. L. Burakovsky (1998). Relativistic Statistical Mechanics and Particle Spectroscopy. Foundations of Physics 28 (10):1577-1594.
    The formulation of manifestly covariant relativistic statistical mechanics as the description of an ensemble of events in spacetime parametrized by an invariant proper-time τ is reviewed. The linear and cubic mass spectra, which result from this formulation (the latter with the inclusion of anti-events) as the actual spectra of an individual hadronic multiplet and hot hadronic matter, respectively, are discussed. These spectra allow one to predict the masses of particles nucleated to quasi-levels in such an ensemble. As an example, the (...)
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  35. L. Burakovsky & L. P. Horwitz (1995). Equilibrium Relativistic Mass Distribution for Indistinguishable Events. Foundations of Physics 25 (6):785-818.
    A manifestly covariant relativistic statistical mechanics of a system of N indistinguishable events with motion in space-time parametrized by an invariant “historical time” τ is considered. The relativistic mass distribution for such a system is obtained from the equilibrium solution of the generalized relativistic Boltzmann equation by integration over angular and hyperangular variables. All the characteristic averages are calculated. Expressions for the pressure and the energy density are found, and the relativistic equation of state is obtained. Validity criteria are defined. (...)
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  36. L. Burakovsky & L. P. Horwitz (1995). Generalized Boltzmann Equation in a Manifestly Covariant Relativistic Statistical Mechanics. Foundations of Physics 25 (9):1335-1358.
    We consider the relativistic statistical mechanics of an ensemble of N events with motion in space-time parametrized by an invariant “historical time” τ. We generalize the approach of Yang and Yao, based on the Wigner distribution functions and the Bogoliubov hypotheses to find approximate dynamical equations for the kinetic state of any nonequilibrium system, to the relativistic case, and obtain a manifestly covariant Boltzmann- type equation which is a relativistic generalization of the Boltzmann-Uehling-Uhlenbeck (BUU) equation for indistinguishable particles. This equation (...)
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  37. N. Burić, D. B. Popović, M. Radonjić & S. Prvanović (2013). Hamiltonian Formulation of Statistical Ensembles and Mixed States of Quantum and Hybrid Systems. Foundations of Physics 43 (12):1459-1477.
    Representation of quantum states by statistical ensembles on the quantum phase space in the Hamiltonian form of quantum mechanics is analyzed. Various mathematical properties and some physical interpretations of the equivalence classes of ensembles representing a mixed quantum state in the Hamiltonian formulation are examined. In particular, non-uniqueness of the quantum phase space probability density associated with the quantum mixed state, Liouville dynamics of the probability densities and the possibility to represent the reduced states of bipartite systems by marginal distributions (...)
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  38. Jean E. Burns (2007). Vacuum Radiation, Entropy, and Molecular Chaos. Foundations of Physics 37 (12):1727-1737.
    Vacuum radiation causes a particle to make a random walk about its dynamical trajectory. In this random walk the root mean square change in spatial coordinate is proportional to t 1/2, and the fractional changes in momentum and energy are proportional to t −1/2, where t is time. Thus the exchange of energy and momentum between a particle and the vacuum tends to zero over time. At the end of a mean free path the fractional change in momentum of a (...)
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  39. Jean E. Burns (1998). Entropy and Vacuum Radiation. Foundations of Physics 28 (7):1191-1207.
    It is shown that entropy increase in thermodynamic systems can plausibly be accounted for by the random action of vacuum radiation. A recent calculation by Rueda using stochastic electrodynamics (SED) shows that vacuum radiation causes a particle to undergo a rapid Brownian motion about its average dynamical trajectory. It is shown that the magnitude of spatial drift calculated by Rueda can also be predicted by assuming that the average magnitudes of random shifts in position and momentum of a particle correspond (...)
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  40. Herbert Callen (1974). Thermodynamics as a Science of Symmetry. Foundations of Physics 4 (4):423-443.
    A new interpretation of thermodynamics is advanced; thermodynamics is the study of those properties of macroscopic matter that follow from the symmetry properties of physical laws, mediated through the statistics of large systems.
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  41. Craig Callender, Thermodynamic Asymmetry in Time. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
    Thermodynamics is the science that describes much of the time asymmetric behavior found in the world. This entry's first task, consequently, is to show how thermodynamics treats temporally ‘directed’ behavior. It then concentrates on the following two questions. (1) What is the origin of the thermodynamic asymmetry in time? In a world possibly governed by time symmetric laws, how should we understand the time asymmetric laws of thermodynamics? (2) Does the thermodynamic time asymmetry explain the other temporal asymmetries? Does it (...)
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  42. Craig Callender (1999). Reducing Thermodynamics to Statistical Mechanics: The Case of Entropy. Journal of Philosophy 96 (7):348-373.
  43. Mario Castagnino, Olimpia Lombardi & Luis Lara (2003). The Global Arrow of Time as a Geometrical Property of the Universe. Foundations of Physics 33 (6):877-912.
    Traditional discussions about the arrow of time in general involve the concept of entropy. In the cosmological context, the direction past-to-future is usually related to the direction of the gradient of the entropy function of the universe. But the definition of the entropy of the universe is a very controversial matter. Moreover, thermodynamics is a phenomenological theory. Geometrical properties of space-time provide a more fundamental and less controversial way of defining an arrow of time for the universe as a whole. (...)
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  44. Donald E. Catlin (1990). The Schrödinger Equation Via an Operator Functional Equation. Foundations of Physics 20 (6):667-690.
    In this paper we derive the Schrödinger equation by comparing quantum statistics with classical statistical mechanics, identifying similarities and differences, and developing an operator functional equation which is solved in a completely algebraic fashion with no appeal to spatial invariances or symmetries.
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  45. Milan Cirkovic (2003). The Thermodynamical Arrow of Time: Reinterpreting the Boltzmann–Schuetz Argument. [REVIEW] Foundations of Physics 33 (3):467-490.
    The recent surge of interest in the origin of the temporal asymmetry of thermodynamical systems (including the accessible part of the universe itself) has put forward two possible explanatory approaches to this age-old problem. Hereby we show that there is a third possible alternative, based on the generalization of the classical (“Boltzmann–Schuetz”) anthropic fluctuation picture of the origin of the perceived entropy gradient. This alternative (which we dub the Acausal-Anthropic approach) is based on accepting Boltzmann's statistical measure at its face (...)
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  46. O. Civitarese & M. Gadella (2013). On the Concept of Entropy for Quantum Decaying Systems. Foundations of Physics 43 (11):1275-1294.
    The classical concept of entropy was successfully extended to quantum mechanics by the introduction of the density operator formalism. However, further extensions to quantum decaying states have been hampered by conceptual difficulties associated to the particular nature of these states. In this work we address this problem, by (i) pointing out the difficulties that appear when one tries a consistent definition for this entropy, and (ii) building up a plausible formalism for it, which is based on the use of coherent (...)
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  47. Daniel C. Cole (2000). Thermodynamics of Blackbody Radiation Via Classical Physics for Arbitrarily Shaped Cavities with Perfectly Conducting Walls. Foundations of Physics 30 (11):1849-1867.
    An analysis is carried out involving reversible thermodynamic operations on arbitrarily shaped small cavities in perfectly conducting material. These operations consist of quasistatic deformations and displacements of cavity walls and objects within the cavity. This analysis necessarily involves the consideration of Casimir-like forces. Typically, even for the simplest of geometrical structures, such calculations become quite complex, as they need to take into account changes in singular quantities. Much of this complexity is reduced significantly here by working directly with the change (...)
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  48. Daniel C. Cole (1999). Connections Between the Thermodynamics of Classical Electrodynamic Systems and Quantum Mechanical Systems for Quasielectrostatic Operations. Foundations of Physics 29 (12):1819-1847.
    The thermodynamic behavior is analyzed of a single classical charged particle in thermal equilibrium with classical electromagnetic thermal radiation, while electrostatically bound by a fixed charge distribution of opposite sign. A quasistatic displacement of this system in an applied electrostatic potential is investigated. Treating the system nonrelativistically, the change in internal energy, the work done, and the change in caloric entropy are all shown to be expressible in terms of averages involving the distribution of the position coordinates alone. A convenient (...)
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  49. John Collier (1990). Two Faces of Maxwell's Demon Reveal the Nature of Irreversibility. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 21 (2):257-268.
    demon thought experiment remains ambiguous even today. One of the most delightful thought It seems that Maxwell originally invoked experiments in the history of physical science is..
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  50. John F. Cyranski (1978). Analysis of the Maximum Entropy Principle “Debate”. Foundations of Physics 8 (5-6):493-506.
    Jaynes's maximum entropy principle (MEP) is analyzed by considering in detail a recent controversy. Emphasis is placed on the inductive logical interpretation of “probability” and the concept of “total knowledge.” The relation of the MEP to relative frequencies is discussed, and a possible realm of its fruitful application is noted.
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