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  1. Noam Agmon (1977). Relativistic Transformations of Thermodynamic Quantities. Foundations of Physics 7 (5-6):331-339.
    A unique solution is proposed to the problem of how thermodynamic processes between thermodynamic systems at relative rest “appear” to a moving observer. Assuming only transformations for entropy, pressure, and volume and the invariance of the “fundamental thermodynamic equation,” one can derive transformations for (thermodynamic) energy and temperature. The invariance of the first and second laws entails transformations for work and heat. All thermodynamic relations become Lorentz-invariant. The transformations thus derived are in principle equivalent to those of Einstein and Planck, (...)
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  2. Matías Aiello, Mario Castagnino & Olimpia Lombardi (2008). The Arrow of Time: From Universe Time-Asymmetry to Local Irreversible Processes. [REVIEW] Foundations of Physics 38 (3):257-292.
    In several previous papers we have argued for a global and non-entropic approach to the problem of the arrow of time, according to which the “arrow” is only a metaphorical way of expressing the geometrical time-asymmetry of the universe. We have also shown that, under definite conditions, this global time-asymmetry can be transferred to local contexts as an energy flow that points to the same temporal direction all over the spacetime. The aim of this paper is to complete the global (...)
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  3. Peter M. Ainsworth (2012). The Gibbs Paradox and the Definition of Entropy in Statistical Mechanics. Philosophy of Science 79 (4):542-560.
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  4. David Z. Albert (1994). The Foundations of Quantum Mechanics and the Approach to Thermodynamic Equilibrium. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 45 (2):669-677.
    It is argued that certain recent advances in the construction of a theory of the collapses of Quantum Mechanical wave functions suggest the possibility of new and improved foundations for statistical mechanics, foundations in which epistemic considerations play no role.
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  5. Valia Allori (2015). Response to Authors "The Road to Maxwell's Demon". International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 29 (1):94-98.
    I recently reviewed Hemmo and Shenker's book "The Road to Maxwell's Demon" and the authors subsequently replied to my criticism. Here is my response to them.
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  6. Valia Allori (2013). Book Review Of: The Road to Maxwell's Demon: Conceptual Foundations of Statistical Mechanics. [REVIEW] International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 27 (4):453-456.
    Book review of Meir Hemmo and Orly Shenker's book "The Road to Maxwell's Demon: Conceptual Foundations of Statistical Mechanics.".
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  7. Janet Anders, Michal Hajdušek, Damian Markham & Vlatko Vedral (2008). How Much of One-Way Computation Is Just Thermodynamics? Foundations of Physics 38 (6):506-522.
    In this paper we argue that one-way quantum computation can be seen as a form of phase transition with the available information about the solution of the computation being the order parameter. We draw a number of striking analogies between standard thermodynamical quantities such as energy, temperature, work, and corresponding computational quantities such as the amount of entanglement, time, potential capacity for computation, respectively. Aside from being intuitively pleasing, this picture allows us to make novel conjectures, such as an estimate (...)
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  8. P. Andrle (1984). Thermodynamics, Man and the Universe. Filosoficky Casopis 32 (6):901-903.
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  9. A. M. Anile (1995). Extended Thermodynamics. Foundations of Physics 25:521-521.
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  10. Ioannis E. Antoniou (2002). Caratheodory and the Foundations of Thermodynamics and Statistical Physics. Foundations of Physics 32 (4):627-641.
    Constantin Caratheodory offered the first systematic and contradiction free formulation of thermodynamics on the basis of his mathematical work on Pfaff forms. Moreover, his work on measure theory provided the basis for later improved formulations of thermodynamics and physics of continua where extensive variables are measures and intensive variables are densities. Caratheodory was the first to see that measure theory and not topology is the natural tool to understand the difficulties (ergodicity, approach to equilibrium, irreversibility) in the Foundations of Statistical (...)
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  11. Rudolf Arnheim (1971). Entropy and Art. Berkeley,University of California Press.
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  12. Ric Arthur (1981). The Investigation of the Physical World. Monograph Collection (Matt - Pseudo).
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  13. Robert Artigiani (1990). Thermodynamics and History: Application of Prigogine's Dissipative Structures. In Kishor Gandhi (ed.), The Odyssey of Science, Culture, and Consciousness. Abhinav Publications 112.
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  14. H. Atmanspacher & H. Scheingraber (1987). A Fundamental Link Between System Theory and Statistical Mechanics. Foundations of Physics 17 (9):939-963.
    A fundamental link between system theory and statistical mechanics has been found to be established by the Kolmogorov entropy K. By this quantity the temporal evolution of dynamical systems can be classified into regular, chaotic, and stochastic processes. Since K represents a measure for the internal information creation rate of dynamical systems, it provides an approach to irreversibility. The formal relationship to statistical mechanics is derived by means of an operator formalism originally introduced by Prigogine. For a Liouville operator L (...)
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  15. J. H. B. (1962). Entropy and the Unity of Knowledge. [REVIEW] Review of Metaphysics 15 (4):676-677.
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  16. M. H. Badii, A. Guillen & L. A. Araiza (2010). Estimaciones Estadísticas: Un Acercamiento Analítico (Statistical Estimations: An Analitical Approach). Daena 5 (1):237-255.
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  17. Massimiliano Badino, How Typical! An Epistemological Analysis of Typicality in Statistical Mechanics.
    The recent use of typicality in statistical mechanics for foundational purposes has stirred an important debate involving both philosophers and physicists. While this debate customarily focuses on technical issues, in this paper I try to approach the problem from an epistemological angle. The discussion is driven by two questions: (1) What does typicality add to the concept of measure? (2) What kind of explanation, if any, does typicality yield? By distinguishing the notions of `typicality-as-vast-majority' and `typicality-as-best-exemplar', I argue that the (...)
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  18. Massimiliano Badino (forthcoming). Bridging Conceptual Gaps: The Kolmogorov-Sinai Entropy. Isonomía. Revista de Teoría y Filosofía Del Derecho.
    The Kolmogorov-Sinai entropy is a fairly exotic mathematical concept which has recently aroused some interest on the philosophers’ part. The most salient trait of this concept is its working as a junction between such diverse ambits as statistical mechanics, information theory and algorithm theory. In this paper I argue that, in order to understand this very special feature of the Kolmogorov-Sinai entropy, is essential to reconstruct its genealogy. Somewhat surprisingly, this story takes us as far back as the beginning of (...)
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  19. Massimiliano Badino (2011). Mechanistic Slumber Vs. Statistical Insomnia: The Early Phase of Boltzmann’s H-Theorem (1868-1877). European Physical Journal - H 36 (3):353-378.
    An intricate, long, and occasionally heated debate surrounds Boltzmann’s H-theorem (1872) and his combinatorial interpretation of the second law (1877). After almost a century of devoted and knowledgeable scholarship, there is still no agreement as to whether Boltzmann changed his view of the second law after Loschmidt’s 1876 reversibility argument or whether he had already been holding a probabilistic conception for some years at that point. In this paper, I argue that there was no abrupt statistical turn. In the first (...)
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  20. Massimiliano Badino, Probability and Statistics in Boltzmann's Early Papers on Kinetic Theory.
    Boltzmann’s equilibrium theory has not received by the scholars the attention it deserves. It was always interpreted as a mere generalization of Maxwell’s work or, in the most favorable case, a sketch of some ideas more consistently developed in the 1872 memoir. In this paper, I try to prove that this view is ungenerous. My claim is that in the theory developed during the period 1866-1871 the generalization of Maxwell’s distribution was mainly a mean to get a more general scope: (...)
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  21. Massimiliano Badino (2006). The Foundational Role of Ergodic Theory. Foundations of Science 11 (4):323-347.
    The foundation of statistical mechanics and the explanation of the success of its methods rest on the fact that the theoretical values of physical quantities (phase averages) may be compared with the results of experimental measurements (infinite time averages). In the 1930s, this problem, called the ergodic problem, was dealt with by ergodic theory that tried to resolve the problem by making reference above all to considerations of a dynamic nature. In the present paper, this solution will be analyzed first, (...)
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  22. Massimiliano Badino (2006). The Foundational Role of Ergodic Theory. Foundations of Science 11 (4):323-347.
    The foundation of statistical mechanics and the explanation of the success of its methods rest on the fact that the theoretical values of physical quantities (phase averages) may be compared with the results of experimental measurements (infinite time averages). In the 1930s, this problem, called the ergodic problem, was dealt with by ergodic theory that tried to resolve the problem by making reference above all to considerations of a dynamic nature. In the present paper, this solution will be analyzed first, (...)
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  23. Massimiliano Badino, Was There a Statistical Turn ? The Interaction Between Mechanics and Probability in Boltzmann's Theory of Non Equilibrium (1872-1877). [REVIEW]
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  24. A. P. Bakulev, N. N. Bogolubov Jr & A. M. Kurbatov (1986). The Principle of Thermodynamic Equivalence in Statistical Mechanics: The Method of Approximating Hamiltonian. [REVIEW] Foundations of Physics 16 (1):71-71.
    We discuss the main ideas that lie at the foundations of the approximating Hamiltonian method (AHM) in statistical mechanics. The principal constraints for model Hamiltonians to be investigated by AHM are considered along with the main results obtainable by this method. We show how it is possible to enlarge the class of model Hamiltonians solvable by AHM with the help of an example of the BCS-type model.
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  25. William Band & James L. Park (1977). Rigorous Information-Theoretic Derivation of Quantum-Statistical Thermodynamics. II. Foundations of Physics 7 (9-10):705-721.
    Part I of the present work outlined the rigorous application of information theory to a quantum mechanical system in a thermodynamic equilibrium state. The general formula developed there for the best-guess density operator $\hat \rho$ was indeterminate because it involved in an essential way an unspecified prior probability distribution over the continuumD H of strong equilibrium density operators. In Part II mathematical evaluation of $\hat \rho$ is completed after an epistemological analysis which leads first to the discretization ofD H and (...)
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  26. Sorin Bangu (2009). Understanding Thermodynamic Singularities: Phase Transitions, Data, and Phenomena. Philosophy of Science 76 (4):488-505.
    According to standard (quantum) statistical mechanics, the phenomenon of a phase transition, as described in classical thermodynamics, cannot be derived unless one assumes that the system under study is infinite. This is naturally puzzling since real systems are composed of a finite number of particles; consequently, a well‐known reaction to this problem was to urge that the thermodynamic definition of phase transitions (in terms of singularities) should not be “taken seriously.” This article takes singularities seriously and analyzes their role by (...)
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  27. Anouk Barberousse, A Case of Irrationality?
    Were Maxwell and Boltzmann irrational to develop statistical mechanics whereas it was empirically refuted by the specific heats problem? My analysis of this historical episode departs from the current proposals about belief change. I first give a detailed description of Maxwell's and Boltzmann's epistemic states in the years they were working on statistical mechanics and then make some methodological proposals in epistemology that would account for the complexity of this case.
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  28. Anouk Barberousse & Cyrille Imbert (2013). New Mathematics for Old Physics: The Case of Lattice Fluids. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B: Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics 44 (3):231-241.
    We analyze the effects of the introduction of new mathematical tools on an old branch of physics by focusing on lattice fluids, which are cellular automata -based hydrodynamical models. We examine the nature of these discrete models, the type of novelty they bring about within scientific practice and the role they play in the field of fluid dynamics. We critically analyze Rohrlich's, Fox Keller's and Hughes' claims about CA-based models. We distinguish between different senses of the predicates “phenomenological” and “theoretical” (...)
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  29. Peter W. Barlow (1992). A Constant of Temporal Structure in the Human Hierarchy and Other Systems. Acta Biotheoretica 40 (4):321-328.
    The levels that compose biological hierarchies each have their own energetic, spatial and temporal structure. Indeed, it is the discontinuity in energy relationships between levels, as well as the similarity of sub-systems that support them, that permits levels to be defined. In this paper, the temporal structure of living hierarchies, in particular that pertaining to Human society, is examined. Consideration is given to the period defining the lifespan of entities at each level and to a periodic event considered fundamental to (...)
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  30. Martin Barrett & Elliott Sober (1992). Is Entropy Relevant to the Asymmetry Between Retrodiction and Prediction? British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 43 (2):141-160.
    The idea that the changing entropy of a system is relevant to explaining why we know more about the system's past than about its future has been criticized on several fronts. This paper assesses the criticisms and clarifies the epistemology of the inference problem. It deploys a Markov process model to investigate the relationship between entropy and temporally asymmetric inference.
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  31. Sophie Basch (2009). Le démon de l'explicite. Cités 1 (1):51-57.
    The Collective 0-0009, the oldest and wisest of the Council, spoke and asked : « Who are you, our brother ? For you do not look like a Scholar. » « Our name is Equality 7-2521. »Depuis quelques mois, l’AERES, agence gouvernementale chargée de l’évaluation de la recherche et de l’enseignement supérieur, créée en 2006, s’efforce d’établir un classement..
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  32. Gérard Battail (2009). Living Versus Inanimate: The Information Border. [REVIEW] Biosemiotics 2 (3):321-341.
    The traditional divide between nature and culture restricts to the latter the use of information. Biosemiotics claims instead that the divide between nature and culture is a mere subdivision within the living world but that semiosis is the specific feature which distinguishes the living from the inanimate. The present paper is intended to reformulate this basic tenet in information-theoretic terms, to support it using information-theoretic arguments, and to show that its consequences match reality. It first proposes a ‘receiver-oriented’ interpretation of (...)
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  33. Robert Batterman (2005). Critical Phenomena and Breaking Drops: Infinite Idealizations in Physics. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B 36 (2):225-244.
    Thermodynamics and Statistical Mechanics are related to one another through the so-called "thermodynamic limit'' in which, roughly speaking the number of particles becomes infinite. At critical points (places of physical discontinuity) this limit fails to be regular. As a result, the "reduction'' of Thermodynamics to Statistical Mechanics fails to hold at such critical phases. This fact is key to understanding an argument due to Craig Callender to the effect that the thermodynamic limit leads to mistakes in Statistical Mechanics. I discuss (...)
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  34. Robert W. Batterman (1998). Why Equilibrium Statistical Mechanics Works: Universality and the Renormalization Group. Philosophy of Science 65 (2):183-208.
    Discussions of the foundations of Classical Equilibrium Statistical Mechanics (SM) typically focus on the problem of justifying the use of a certain probability measure (the microcanonical measure) to compute average values of certain functions. One would like to be able to explain why the equilibrium behavior of a wide variety of distinct systems (different sorts of molecules interacting with different potentials) can be described by the same averaging procedure. A standard approach is to appeal to ergodic theory to justify this (...)
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  35. Robert W. Batterman (1991). Randomness and Probability in Dynamical Theories: On the Proposals of the Prigogine School. Philosophy of Science 58 (2):241-263.
    I discuss recent work in ergodic theory and statistical mechanics, regarding the compatibility and origin of random and chaotic behavior in deterministic dynamical systems. A detailed critique of some quite radical proposals of the Prigogine school is given. I argue that their conclusion regarding the conceptual bankruptcy of the classical conceptions of an exact microstate and unique phase space trajectory is not completely justified. The analogy they want to draw with quantum mechanics is not sufficiently close to support their most (...)
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  36. Robert W. Batterman (1990). Irreversibility and Statistical Mechanics: A New Approach? Philosophy of Science 57 (3):395-419.
    I discuss a broad critique of the classical approach to the foundations of statistical mechanics (SM) offered by N. S. Krylov. He claims that the classical approach is in principle incapable of providing the foundations for interpreting the "laws" of statistical physics. Most intriguing are his arguments against adopting a de facto attitude towards the problem of irreversibility. I argue that the best way to understand his critique is as setting the stage for a positive theory which treats SM as (...)
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  37. Bernhard Baumgartner (2014). Characterizing Entropy in Statistical Physics and in Quantum Information Theory. Foundations of Physics 44 (10):1107-1123.
    A new axiomatic characterization with a minimum of conditions for entropy as a function on the set of states in quantum mechanics is presented. Traditionally unspoken assumptions are unveiled and replaced by proven consequences of the axioms. First the Boltzmann–Planck formula is derived. Building on this formula, using the Law of Large Numbers—a basic theorem of probability theory—the von Neumann formula is deduced. Axioms used in older theories on the foundations are now derived facts.
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  38. Claus Beisbart (2014). Good Just Isn't Good Enough - Humean Chances and Boltzmannian Statistical Physics. In Maria C. Galavotti (ed.), New Directions in the Philosophy of Science, The Philosophy of Science in a European Perspective 5. Springer 511-529.
    Statistical physicists assume a probability distribution over micro-states to explain thermodynamic behavior. The question of this paper is whether these probabilities are part of a best system and can thus be interpreted as Humean chances. I consider two Boltzmannian accounts of the Second Law, viz. a globalist and a localist one. In both cases, the probabilities fail to be chances because they have rivals that are roughly equally good. I conclude with the diagnosis that well-defined micro-probabilities under-estimate the robust character (...)
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  39. Jacob D. Bekenstein (2005). How Does the Entropy/Information Bound Work? Foundations of Physics 35 (11):1805-1823.
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  40. Gordon Belot (forthcoming). Undermined. Australasian Journal of Philosophy:1-11.
    A popular strategy for understanding the probabilities that arise in physics is to interpret them via reductionist accounts of chance—indeed, it is sometimes claimed that such accounts are uniquely well-suited to make sense of the probabilities in classical statistical mechanics. Here it is argued that reductionist accounts of chance carry a steep but unappreciated cost: when applied to physical theories of the relevant type, they inevitably distort the relations of probability that they take as input.
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  41. Yemima Ben-Menahem & Itamar Pitowsky (2001). Introduction. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B 32 (4):503-510.
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  42. Uri Ben-Ya'acov (1995). Statistical Mechanics Analysis of the “Twins Paradox”. Foundations of Physics 25 (12):1733-1740.
    The aging of the two brothers in the “twins paradox” is analyzed through the space-time evolution of the densities that correspond to their internal complex structure. Taking into account their relative motion, it is shown that the traveling brother evolves over a shorter interval of time than his twin, which makes him younger than his brother.
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  43. Gian Paolo Beretta (1987). Quantum Thermodynamics of Nonequilibrium. Onsager Reciprocity and Dispersion-Dissipation Relations. Foundations of Physics 17 (4):365-381.
    A generalized Onsager reciprocity theorem emerges as an exact consequence of the structure of the nonlinear equation of motion of quantum thermodynamics and is valid for all the dissipative nonequilibrium states, close and far from stable thermodynamic equilibrium, of an isolated system composed of a single constituent of matter with a finite-dimensional Hilbert space. In addition, a dispersion-dissipation theorem results in a precise relation between the generalized dissipative conductivity that describes the mutual interrelation between dissipative rates of a pair of (...)
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  44. George Kenneth Berger (1970). Time and Thermodynamics. Dissertation, Columbia University
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  45. Jorge Berger (2007). A Nonconventional Scenario for Thermal Equilibrium. Foundations of Physics 37 (12):1738-1743.
    A nonuniform superconducting loop poses a challenge to statistical mechanics: assuming thermal equilibrium and applying the accepted rules, we obtain that the heat flow does not vanish.
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  46. Ugo Besson (2014). Teaching About Thermal Phenomena and Thermodynamics: The Contribution of the History and Philosophy of Science. In Michael R. Matthews (ed.), International Handbook of Research in History, Philosophy and Science Teaching. Springer 245-283.
    Concerning the use of history and philosophy in science teaching, the topic of thermal phenomena and thermodynamics is fertile because it relates to various epistemological and philosophical themes, which can be accessible and useful for secondary education, and its history shows interesting debates among scientists and strong relationships between science, technology and socio-economic problems. Moreover, many students’ conceptions are similar to ideas and reasoning of ancient theories, and residues of these theories are still present in current scientific language and in (...)
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  47. Nicholas W. Best (2016). Lavoisier’s “Reflections on Phlogiston” II: On the Nature of Heat. Foundations of Chemistry 18 (1):3-13.
    Having refuted the phlogiston theory, Lavoisier uses this second portion of his essay to expound his new theory of combustion, based on the oxygen principle. He gives a mechanistic account of thermodynamic phenomena in terms of a subtle fluid and its ability to penetrate porous bodies. He uses this hypothetical fluid to explain volume changes, heat capacity and latent heat. Beyond the three types of combustion that he distinguishes and defines, Lavoisier also explains other chemical sources of heat, such as (...)
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  48. L. C. Biedenharn & J. C. Solem (1995). A Quantum-Mechanical Treatment of Szilard's Engine: Implications for the Entropy of Information. [REVIEW] Foundations of Physics 25 (8):1221-1229.
    We present a quantum-mechanical analysis of Szilard's famous single-molecule engine, showing that it is analogous to the double-slit experiment. We further show that the energy derived from the engine's operation is provided by the act of observing the molecule's location. The engine can be operated with no increase in physical entropy, and the second law of thermodynamics does not compel us to relate physical entropy to informational entropy. We conclude that information per seis a subjective, idealized, concept separated from the (...)
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  49. Giinther Bierhalter (1993). Helmholtz's Mechanical Foundation of Thermodynamics. In David Cahan (ed.), Hermann von Helmholtz and the Foundations of Nineteenth-Century Science. University of California Press 432--458.
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  50. Robert C. Bishop (2004). Nonequilibrium Statistical Mechanics Brussels–Austin Style. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B: Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics 35 (1):1-30.
    The fundamental problem on which Ilya Prigogine and the Brussels–Austin Group have focused can be stated briefly as follows. Our observations indicate that there is an arrow of time in our experience of the world (e.g., decay of unstable radioactive atoms like uranium, or the mixing of cream in coffee). Most of the fundamental equations of physics are time reversible, however, presenting an apparent conflict between our theoretical descriptions and experimental observations. Many have thought that the observed arrow of time (...)
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