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Summary Thomas Aquinas (c. 1225-1274) is the most influential Christian philosopher and theologian of the Scholastic period. His influence is primarily due to his synthesis of Aristotelian philosophy with Christian theology, as well as the breadth and systematic rigor of his writings. He wrote extensively on philosophical theology, metaphysics, epistemology, human nature (including philosophy of mind) and ethics (including moral psychology, virtue ethics, and natural law theory). The wide-ranging appeal of his theories have inspired a variety of "Thomisms" throughout the 20th century, under such prefatory labels as "Existential," "Transcendental," "Phenomenological," and "Analytical." His philosophical system has been explicitly promoted as the foundation par excellence for Catholic theology by Pope Leo XIII and Pope John Paul II.  
Key works For a comprehensive collection of Aquinas's works (in Latin) see Opera Omnia. Aquinas's most significant writings are the voluminous Summa theologiae and Summa contra Gentiles. Among his philosophical writings are comprehensive commentaries on Aristotle's works, including Metaphysics, Physics, De anima, Nicomachean Ethics, Politics, and Posterior Analytics. Extensive arguments on certain topics can be found in collections of Disputed Questions on subjects such as truth, virtue, evil, the soul, and the power of God. Shorter, yet philosophically impactful, treatises Aquinas wrote include On Being and Essence and On Kingship.
Introductions A classical introduction to Aquinas's overall philosophical thought is Gilson 1956. An excellent recent introductory text is Davies 1993. A more in-depth scholarly treatment of various themes in Aquinas's philosophical system is provided by Stump 2003.
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  1. Saint Thomas (Aquinas) (ed.) (2012). The Power of God: By Thomas Aquinas. OUP USA.
    On Power (De Potentia) is one of Aquinas's ''Disputed Questions'' (a systematic series of discussions of specific theological topics). It is a text which anyone with a serious interest in Aquinas's thinking will need to read. There is, however, no English translation of the De Potentia currently in print. Fr. Richard Regan has produced this abridgement, which passes over some of the full text while retaining what seems most important when it comes to following the flow of Aquinas's thought.
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  2. A. R. . (1966). Summa Theologiae la 14-18: Knowledge in God (Vol IV). Review of Metaphysics 19 (3):579-579.
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  3. A. E. T. A. E. T. (1923). WULF, M. DE.-Mediaeval Philosophy Illustrated From the System of Thomas Aquinas. [REVIEW] Mind 32:369.
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  4. A. E. T. A. E. T. (1914). WALLEBRAND, G. -Les Ceuvres de Siger de Courtrai. [REVIEW] Mind 23:446.
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  5. R. A. (1956). Imprudence in St. Thomas Aquinas. [REVIEW] Review of Metaphysics 10 (1):182-182.
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  6. Savejian Noushin Abdi & Mohammad Saeedimehr (2011). Unity of Soul to Avicenna and Thomas Aquinas. Philosophical Investigations 7 (19):7-21.
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  7. Donald C. Abel (1995). Intellectual Substance as Form of the Body in Aquinas. Proceedings of the American Catholic Philosophical Association 69:227-236.
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  8. Ariberto Acerbi (2012). Aquinas's Commentary on Boethius's De Trinitate. Review of Metaphysics 66 (2):317-338.
  9. Ariberto Acerbi (2011). Exercise Aspects on Will From Saint Thomas, Quaestio 6 de Malo. Rivista di Filosofia Neo-Scolastica 103 (2):257-272.
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  10. Ari Ackerman (2011). Zerahia Halevi Saladin and Thomas Aquinas on Vows. Journal of Jewish Thought and Philosophy 19 (1):47-71.
    This article examines two medieval sermons that examine philosophic and halakhic issues: the Passover sermon of Hasdai Crescas, which discusses the laws of Passover, and a sermon of Zerahia Halevi Saladin, a disciple of Crescas, which probes an aspect of the laws of vows ( nedarim ). In the analysis of Zerahia's sermon, a comparison is made between his discussion and Thomas Aquinas's examination of vows in his Summa Theologica . The comparison establishes the dependency of Zerahia on Aquinas regarding (...)
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  11. Don Adams (2009). Aquinas and Modern Contractualism. International Journal of Philosophical Studies 17 (4):509 – 530.
    When modern ethical contractualists defend their view against “teleology,” they typically have in mind utilitarian or consequentialist theories according to which valuable states of affairs are to be promoted. But if we look to older teleological theories e.g. that found in the philosophy of St. Thomas Aquinas we will find a kind of teleology that can be incorporated beneficially into contractualist ethics. In this paper I argue that Scanlon would be well served, on grounds to which he appeals, to make (...)
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  12. Don Adams (2004). Aquinas and Modern Consequentialism. International Journal of Philosophical Studies 12 (4):395 – 417.
    Because the moral philosophy of St Thomas Aquinas is egoistic while modern consequentialism is impartialistic, it might at first appear that the former cannot, while the latter can, provide a common value on the basis of which inter-personal conflicts may be settled morally. On the contrary, in this paper I intend to argue not only that Aquinas' theory does provide just such a common value, but that it is more true to say of modern consequentialism than of Thomism that it (...)
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  13. Don Adams (1991). Aquinas on Aristotle on Happiness. Medieval Philosophy and Theology 1:98-118.
  14. Marilyn McCord Adams (2013). Genuine Agency, Somehow Shared? The Holy Spirit and Other Gifts. Oxford Studies in Medieval Philosophy 1:23-60.
  15. Mortimer J. Adler (1968). Sense Cognition: Aristotle Vs. Aquinas. New Scholasticism 42 (4):578-591.
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  16. Mortimer J. Adler (1939). Saint Thomas and the Gentiles. Philosophical Review 48:342.
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  17. Adriaenssen (2014). Peter John Olivi and Peter Auriol on Conceptual Thought. Oxford Studies in Medieval Philosophy 2:67-97.
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  18. Jan Aertsen (1996). Medieval Philosophy and the Transcendentals: The Case of Thomas Aquinas. E.J. Brill.
    Students of Thomas Aquinas have so far lacked a comprehensive study of his doctrine of the transcendentals. This volume fills this lacuna, showing the fundamental character of the notions of being, one, true and good for his thought. The book inquires into the beginnings of the doctrine in the thirteenth century and explains the relation of the transcendental way of thought to Aquinas's conception of metaphysics. It analyzes 'Being', 'One', 'True', 'Good' and 'Beautiful' individually and discusses their importance for the (...)
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  19. Jan Aertsen (1988). Nature and Creature: Thomas Aquinas's Way of Thought. E.J. Brill.
    INTRODUCTION This study arose from involvement with the works of Thomas Aquinas (/5-) that was not only intensive, but also extensive in the time devoted to ...
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  20. Jan A. Aertsen (2005). Aquinas and the Human Desire for Knowledge. American Catholic Philosophical Quarterly 79 (3):411-430.
    This essay examines Aquinas’s analysis of the human desire to know, which plays a central role in his thought. (I.) This analysis confronts him with the Aristotelian tradition: thus, the desire for knowledge is a “natural” desire. (II.) It also confronts him with the Augustinian tradition, which deplores a non-virtuous desire in human beings that is called “curiosity.” (III.) Aquinas connects the natural desire with the Neoplatonic circle motif: principle and end are identical. The final end of the desire to (...)
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  21. Jan A. Aertsen (1998). Thomas Aquinas on the Good: The Relation Between Metaphysics and Ethics.”. In Norman Kretzmann, Scott MacDonald & Eleonore Stump (eds.), Aquinas's Moral Theory: Essays in Honor of Norman Kretzmann. Cornell University Press. 235--53.
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  22. Jan A. Aertsen (1998). The Philosophical Importance of the Doctrine of the Transcendentals in Thomas Aquinas. Revue Internationale de Philosophie 52 (204):249-268.
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  23. Jan A. Aertsen (1994). Thomas van Aquino En de Thomas van Utrecht -Thomas Aquinas and the Thomas of Utrecht. Bijdragen 55 (1):56-71.
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  24. Jan A. Aertsen (1993). Aquinas's Philosophy in its Historical Setting. In Norman Kretzmann & Eleonore Stump (eds.), The Cambridge Companion to Aquinas. Cambridge University Press. 12--37.
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  25. Jan A. Aertsen (1992). Truth as Transcendental in Thomas Aquinas. Topoi 11 (2):159-171.
    Aquinas presents his most complete exposition of the transcendentals inDe veritate 1, 1, that deals with the question What is truth?. The thesis of this paper is that the question of truth is essential for the understanding of his doctrine of the transcendentals.The first part of the paper (sections 1–4) analyzes Thomas''s conception of truth. Two approaches to truth can be found in his work. The first approach, based on Aristotle''s claim that truth is not in things but in the (...)
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  26. Jan A. Aertsen (1985). The Convertibility of Being and Good in St. Thomas Aquinas. New Scholasticism 59 (4):449-470.
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  27. Igor Agostini (2009). La démonstration de l'infinité de Dieu et le principe de la limitation de l'acte par la puissance chez Thomas d'Aquin. Les Etudes Philosophiques 4 (4):455-476.
    Résumé — Cet article se propose de fournir une contribution au débat interprétatif sur le principe de la limitation de l’acte par la puissance dans la démonstration de l’infinité de Dieu de la Summa theologiae de Thomas d’Aquin à travers une enquête à caractère historique qui expose quelques-unes des étapes capitales de l’histoire de cette preuve. Le désaccord qui divise les interprètes contemporains à propos du rôle joué par le principe susdit hérite, en réalité, d’une opposition séculaire parmi les commentateurs (...)
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  28. Jove Jim S. Aguas (2009). The Notions of the Human Person and Human Dignity in Aquinas and Wojtyla. Kritike: An Online Journal of Philosophy 3 (1):40-60.
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  29. H. Aguer (1995). La Moral de Tomás de Aquino En El Catecismo de la Iglesia Católica. Sapientia 50 (195-96):9-16.
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  30. Tomas Akvinsky (2011). Summa Theologica: Part I, Question I, Articles 1-10. Filozofia 66 (1):83-99.
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  31. Tomasz Z. Akwinu (1995). Summa Teologii, kwestia I (z komentarzem Mikołaja Olszewskiego). Principia.
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  32. Enrique Alarcón (2000). Tomás de Aquino y la Metafísica Perdida de Aristóteles. Anuario Filosófico 33 (67):557-572.
    Following St. Albert the Great, Thomas Aquinas distinguishes tacitly two stages in Aristotle's doctrine on separate substances. A first and imperfect attempt culminates in book Lambda of the Metaphysics. In a second and final treatise, Aristotle manifests the most valuable of the doctrines of Plato, avoiding his inexactitudes of expression.
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  33. James S. Albertson (1953). St. Thomas and the Existence of God. Modern Schoolman 30 (3):245-246.
  34. James S. Albertson (1953). St. Thomas and the Existence of God: Three Interpretations. [REVIEW] Modern Schoolman 30 (3):245-246.
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  35. James S. Albertson (1953). The Esse of Accidents According to St. Thomas. Modern Schoolman 30 (4):265-278.
  36. James S. Albertson (1952). BRYAR, WILLIAM. "St. Thomas and the Existence of God: Three Interpretations". [REVIEW] Modern Schoolman 30:245.
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  37. Carlos Alberto Albertuni (2011). Sindérese, o intellectus principiorum da razão prática em Tomás de Aquino. Veritas 56 (2):141-164.
    Trata-se de uma investigação sobre a teoria dos primeiros princípios da razão prática na obra de Tomás de Aquino. No centro dessa teoria está o termo “sindérese”, cujo conteúdo foi elaborado nas discussões da filosofia e da teologia medievais, a partir de sua menção na Glosa de Jerônimo a Ezequiel. Tal termo designa um conceito que apresenta um caráter inovador dentro da teoria da ação moral em comparação com a ética aristotélica. Afinal, Tomás de Aquino o entende como o hábito (...)
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  38. Christopher Albrecht (1994). An Analysis of St. Thomas Aquinas' Expositio of the De Trinitate of Boethius. Review of Metaphysics 48 (1):138-139.
  39. Jörg Alejandro Tellkamp (2012). Vis Aestimativa and Vis Cogitativa in Thomas Aquinas's Commentary on the Sentences. The Thomist 76 (4):611-640.
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  40. C. Fred Alford (2010). Narrative, Nature, and the Natural Law: From Aquinas to International Human Rights. Palgrave Macmillan.
    Introduction -- Saint Thomas : putting nature into natural law -- Maritain and the love for the natural law -- The new natural law and evolutionary natural law -- International human rights, natural law, and Locke -- Conclusion : evil and the limits of the natural law.
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  41. Maxime Allard (2011). De la singularisation de l'existence éthique chez Thomas d'Aquin. Revue des Sciences Philosophiques Et Théologiques 3:631-652.
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  42. Rudolf Allers (1949). A Philosophy of Submission; A Thomistic Study in Social Philosophy (Review). Franciscan Studies 9 (2):177-178.
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  43. Rudolf Allers (1946). Giles of Rome, Errores Philosophorum. New Scholasticism 20 (2):191-192.
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  44. Rudolf Allers (1938). Die Sprachphilosophie des Hl. Thomas Von Aquin Und Ihre Anwendung Auf Probleme der Theologie. New Scholasticism 12 (4):407-409.
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  45. Guido Alliney (2000). Per velamina veritatis: un'indagine sul ruolo degli enunciati metaforici nel discorso filosofico di Tommaso d'Aquino. [REVIEW] Bochumer Philosophisches Jahrbuch Fur Antike Und Mittelalter 5 (1):97-97.
    A long philosophical tradition has regarded the use of metaphorical utterances as a stylistic figuration without any cognitive aspect. Metaphors are categorial mistakes diverting the ordinary usage of concepts, and therefore are in logical opposition to standard meaning. However, a metaphor can be regarded not only as a vague linguistic enunciation, but also as a significant process of thought. In other words, metaphor is a figure of the mind, a necessary way of thinking, because the language-world relation is not bijective. (...)
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  46. W. P. Alston, W. C. Salmon, V. Thomas, G. Nakhnikian & A. Anderson (forthcoming). Old Aquinas. Proceedings and Addresses of the American Philosophical Association.
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  47. William P. Alston (1993). Reply to Pasnau. Philosophical Studies 72 (1):35 - 45.
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  48. Anderson Machado R. Alves (2011). O Fundamento da Liberdade Humana Em Santo Tomás de Aquino. Synesis 3 (2).
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  49. Rafael Alvira (1977). "Casus et fortuna" en santo Tomás de Aquino. Anuario Filosófico 10 (1):27-69.
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  50. Fabrizio Amerini (2013). Thomas Aquinas and Some Italian Dominicans (Francis of Prato, Georgius Rovegnatinus and Girolamo Savonarola) on Signification and Supposition. Vivarium 51 (1-4):327-351.
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