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Summary Thomas Aquinas (c. 1225-1274) is the most influential Christian philosopher and theologian of the Scholastic period. His influence is primarily due to his synthesis of Aristotelian philosophy with Christian theology, as well as the breadth and systematic rigor of his writings. He wrote extensively on philosophical theology, metaphysics, epistemology, human nature (including philosophy of mind) and ethics (including moral psychology, virtue ethics, and natural law theory). The wide-ranging appeal of his theories have inspired a variety of "Thomisms" throughout the 20th century, under such prefatory labels as "Existential," "Transcendental," "Phenomenological," and "Analytical." His philosophical system has been explicitly promoted as the foundation par excellence for Catholic theology by Pope Leo XIII and Pope John Paul II.  
Key works For a comprehensive collection of Aquinas's works (in Latin) see Opera Omnia. Aquinas's most significant writings are the voluminous Summa theologiae and Summa contra Gentiles. Among his philosophical writings are comprehensive commentaries on Aristotle's works, including Metaphysics, Physics, De anima, Nicomachean Ethics, Politics, and Posterior Analytics. Extensive arguments on certain topics can be found in collections of Disputed Questions on subjects such as truth, virtue, evil, the soul, and the power of God. Shorter, yet philosophically impactful, treatises Aquinas wrote include On Being and Essence and On Kingship.
Introductions A classical introduction to Aquinas's overall philosophical thought is Gilson 1956. An excellent recent introductory text is Davies 1993. A more in-depth scholarly treatment of various themes in Aquinas's philosophical system is provided by Stump 2003.
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  1. Ariberto Acerbi (2012). Aquinas's Commentary on Boethius's De Trinitate. The Review of Metaphysics 66 (2):317-338.
  2. Ari Ackerman (2011). Zerahia Halevi Saladin and Thomas Aquinas on Vows. Journal of Jewish Thought and Philosophy 19 (1):47-71.
    This article examines two medieval sermons that examine philosophic and halakhic issues: the Passover sermon of Hasdai Crescas, which discusses the laws of Passover, and a sermon of Zerahia Halevi Saladin, a disciple of Crescas, which probes an aspect of the laws of vows ( nedarim ). In the analysis of Zerahia's sermon, a comparison is made between his discussion and Thomas Aquinas's examination of vows in his Summa Theologica . The comparison establishes the dependency of Zerahia on Aquinas regarding (...)
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  3. Don Adams (2009). Aquinas and Modern Contractualism. International Journal of Philosophical Studies 17 (4):509 – 530.
    When modern ethical contractualists defend their view against “teleology,” they typically have in mind utilitarian or consequentialist theories according to which valuable states of affairs are to be promoted. But if we look to older teleological theories e.g. that found in the philosophy of St. Thomas Aquinas we will find a kind of teleology that can be incorporated beneficially into contractualist ethics. In this paper I argue that Scanlon would be well served, on grounds to which he appeals, to make (...)
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  4. Don Adams (2004). Aquinas and Modern Consequentialism. International Journal of Philosophical Studies 12 (4):395 – 417.
    Because the moral philosophy of St Thomas Aquinas is egoistic while modern consequentialism is impartialistic, it might at first appear that the former cannot, while the latter can, provide a common value on the basis of which inter-personal conflicts may be settled morally. On the contrary, in this paper I intend to argue not only that Aquinas' theory does provide just such a common value, but that it is more true to say of modern consequentialism than of Thomism that it (...)
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  5. Don Adams (1991). Aquinas on Aristotle on Happiness. Medieval Philosophy and Theology 1:98-118.
  6. Jan Aertsen (1996). Medieval Philosophy and the Transcendentals: The Case of Thomas Aquinas. E.J. Brill.
  7. Jan Aertsen (1988). Nature and Creature: Thomas Aquinas's Way of Thought. E.J. Brill.
    INTRODUCTION This study arose from involvement with the works of Thomas Aquinas (/5-) that was not only intensive, but also extensive in the time devoted to ...
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  8. Jan A. Aertsen (2005). Aquinas and the Human Desire for Knowledge. American Catholic Philosophical Quarterly 79 (3):411-430.
    This essay examines Aquinas’s analysis of the human desire to know, which plays a central role in his thought. (I.) This analysis confronts him with the Aristotelian tradition: thus, the desire for knowledge is a “natural” desire. (II.) It also confronts him with the Augustinian tradition, which deplores a non-virtuous desire in human beings that is called “curiosity.” (III.) Aquinas connects the natural desire with the Neoplatonic circle motif: principle and end are identical. The final end of the desire to (...)
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  9. Jan A. Aertsen (1992). Truth as Transcendental in Thomas Aquinas. Topoi 11 (2):159-171.
    Aquinas presents his most complete exposition of the transcendentals inDe veritate 1, 1, that deals with the question What is truth?. The thesis of this paper is that the question of truth is essential for the understanding of his doctrine of the transcendentals.The first part of the paper (sections 1–4) analyzes Thomas''s conception of truth. Two approaches to truth can be found in his work. The first approach, based on Aristotle''s claim that truth is not in things but in the (...)
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  10. Jan A. Aertsen (1985). The Convertibility of Being and Good in St. Thomas Aquinas. New Scholasticism 59 (4):449-470.
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  11. Jove Jim S. Aguas (2009). The Notions of the Human Person and Human Dignity in Aquinas and Wojtyla. Kritike: An Online Journal of Philosophy 3 (1):40-60.
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  12. James S. Albertson (1953). St. Thomas and the Existence of God. The Modern Schoolman 30 (3):245-246.
  13. James S. Albertson (1953). The Esse of Accidents According to St. Thomas. The Modern Schoolman 30 (4):265-278.
  14. Christopher Albrecht (1994). An Analysis of St. Thomas Aquinas' Expositio of the De Trinitate of Boethius. Review of Metaphysics 48 (1):138-139.
  15. C. Fred Alford (2010). Narrative, Nature, and the Natural Law: From Aquinas to International Human Rights. Palgrave Macmillan.
    Introduction -- Saint Thomas : putting nature into natural law -- Maritain and the love for the natural law -- The new natural law and evolutionary natural law -- International human rights, natural law, and Locke -- Conclusion : evil and the limits of the natural law.
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  16. Rudolf Allers (1949). A Philosophy of Submission; A Thomistic Study in Social Philosophy (Review). Franciscan Studies 9 (2):177-178.
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  17. Fabrizio Amerini (2013). Thomas Aquinas and Some Italian Dominicans (Francis of Prato, Georgius Rovegnatinus and Girolamo Savonarola) on Signification and Supposition. Vivarium 51 (1-4):327-351.
  18. Fabrizio Amerini (2011). Pragmatics and Semantics in Thomas Aquinas. Vivarium 49 (1-3):95-126.
    Thomas Aquinas's account of the semantics of names is based on two fundamental distinctions: the distinction between a name's mode of signifying and the signified object, and that between the cause and the goal of a name's signification, i.e. that from which a name was instituted to signify and that which a name actually signifies. Thomas endows names with a two-layer signification: names are introduced into language to designate primarily conceptions of extramental things and secondarily the particular extramental things referred (...)
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  19. Mark Amorose (2001). Aquinas. American Catholic Philosophical Quarterly 75 (1):109-115.
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  20. Justin M. Anderson (2012). Aquinas on The Graceless Unbeliever. Freiburger Zeitschrift für Philosophie Und Theologie 59 (1):5-25.
    This paper argues against the current presentation of Aquinas’s conception of pagan virtue because that conception fails to take into account the full weight of the corruption of the goods of nature on which the virtuous unbeliever must found his good acts. I go on to establish that postlapsarian man is in too capricious a position realistically to maintain a prolonged life of virtue. I conclude that while Aquinas’s conception of virtue renders a much more pessimistic picture of the virtuous (...)
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  21. Thomas C. Anderson (1969). Intelligible Matter and the Objects of Mathematics in Aquinas. New Scholasticism 43 (4):1-28.
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  22. Moses Aaron T. Angeles (2008). Metaphysics After Aquinas. Kritike: An Online Journal of Philosophy 1 (2):113-121.
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  23. Tom P. S. Angier (ed.) (2012). Ethics: The Key Thinkers. Continuum International Pub. Group.
    Plato Tom Angier -- Aristotle Timothy Chappell -- Stoics Jacob Klein -- Aquinas Vivian Boland O.P -- Hume Peter Millican -- Kant Ralph Walker -- Hegel Kenneth Westphal -- Marx Sean Sayers -- Mill Krister Bykvist -- Nietzsche Ken Gemes and Christoph Schuringa -- Macintyre David Solomon.
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  24. Gabriele Anna (2000). Mind-World Identity Theory and Semantic Realism: Haldane and Boulter on Aquinas. Philosophical Quarterly 50 (198):82 - 87.
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  25. Thomas Aquinas, Thomas Instituut Utrecht has Religious Texts.
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  26. Thomas Aquinas, On Theology and the Nature of God (From Summa Theologica).
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  27. Thomas Aquinas, On Prayer and the Contemplative Life.
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  28. Thomas Aquinas, De Ente Et Essentia (Latin).
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  29. Thomas Aquinas, On the Eternity of the World.
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  30. Thomas Aquinas, On the Nature of Law (From Summa Theologica).
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  31. Thomas Aquinas, Summa Theologica, Part I (Prima Pars).
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  32. Thomas Aquinas, On the Principles of Nature.
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  33. Thomas Aquinas, Reasons for the Faith Against Muslim Objections.
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  34. Thomas Aquinas, Summa Theologica, Part I-II (Pars Prima Secundae).
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  35. Thomas Aquinas, On Being and Essence.
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  36. Thomas Aquinas, Reasons in Proof of the Existence of God (From Summa Theologica).
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  37. Thomas Aquinas, Summa Theologica, Part II-II (Secunda Secundae).
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  38. Thomas Aquinas, Summa Contra Gentiles.
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  39. Thomas Aquinas, Summa Theologica, Part III (Tertia Pars).
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  40. Thomas Aquinas, Opera Omnia.
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  41. Thomas Aquinas (2009). The Five Ways. In Steven M. Cahn (ed.), Exploring Philosophy of Religion: An Introductory Anthology. Oxford University Press.
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  42. Thomas Aquinas (2008). Selected Philosophical Writings. OUP Oxford.
    St Thomas Aquinas (1225-1274) saw religion as part of the natural human propensity to worship. His ability to recognize the naturalness of this phenomenon and simultaneously to go beyond it, to explore spiritual revelation, makes his work fresh and highly readable today. -/- While drawing on a strong distinction between theology and philosophy, Aquinas interleaved them intricately in his writings, which range from an examination of the structures of thought to the concept of God as the end of all things. (...)
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  43. Thomas Aquinas (2003). On Evil. OUP USA.
    The De Malo represents some of Aquinas' most mature thinking on goodness, badness, and human agency. In it he examines the full range of questions associated with evil: its origin, its nature, its relation to good, and its compatability with the existence of an omnipotent, benevolent God. This edition offers Richard Regan's new, clear readable English translation, based on the Leonine Commission's authoritative edition of the Latin text. Brian Davies has provided an extensive introduction and notes. (Please note: this edition (...)
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  44. Thomas Aquinas (1998). In Memoriam: Norman Kretzmann, 1928–1998. Medieval Philosophy and Theology 7:111-114.
  45. Thomas Aquinas (1984). Sentencia Libri de Sensu Et Sensato Cuius Secundus Tractatus Est de Memoria Et Reminiscencia. Commissio Leonina.
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  46. Thomas Aquinas (1984). Sentencia Libri de Anima Vol. 45. Commissio Leonina.
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  47. Thomas Aquinas (1966). Law as an Ordinance of Reason. In Martin P. Golding (ed.), The Nature of Law. New York, Random House.
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  48. Thomas Aquinas (1963). The Teacher. In Malcolm Theodore Carron (ed.), Readings in the Philosophy of Education. [Detroit]University of Detroit Press.
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  49. Thomas Aquinas (1274). Summa Theologica. Hayes Barton Press.
  50. Thomas Aquinas, Of God and His Creatures.
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