About this topic
Summary

Thomas Reid (1710-1796) was a Scottish philosopher and key figure in the Scottish Common Sense School. He taught at Kings College Aberdeen before succeeding Adam Smith as Professor of Moral Philosophy at the University of Glasgow in 1764.  Reid is primarily known for the epistemological theory he develops in response to the perceived failings of the 'way of ideas', the position associated with the likes of Descartes, Locke, Berkeley and Hume that claims that the immediate objects of perception are private mental items. Reid takes Hume as demonstrating that such a perceptual theory leads to a complete scepticism. As an alternative to this, Reid offers a direct realist account of perception and argues that all first principles of common sense stand on an equal footing – there is no reason to favour perception or reason over testimony or the belief in an external world, for example.  One other aspect of Reid's Common Sense theory that continues to exert significant influence is his contra-casual account of human agency.

Key works Reid's three major works represent two periods in his intellectual life: his first important work, An Inquiry into the Human Mind on the Principles of Common Sense (Reid 1764) was written during his time at Aberdeen; his Essays on the Intellectual Powers of Man (Reid 1785) and Essays on the Active Powers of Man (Reid 1788) reflect his work at Glasgow. All three works were included in Sir William Hamilton’s The Works of Thomas Reid (Reid 1846), though this has been superseded by the Edinburgh Edition of Thomas Reid, a projected 10 volume series published by Edinburgh University Press and Pennsylvania State University Press. The Edinburgh edition of the Inquiry, Reid 1997, is edited by Derek R. Brookes, the Intellectual Powers, Reid 2002, by Derek R. Brookes and Knud Haakonssen, and the Active Powers, Reid 2010, by Knud Haakonssen and James A. Harris.
Introductions Lehrer 1989 is the only introductory text on Reid available at the present time, with an emphasis on Reid's epistemology. Wolterstorff 2001 provides an alternative, highly accessible discussion of his epistemological concerns. The papers in Cuneo & van Woudenberg 2004 cover a wider range of core themes from Reid’s writings, including his moral and aesthetic theories. Yaffe & Nichols 2009 is the best online overview.
  Show all references
Related categories
Siblings:
474 found
Search inside:
(import / add options)   Sort by:
1 — 50 / 474
  1. Todd L. Adams (1991). The Philosophical Orations of Thomas Reid Delivered at Graduation Ceremonies in King's College, Aberdeen, 1753, 1756, 1759, 1762 (Review). [REVIEW] Journal of the History of Philosophy 29 (3):499-500.
    Remove from this list | Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  2. Todd L. Adams (1991). Keith Lehrer, Thomas Reid. [REVIEW] Review of Metaphysics 44 (3):645-646.
    Remove from this list | Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  3. Todd L. Adams (1991). Thomas Reid. Review of Metaphysics 44 (3):645-646.
    Remove from this list | Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  4. William P. Alston (1985). Thomas Reid on Epistemic Principles. History of Philosophy Quarterly 2 (4):435 - 452.
    Remove from this list | Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  5. R. B. Angell (1974). The Geometry of Visibles. Noûs 8 (2):87-117.
    Remove from this list | Direct download (4 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  6. M. Angles & A. Broadie (1998). Thomas Reid: An Inquiry Into the Human Mind on Principles of Common Sense, Edinburgh Edition. [REVIEW] Reid Studies 1 (2):69-70.
    Remove from this list |
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  7. Peter Anstey (1995). Thomas Reid and the Justification of Induction. History of Philosophy Quarterly 12 (1):77 - 93.
    Remove from this list | Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  8. Teppei Baba (2008). Is Berkeley's Theory of Ideas A Variant of Locke's? Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 16:9-15.
    I try to show that Berkeley's theory of ideas is not a variant of Locke's. We can find such an interpretation of Berkeley in Thomas Reid. So, we could call this interpretation a 'traditional interpretation'. This traditional interpretation has an influence still now, for example, Tomida interprets Berkeley in this line (Tomida2002). We will see that this traditional interpretation gives a serious problem to Berkeley (section 1). And I am going to present an argument against this traditional interpretation (section 2).
    Remove from this list | Direct download (3 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  9. Marc Baer (2000). Thomas Reid: Ethics, Aesthetics and the Anatomy of the Self. [REVIEW] Review of Metaphysics 53 (4):926-927.
    Remove from this list | Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  10. Marc Baer (1998). Thomas Reid on the Animate Creation. [REVIEW] Review of Metaphysics 52 (1):166-169.
    Remove from this list | Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  11. Stephen Francis Barker & Tom L. Beauchamp (eds.) (1976). Thomas Reid: Critical Interpretations. University City Science Center.
    Remove from this list |
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  12. Philip De Bary (2000). Thomas Reid's Metaprinciple. American Catholic Philosophical Quarterly 74 (3):373-383.
  13. Peter Baumann (2011). Reid on Ethics – Sabine Roeser. [REVIEW] Philosophical Quarterly 61 (245):856-859.
    Remove from this list | Direct download (6 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  14. Peter Baumann (2004). On the Subtleties of Reidian Pragmatism: A Reply to Magnus. Journal of Scottish Philosophy 2 (1):73-77.
    Remove from this list | Direct download (4 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  15. Peter Baumann (1999). The Scottish Pragmatist? The Dilemma of Common Sense and the Pragmatist Way Out. Reid Studies 2 (2):47-58.
    Remove from this list |
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  16. Ronald Beanblossom (1978). Russell's Indebtedness to Reid. The Monist 61 (2):192-204.
  17. Ronald E. Beanblossom (2006). Thomas Reid: Context, Influence, Significance. [REVIEW] Journal of the History of Philosophy 44 (1):126-128.
    Remove from this list | Direct download (5 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  18. Ronald E. Beanblossom (2004). Review of Derek R. Brookes: Thomas Reid; Essays on the Intellectual Powers of Man; Review of Paul Wood: The Correspondence of Thomas Reid. [REVIEW] Journal of Scottish Philosophy 2 (1):83-87.
    Remove from this list |
    Translate to English
    | Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  19. Ronald E. Beanblossom (2000). James and Reid. American Catholic Philosophical Quarterly 74 (3):471-490.
    Remove from this list | Direct download (5 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  20. Ronald E. Beanblossom (1998). Reid and Hume: On the Nature of Belief. Reid Studies 1 (2):17-32.
  21. Ronald E. Beanblossom (1988). Kant's Quarrel with Reid: The Role of Metaphysics. History of Philosophy Quarterly 5 (1):53 - 62.
    Remove from this list | Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  22. Ronald E. Beanblossom (1975). In Defense of Thomas Reid's Use of 'Suggestion'. Grazer Philosophische Studien 1:19-24.
    Thomas Reid, the eighteenth century Scottish philosopher, was concerned with the proper use of ordinary language. P. G. Winch would have us believe that in spite of Reid's concern for observing the ordinary meaning of terms, Reid did not know the ordinary meaning of 'suggest'. Not knowing this ordinary meaning, Reid allegedly changed it in violation of his own criteria. Against this view I argue (1) Reid uses 'suggest' in a technical sense and gives reasons for doing so; (2) contrary (...)
    Remove from this list | Direct download (5 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  23. Aaron Ben-Zeev (1986). Reid's Direct Approach to Perception. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 17 (1):99-114.
  24. Hagit Benbaji (2007). Is Thomas Reid a Direct Realist About Perception? European Journal of Philosophy 17 (1):1-29.
    The controversy over the interpretative issue2014is Thomas Reid a perceptual direct realist?2014has recently had channelled into it a host of imaginative ideas about what direct perception truly means. Paradoxically enough, it is the apparent contradiction at the heart of his view of perception which keeps teasing us to review our concepts: time and again, Reid stresses that the very idea of any mental intermediaries implies scepticism, yet, nevertheless insists that sensations are signs of objects. But if sensory signs are not (...)
    Remove from this list | Direct download (7 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  25. Hagit Benbaji (2003). Reid on Causation and Action. Journal of Scottish Philosophy 1 (1):1-19.
    Remove from this list | Direct download (4 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  26. Hagit Benbaji (1999). Reid's View of Aesthetic and Secondary Qualities. Reid Studies 2:31-46.
    Remove from this list |
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  27. Michael Bergmann (2008). Reidian Externalism. In Vincent Hendricks (ed.), New Waves in Epistemology. Palgrave Macmillan.
    What distinguishes Reidian externalism from other versions of epistemic externalism about justification is its proper functionalism and its commonsensism, both of which are inspired by the 18th century Scottish philosopher Thomas Reid. Its proper functionalism is a particular analysis of justification; its commonsensism is a certain thesis about what we are noninferentially justified in believing.
    Remove from this list | Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  28. Christopher J. Berry (1992). Thomas Reid on Practical Ethics: Being Lectures and Papers on Natural Religion, Self-Government, Natural Jurisprudence, and the Law of Nations. [REVIEW] Utilitas 4 (02):331-333.
  29. Steffen Borge (2007). Some Remarks on Reid on Primary and Secondary Qualities. Acta Analytica 22 (1):74-84.
    John Locke’s distinction between primary and secondary qualities of objects has meet resistance. In this paper I bypass the traditional critiques of the distinction and instead concentrate on two specific counterexamples to the distinction: Killer yellow and the puzzle of multiple dispositions. One can accommodate these puzzles, I argue, by adopting Thomas Reid’s version of the primary/secondary quality distinction, where the distinction is founded upon conceptual grounds. The primary/secondary quality distinction is epistemic rather than metaphysical. A consequence of Reid’s primary/ (...)
    Remove from this list | Direct download (7 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  30. Philip Bourdillon (1975). Thomas Reid's Account of Sensation as a Natural Principle of Belief. Philosophical Studies 27 (1):19 - 36.
    Remove from this list | Direct download (5 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  31. Arthur Boutwood (1894). Reid and the Philosophy of Common Sense. Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 3 (1):154 - 171.
    Remove from this list | Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  32. Charles Bradford Bow (2012). Introduction: Scottish Philosophy in the Nineteenth-Century Atlantic World. History of European Ideas 39 (5):605-612.
    Summary The Introduction contextualises the development of Thomas Reid's Common Sense philosophy as the foundation for what would be known as the Scottish School of Common Sense. This introductory discussion of Reid's philosophical system bridges his thought in the Scottish Enlightenment with the special issue's focus of Scottish philosophy in the nineteenth-century Atlantic World.
    Remove from this list | Direct download (3 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  33. Franz Brentano (1975). Was an Reid Zu Loben: Über Die Philosophie von Thomas Reid. Grazer Philosophische Studien 1:1-18.
    Remove from this list | Direct download (4 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  34. Alexander Broadie (2009). Reid Making Sense of Moral Sense. In Sabine Roeser (ed.), Reid on Ethics. Palgrave Macmillan.
    Remove from this list |
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  35. Alexander Broadie (2008). Thomas Reid on Practical Ethics: Lectures and Papers on Natural Religion, Self-Government, Natural Jurisprudence and the Law of Nations. [REVIEW] Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews 2008 (2).
    Remove from this list | Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  36. Alexander Broadie (2000). The Scotist Thomas Reid. American Catholic Philosophical Quarterly 74 (3):385-407.
    Remove from this list | Direct download (5 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  37. Alexander Broadie (2000). Why Scottish Philosophy Matters. Saltire Society.
    CHAPTER Introduction I do not take lightly the title of this book. I believe that Scottish philosophy matters greatly and my principal aim is to say why it ...
    Remove from this list | Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  38. Alexander Broadie (1998). Reid Making Sense of Moral Sense. Reid Studies 1 (2):5-16.
    Remove from this list |
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  39. B. A. Brody (1971). Reid and Hamilton on Perception. The Monist 55 (3):423-441.
    Remove from this list | Direct download (5 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  40. Derek R. Brookes (ed.) (2002). Thomas Reid: Essays on the Intellectual Powers of Man. Edinburgh University Press.
    Remove from this list |
    Translate to English
    |
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  41. Etienne Brun-Rovet (2002). Reid, Kant and the Philosophy of Mind. Philosophical Quarterly 52 (209):495-510.
    I suggest a possible rehabilitation of Reid's philosophy of mind by a constructive use of Kant's criticisms of the common sense tradition. Kant offers two criticisms, explicitly claiming that common sense philosophy is ill directed methodologically, and implicitly rejecting Reid's view that there is direct epistemological access by introspection to the ontology of mind. Putting the two views together reveals a tension between epistemology and ontology, but the problem which Kant finds in Reid also infects his own system, as his (...)
    Remove from this list | Direct download (8 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  42. Christopher Bryant (1995). Reid and His French Disciples. [REVIEW] Review of Metaphysics 48 (3):666-667.
    Remove from this list | Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  43. Andrei A. Buckareff (1999). Can Agent-Causation Be Rendered Intelligible?: An Essay on the Etiology of Free Action. Dissertation, Texas A&M University
    The doctrine of agent-causation has been suggested by many interested in defending libertarian theories of free action to provide the conceptual apparatus necessary to make the notion of incompatibility freedom intelligible. In the present essay the conceptual viability of the doctrine of agent-causation will be assessed. It will be argued that agent-causation is, insofar as it is irreducible to event-causation, mysterious at best, totally unintelligible at worst. First, the arguments for agent-causation made by such eighteenth-century luminaries as Samuel Clarke and (...)
    Remove from this list |
    Translate to English
    | Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  44. Todd Buras (2009). The Function of Sensations in Reid. Journal of the History of Philosophy 47 (3):pp. 329-353.
    For Reid, the external senses have a “double province.” They give rise to both sensation and perception. This essay is about the relation of sensation and perception, a relation Reid’s sign theory of sensations describes. Drawing on Reid’s distinctions between general and particular principles of our constitution, relative and absolute conceptions, and original and acquired perception, the paper systematizes Reid’s sporadic comments on the sign theory. The aim is to offer an interpretation which reveals the overall structure, rationale and coherence (...)
    Remove from this list | Direct download (6 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  45. Todd Buras (2008). Three Grades of Immediate Perception: Thomas Reid's Distinctions. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 76 (3):603–632.
    1. Introduction. Like other direct realists, Thomas Reid offered an alternative to indirect realist and idealist accounts of perception. Reids alternative aimed to preserve the indirect realists commitment to realism about the objects of perception, and the idealists commitment to the immediacy of the minds relation to the objects of perception. Reid holds that what you perceive is mind independent or external; and your relation to such objects in perception is direct or immediate. In his own words, something which is (...)
    Remove from this list | Direct download (9 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  46. Todd Buras (2007). Manifest Activity: Thomas Reid's Theory of Action. [REVIEW] Philosophical Review 116 (1):145-147.
    Remove from this list | Direct download (5 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  47. Todd Buras (2007). Review of Ryan Nichols, Thomas Reid's Theory of Perception. [REVIEW] Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews 2007 (8).
    Remove from this list | Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  48. Todd Buras (2005). The Nature of Sensations in Reid. History of Philosophy Quarterly 22 (3):221 - 238.
    For Reid, sensations do not enter into the analysis of perception proper. Instead they “intervene” between the effects of bodily qualities on our sense organs and our perception of those qualities (Inq VI xxi, 174).1 The question addressed in this essay is: What sort of thing does Reid take this interloper to be?2 The answer defended is that sensations are reflexive mental acts, i.e., acts which take themselves as objects.
    Remove from this list | Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  49. Todd Buras (2002). The Problem with Reid's Direct Realism. Philosophical Quarterly 52 (209):457-477.
    There is a problem about the compatibility of Reid's commitment to both a sign theory of sensations and also direct realism. I show that Reid is committed to three different senses of the claim that mind independent bodies and their qualities are among the immediate objects of perception, and I then argue that Reid's sign theory conflicts with one of these. I conclude by advocating one proposal for reconciling Reid's claims, deferring a thorough development and defence of the proposal to (...)
    Remove from this list | Direct download (8 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  50. Todd Buras & Rebecca Copenhaver (eds.) (forthcoming). Mind, Knowledge and Action: Essays in Honor of Reid’s Tercentenary.
    Remove from this list |
    Translate to English
    |
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
1 — 50 / 474