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  1. Barbara Abbott (1995). Thinking Without English. Behavior and Philosophy 23 (2):49 - 55.
    Abbott replies to each of Hauser's arguments. Problem solving by chimpanzees and evidence of recursion in the thought of a feral human being suggest that natural language is not necessary for productive thought. Communication would be trivial if the inner language were the outer language, but it is not. The decryption analogy Hauser uses is flawed, and it is not clear which way Occam's razor cuts.
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  2. Paulo Abrantes (2010). Philosophy of Mind. J. Kim [Resenha]. Principia 1 (2):312-325.
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  3. Ira Altman (1997). The Concept of Intelligence: A Philosophical Analysis. University Press of America.
  4. Santiago Arango-Muñoz (2013). The Nature of Epistemic Feelings. Philosophical Psychology (2):1-19.
    Among the phenomena that make up the mind, cognitive psychologists and philosophers have postulated a puzzling one that they have called ?epistemic feelings.? This paper aims to (1) characterize these experiences according to their intentional content and phenomenal character, and (2) describe the nature of these mental states as nonconceptual in the cases of animals and infants, and as conceptual mental states in the case of adult human beings. Finally, (3) the paper will contrast three accounts of the causes and (...)
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  5. Jonathan Baron (1990). Thinking About Consequences. Journal of Moral Education 19 (2):77-87.
    Abstract Critical thinking about moral decisions considers the consequences of options for the achievement of people's goals. Attempts to think critically lead to error and bias, so intuitive rules are needed to guard against these errors and to save time. Intuitive rules, however, lead to errors and biases of their own. I propose that students be taught to approximate critical thinking itself and that they learn rules of thumb to guard against its pitfalls. In particular, students need to learn certain (...)
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  6. John D. Bishop (1980). The Analogy Theory of Thinking. Australasian Journal of Philosophy 58 (September):222-238.
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  7. Tim Crane (2008). Sainsbury on Thinking About an Object (Sainsbury Sobre Pensar Acerca de Un Objeto). Critica 40 (120):85 - 95.
    R.M. Sainsbury's account of reference has many compelling and attractive features. But it has the undesirable consequence that sentences of the form "x is thinking about y" can never be true when y is replaced by a non-referring term. Of the two obvious ways to deal with this problem within Sainsbury's framework, I reject one (the analysis of thinking about as a propositional attitude) and endorse the other (treating "thinks about" as akin to an intensional transitive verb). This endorsement is (...)
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  8. John Divers & Alexander Miller (1994). Best Opinion, Intention-Detecting and Analytic Functionalism. Philosophical Quarterly 44 (175):239-245.
  9. Andreas Elpidorou (2012). Where is My Mind? Mark Rowlands on the Vehicles of Cognition. Avant 3 (1):145-160.
    Do our minds extend beyond our brains? In a series of publications, Mark Rowlands has argued that the correct answer to this question is an affirmative one. According to Rowlands, certain types of operations on bodily and worldly structures should be considered to be proper and literal parts of our cognitive and mental processes. In this article, I present and critically evaluate Rowlands' position.
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  10. Christopher Gauker (2007). On the Alleged Priority of Thought Over Language. In Savas L. Tsohatzidis (ed.), John Searle's Philosophy of Language: Force, Meaning, and Mind. Cambridge University Press. 125.
    It is obvious that there are kinds of cognition -- mental problem solving -- that do not require spoken language. But it should not be obvious that peculiarly conceptual thought is independent of spoken language. This paper is a critical survey of arguments concluding that conceptual thought must be independent of language. The special emphasis is on arguments that John Searle has put forward, but others are considered as well. These include the claim that only the intentionality of thought is (...)
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  11. Justus Hartnack (1972). On Thinking. Mind 81 (October):543-552.
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  12. Christopher Hookway (1997). Analyticity, Linguistic Rules and Epistemic Evaluation. Royal Institute of Philosophy Supplement 42:197-.
  13. Walter Hopp (2010). How to Think About Nonconceptual Content. The New Yearbook for Phenomenology and Phenomenological Philosophy 10 (1):1-24.
    This paper provides a general account of what nonconceptual content is, and some considerations in favor of its existence. After distinguishing between the contents and objects of mental states, as well as the properties of being conceptual and being conceptualized, I argue that what is phenomenologically distinctive about conceptual content is that it is not determined by, and does not determine, the intuitive character of an experience. That is, for virtually any experience E with intuitive character I, there is no (...)
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  14. W. E. Johnson (1918). Analysis of Thinking (I). Mind 27 (105):1-21.
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  15. K. (1995). Some Varieties of Thinking: Reflections on Meinong and Fodor. Grazer Philosophische Studien 50:365-395.
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  16. David Kirsh (2013). Embodied Cognition and the Magical Future of Interaction Design. ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction 20 (1):30.
    The theory of embodied cognition can provide HCI practitioners and theorists with new ideas about interac-tion and new principles for better designs. I support this claim with four ideas about cognition: (1) interacting with tools changes the way we think and perceive – tools, when manipulated, are soon absorbed into the body schema, and this absorption leads to fundamental changes in the way we perceive and conceive of our environments; (2) we think with our bodies not just with our brains; (...)
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  17. David Kirsh (2012). Running It Through the Body. Proceedings of the 34th Annual Cognitive Science Society 34:593-598.
    Video data from three large captures of choreographic dance making was analyzed to determine if there is a difference between participant knowledge – the knowledge an agent acquires by being the cause of an action – and observer knowledge – the knowledge an observer acquires through close attention to someone else’s performance. The idea that there might be no difference has been challenged by recent findings about the action observation network and tacitly challenged by certain tenets in enactive perception. We (...)
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  18. David Kirsh (2011). Creative Cognition in Choreography. Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Computational Creativity:1-6.
    Contemporary choreography offers a window onto creative processes that rely on harnessing the power of sensory sys- tems. Dancers use their body as a thing to think with and their sensory systems as engines to simulate ideas non- propositionally. We report here on an initial analysis of data collected in a lengthy ethnographic study of the making of a dance by a major choreographer and show how translating between different sensory modalities can help dancers and choreographer to be more creative.
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  19. David Kirsh (2010). Thinking With External Representations. AI and Society 25 (4):441-454.
    Why do people create extra representations to help them make sense of situations, diagrams, illustrations, instructions and problems? The obvious explanation— external representations save internal memory and com- putation—is only part of the story. I discuss seven ways external representations enhance cognitive power: they change the cost structure of the inferential landscape; they provide a structure that can serve as a shareable object of thought; they create persistent referents; they facilitate re- representation; they are often a more natural representation of (...)
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  20. A. R. Lacey (1963). Thoughts and the Sui Generis. Mind 72 (January):129-132.
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  21. Douglas C. Long (1961). Second Thoughts: A Reply to Mr Ginnane's Thoughts. Mind 70 (July):405-411.
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  22. William E. Lyons (1979). Ryle's Three Accounts of Thinking. International Philosophical Quarterly 19 (December):443-450.
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  23. Friederike Moltmann, Attitudinal Objects and the Distinction Between Actions and Products.
    This paper explores a notion of a truth-bearing entity that is distinct both from a proposition and from an intentional event, state, or action, namely the notion of an attitudinal object. Attitudinal objects are entities like ‘John’s belief that S’, John’s claim that S’, ‘John’s desire that S’, or ‘John’s request that S’. The notion of an attitudinal object has an important precedent in the work of the Polish philosopher Twardowski (1912), who drew a more general distinction between ‘actions’ and (...)
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  24. Keith W. Monsarrat (1955). On Human Thinking. London,: Methuen.
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  25. Julius Moravcsik (1983). Can There Be a Science of Thought? Conceptus 17 (40-41):239-262.
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  26. David L. Mouton (1969). The Concept of Thinking. Noûs 3 (November):355-372.
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  27. H. H. Price (1946/1975). Thinking and Representation. Haskell House.
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  28. Joan W. Reeves (1965). Thinking About Thinking. New York: Braziller.
    ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I would like to thank the following: Professor DW Harding for suggesting inquiry into Binet's work and for allowing use of his own ideas in ...
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  29. John M. Russell (1980). How to Think About Thinking. Journal of Mind and Behavior 1:45-62.
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  30. Dustin Stokes (2007). Incubated Cognition and Creativity. Journal of Consciousness Studies 14 (3):83-100.
    Many traditional theories of creativity put heavy emphasis on an incubation stage in creative cognitive processes. The basic phenomenon is a familiar one: we are working on a task or problem, we leave it aside for some period of time, and when we return attention to the task we have some new insight that services completion of the task. This feature, combined with other ostensibly mysterious features of creativity, has discouraged naturalists from theorizing creativity. This avoidance is misguided: we can (...)
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  31. Richard Swinburne (1985). Thought. Philosophical Studies 48 (September):153-172.
    AN OCCURRENT THOUGHT IS DISTINGUISHED FROM BELIEF, INTELLIGENT BEHAVIOR, AND THE ACTIVE PROCESS OF THINKING. THE OCCURRENCE OF THOUGHTS IS NOT TO BE ANALYZED IN TERMS OF THE OCCURRENCE OF IMAGES OF WORDS OF SENTENCES WHICH EXPRESS THEM AND OFTEN ACCOMPANY THEM. THOUGHTS HAVE INBUILT INTENTIONALITY.
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  32. Daniel M. Taylor (1956). Thinking. Mind 65 (April):246-251.
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  33. Robert A. Wilson, Review of Derek Melser, The Act of Thinking. [REVIEW] Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews.
    This is a book that challenges the current orthodoxy, both in the philosophy of mind and in the cognitive sciences, that thinking (construed broadly to include perceiving, imagining, remembering, etc.) is a mental process in the head. Such a view has been largely taken for granted since the demise of behaviorism in the 1960s, and it underpins both the representational and computational theories of mind, including their connectionist and dynamicist variants. While the orthodoxy has been rejected in recent years by (...)
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  34. Nick Zangwill (1998). Direction of Fit and Normative Functionalism. Philosophical Studies 91 (2):173-203.
    What is the difference between belief and desire? In order to explain the difference, recent philosophers have appealed to the metaphor of.
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