About this topic
Summary There are four philosophical issues surrounding toleration: (1) What is it? (2) What does it require? (3) When is it required? and (4) Why is it of value?  The first two are conceptual questions and often--perhaps entirely, in contemporary work--conflated.  It is now assumed that whatever its complete definition, toleration requires non-interference.  That was not always the case.  The third question is of paramount importance in normative political work.  Disagreements about how to answer this question divide liberals and other moral and political thinkers into different camps.  The fourth question seems to many today to be unnecessary since everyone proclaims to think toleration important.  There are good arguments that defenses of toleration are still needed; historically, of course, they were extremely important. 
Key works Historically, the most important figures discussing toleration are, arguably: Saint Augustine (Letters), Baruch Spinoza (Tractatus Theologico-Politicus), Pierre Bayle (A Philosophical Commentary), John Locke (Letters Concerning Toleration), and John Stuart Mill (On Liberty).  For a recent conceptual analysis of toleration, see Cohen 2004. For a collection with a good indication of various recent debates, see Williams & Waldron 2008.
Introductions Rainer Forst, Toleration
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Subcategories:See also:History/traditions: Toleration
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  1. Âdvaitâchârya (1917). The Way of the Childish, Balamatimarga, Written Down by the Author of 'the Real Tolerance'.
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  2. Amy Danielle Ash (1996). Tolerance: The Scope and Limits of its Justifications. Dissertation, Cornell University
    This work examines some of the grounds that are commonly used to justify tolerance, evaluating them in terms of both their scope and limits. The grounds of justification fall within three major categories: epistemological arguments, arguments about the proper role of the state and varieties of pluralism. Throughout the work, the controversy surrounding Salman Rushdie's novel, The Satanic Verses, is used to evaluate the scope of those justifications and the limits they place upon tolerance. Discussion of the Satanic Verses controversy (...)
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  3. José Manuel Bermudo Avila (1999). La tolerancia (del liberalismo al pluralismo). Anales de la Cátedra Francisco Suárez 33:243-260.
    En el artículo se contraponen, argumentan y valoran dos conceptos de la tolerancia. Uno, de raíz ilustrada, compatible con la posibilidad de establecer preferencias racionales entre los modelos de comunidad política, criterios de justicia o formas de vida; se trata de una tolerancia respecto a las personas (y sus derechos a expresarse y a elegir su plan de vida) compatible con la crítica radical a sus ideas y representaciones. El otro concepto, coherente con la actual ideología del pluralismo, que afirma (...)
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  4. Alfred J. Ayer (1987). Sources of Intolerance. In Susan Mendus & David Edwards (eds.), On Toleration. Oxford University Press. 83--100.
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  5. Josette Baer (2003). Appreciating Minorities or Why Tolerance is Not Enough: Is Power Sharing the 'Moral Must' in International Politics? In Urs Marti & Georg Kohler (eds.), Konturen der Neuen Weltordnung: Beiträge Zu Einer Theorie der Normativen Prinzipien Internationaler Politik. De Gruyter. 266-284.
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  6. Storm Bailey (unknown). Tolerance and Hospitality as Virtues. Analytic Teaching and Philosophical Praxis 23 (1):62-68.
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  7. R. Balasubramanian, Indian Council of Philosophical Research, Dr S. Radhakrishnan Institute for Advanced Study in Philosophy & National Seminar on "The Concept and Role of Tolerance in Indian Culture" (1992). Tolerance in Indian Culture. Monograph Collection (Matt - Pseudo).
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  8. S. Banerjee (1985). Tolerance and a Secular State : The Indian Perspective. Indian Philosophical Quarterly 12 (2):177.
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  9. Giorgio Baruchello (2002). Worlds of Difference: European Discourses of Toleration, C. 1100-C. 1550. [REVIEW] Dialogue 41 (4):802-804.
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  10. Matt Beard, Risking Aggression.
    Generally speaking, just war theory holds that there are two just causes for war: self-defence and ‘other-defence’, the most common type of which is popularly known as ‘humanitarian intervention’. There is however some debate as to whether these serve equally as just causes for preventive war. Whilst this debate is ongoing, those theorists who claim to subscribe to JWT tend to be unified in treating preventive war with a healthy dose of suspicion. Those who oppose preventive war tend to do (...)
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  11. Mirko Blagojevic (2006). Current Religious Changes in Serbia and Integration in Europe. Filozofija I Društvo 29:95-111.
    In the last decade and a half the process of desecularization has been undoubtedly verified in Serbia. Not only that the changes have been verified in the religious complex in general, but in traditional religious groups in particular as well. The revival of religiousness and people’s attachment to religion and church have been clearly proved in all aspects of religious life: in the areas of religious identification, doctrinaire religious beliefs and ritual religious practices. It should also be noted that in (...)
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  12. John E. Boodin (1908). Philosophical Tolerance. A Winter Revery. The Monist 18 (2):298-306.
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  13. Miran Božovič (2011). Krepostni ateizem: Bayle in Diderot. Filozofski Vestnik 32 (1).
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  14. Wendy Brown & Rainer Forst (2014). The Power of Tolerance: A Debate. Columbia University Press.
    Does it transform conflicts into productive tensions, or does it perpetuate underlying power relations? To what extent does tolerance hide its involvement with power and act as a form of depoliticization?
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  15. Juliette Carnus (1941). The Cosmological System of Pierre Bayle. Philosophy of Science 8 (4):585-597.
  16. Stephen Chavura, The Separation of Religion and State : Context and Meaning.
    This paper seeks to show the analytical limitations of the most popular terms describing the relationship between religion and politics, the two most popular being "separation of church and state" and "separation of religion and politics". Although the latter term is preferred it is still quite vague in its meaning and, strictly speaking, impossible to put into practice. I try to clarify the meaning of "separation of religion and state" by discussing the early writings out of which the tradition arose, (...)
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  17. Ivan Cifrić (2008). Cultural Homogeneization and Diversity. Synthesis Philosophica 23 (1):25-52.
    There are diverse cultures in the world – cultural diversity, as well as the tendency of eradication of cultural diversity – cultural entropy. At the same time, the domination of modern culture – the culture of homogenization – is increasing. Cultural explosion was preceded by the Neolithic revolution, after which cultural implosion followed the industrial revolution. Two theses are questioned in this paper: that cultural diversity is a value to humanity, and that homogenization of culture is an inevitable tendency in (...)
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  18. Christopher Lambro Constas (1998). Democracy, Religion and the Public Sphere. Dissertation, Fordham University
    In liberal democracies such as America, the mixing of religion and politics is often thought to be prohibited by the demands of good citizenship. However, religion and politics should not be prevented from mixing. The formulation of the general interest requires the participation of citizens in political debate. Also, the exclusion of religion from the public sphere discriminates against religious individuals. Finally, it redounds to the detriment of the poor and powerless, for whom religious institutions, groups and individuals have historically (...)
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  19. Gertrude Conway (unknown). Strangers in Our Midst:: From Tolerance to Hospitality. Analytic Teaching and Philosophical Praxis 23 (1):51-57.
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  20. Sarah Curtis (2009). Sarah Palin’s JerUSAlem and Pentecostal Faith: A Hysteric Symptom of American Utopianism? Colloquy 17:70-82.
    The United States of America embodies the utopian claim that people from any religious persuasion can identify America as their homeland. This is traceable in the history of non-conforming Protestants fleeing persecution in Catholic Europe. Their establishment of utopian communities also involved the appropriation of land from the original owners and an imperative to will ignorance of this as a criminal act. The perpetuity of this legacy can be seen in the twenty-first century return to religion and the identification of (...)
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  21. Sheila Greeve Davaney (2009). The Religious-Secular Divide: The US Case. Social Research: An International Quarterly 76 (4):1327-1332.
    This essay summarizes the themes and issues of the conference and raises further questions concerning how religion and the secular might be theorized and related.
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  22. Benjamin David (2010). C. Jean Campbell, The Commonwealth of Nature: Art and Poetic Community in the Age of Dante. University Park, Pa.: Pennsylvania State University Press, 2008. Pp. Xviii, 167; Color Frontispiece and Many Black-and-White and Color Figures. $65. [REVIEW] Speculum 85 (4):946-947.
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  23. Marcelo de Araujo (2011). Hugo Grotius, Ceticismo Moral E o Uso de Argumentos in Utramque Partem. Veritas: Revista de Filosofia da PUCRS 56 (3):145-166.
    The use of equally compelling arguments both for andagainst the truth of a proposition were known in the Renaissance asarguments in utramque partem. Early modern sceptics used argumentsin utramque partem in order to show that one cannot ground moralityon safe grounds, for the arguments which are presented in favor of theidea of justice could be neutralized by equally compelling argumentsagainst the idea of justice. In this paper, I argue that Hugo Grotiustried to refute this kind of moral scepticism in his (...)
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  24. Theo W. A. de Wit (2002). The Ups and Downs of Tolerance. Bijdragen 63 (4):387-416.
    In the Netherlands, the traditional and famous ‘culture of tolerance’ in the past few years surprisingly became associated with the laxity, half-heartedness, even negligence and indifference with regard to serious problems in a multi-ethnic society. For the time being, a polemical use of the term dominates: tolerance as an aspect of our western ‘superiority’ against barbaric fundamentalism. To regain some grip on the – at least in the Netherlands – apparently ‘hollow’, even politically and morally dubious concept of tolerance, the (...)
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  25. S. I. M. Du Plessis (1975). Dialogue and Bigotry: Inaugural Lecture Delivered in the University of Natal, Pietermaritzburg, on 21 May 1975. University of Natal Press.
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  26. P. Edwards (2003). Pierre Bayle: 1647-1706. Free Inquiry 23.
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  27. Ira Eisenstein (1942). The Ethics of Tolerance: Applied to Religious Groups in America. Philosophical Review 51:236.
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  28. Panos Eliopoulos (2007). Pierre Bayle and His Ideas on Religious Toleration. Skepsis: A Journal for Philosophy and Interdisciplinary Research 18 (1-2).
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  29. Bart Engelen & Thomas Nys (2008). Tolerance: A Virtue?: Toward a Broad and Descriptive Definition of Tolerance. Philosophy in the Contemporary World 15 (1):44-54.
    This article focuses on the difficult issue of what exactly goes on when an individual tolerates something. It focuses on the problem of why an individual would ever choose to allow for some practice that he deerns unacceptable while having the power to do something about it. After distinguishing between different attitudes , this article argues that individuals can have various reasons for deciding to tolerate what they deern wrong. As such, we defend a broad conception of tolerance, which goes (...)
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  30. Thomas Faist (2010). Cultural Diversity and Social Inequalities. Social Research 77 (1):297-324.
    The article analyzes the concept of diversity, focusing on its use in the context of social and cultural changes. The relationship between assimilation, multiculturalism, and diversity is discussed, in terms of historical developments in European immigration patterns and government policies. The related topic of transnationalism is also addressed. Various uses of the term 'diversity' are critiqued, and the implications of diversity in terms of society, organizations, and individuals are discussed. Examples involving European labor markets are cited.
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  31. Marie T. Farrell (1995). Oodgeroo of Noonuccal: A Voice for the People: Some Notes and Reflections for the Year of Tolerance. The Australasian Catholic Record 72 (4):426.
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  32. Don Fawkes (unknown). Of Tolerance. Analytic Teaching and Philosophical Praxis 18 (2):58-60.
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  33. Matthew Feitenitein (2000). 4 Cultural Diversity and the Limits of Liberalism1. In Noël O'Sullivan (ed.), Political Theory in Transition. Routledge. 70.
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  34. John Ferejohn (2008). Commentary: Tolerant Institutions. In Russel Hardin, Ingrid Crepell & Stephen Macedo (eds.), Toleration on Trial. Lexington Books. 73.
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  35. Elizelma Ortêncio Ferreira & Cláudio Garcia Capitão (2010). Investigação do grau de tolerância à frustração em presidiários. Aletheia 31:97-110.
    Este trabalho objetivou avaliar o tipo de reação à frustração e os sentimentos agressivos em presidiários. Verificou-se, também, a relação de dependência entre o tipo de delito (furto, roubo, sequestro, homicídio, latrocínio e outros) e o construto agressividade, por meio do teste de Frustração de R..
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  36. Arthur Charles Fifield (1913). The Real Tolerance.
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  37. Abdou Filali-Ansary (2000). La Tolérance a-T-Elle Un Avenir? Philosophica 66.
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  38. Martin Hugh Fitzpatrick (1982). Rational Dissent in the Late Eighteenth Century with Particular Reference to the Growth of Toleration. Dissertation, The University of Wales (United Kingdom)
    Available from UMI in association with The British Library. ;This is a study of the attitudes of the Rational Dissenters toward toleration and of their practical involvement in the campaigns for wider toleration in the late eighteenth century. It begins by examining the attitudes towards toleration of the more liberal Dissenters in mid-eighteenth century. It finds their dissatisfaction with their position in the state to be minor in comparison with their enthusiasm for the British constitution. Britain was viewed as God's (...)
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  39. George P. Fletcher (1998). 10. The Instability of Tolerance. In David Heyd (ed.), Toleration: An Elusive Virtue. Princeton University Press. 158-172.
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  40. Anna Elisabetta Galeotti (2005). Toleration as Recognition. Philosophical Quarterly 55 (219):378-380.
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  41. Elisabetta Galeotti (2015). Toleration Out of Conflicts. Review Article of Reiner Forst’s ‘Toleration in Conflicts. European Journal of Political Theory 14 (2):246-255.
    Rainer Forst's Toleration in Conflict is a significant contribution to the important topic of toleration. Its critical survey of various arguments for and around toleration is thorough and rigorous. However, although Forst's argument for the respect concept of toleration is persuasive, the claim that this is a tolerant theory of toleration located at a higher level than other arguments is perhaps less so.
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  42. Stephen Gallagher (2009). Against Tolerance. Free Inquiry 29:43-45.
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  43. Lee W. Gibbs (2012). John Hales (1582-1656). A Tolerant Man Living in an Intolerant Age. Perichoresis 10 (2):195-205.
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  44. Sorin Gog (2010). The Construction of the Religious Space in Post-Socialist Romania. Journal for the Study of Religions and Ideologies 5 (15):37-53.
    Some of the post-socialist countries of Europe experienced after the fall of communism what some called a religious revival. Anthropologists and sociologists alike were sure that they discovered serious evidence against the case of secularization theory. What unfortunately most of them failed to observe was the particular shape and form of this religious growth and the structural changes of the religious mentalities occurred in the process of transition from a closed, ideologically monopolized society, to a pluralistic one. After more than (...)
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  45. Kenneth Lawrence Grasso (1989). The Emergence of the Liberal Doctrine of Toleration in the Thought of John Locke. Dissertation, Fordham University
    The existence of a commonly held civil theology or public orthodoxy is a precondition of a viable and well-functioning political order. In the English nation-state, prior to the seventeenth century, such an authoritative civil theology was supplied by an established church. The English wars of Religion, however, demonstrated that an increasingly fragmented Christianity was no longer capable of fulfilling this role. Faced with intractable religious divisions, toleration was adopted as a prudential device to secure peace. This expedient, however, left England (...)
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  46. Leslie Green (2008). Tolerance and Understanding. In Matthew Kramer, Claire Grant, Ben Colburn & Antony Hatzistavrou (eds.), The Legacy of H.L.A. Hart: Legal, Political and Moral Philosophy. Oup Oxford.
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  47. C. H. (1966). Essays on Pierre Bayle and Religious Controversy. [REVIEW] Review of Metaphysics 19 (3):598-598.
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  48. Yoav Hammer (1998). Three Essays on Toleration. Dissertation, The University of Chicago
    This dissertation looks at several arguments for toleration, which have been made by modern liberals. It examines the possibility of finding an argument for toleration, which will be universally applicable, i.e. will convince everyone. In the first essay the arguments of Thomas Nagel, John Rawls and J. S. Mill are discussed. I demonstrate how these arguments work only if a commitment to certain values, such as the importance of autonomous choice by individuals, is presupposed. ;In the second essay I relate (...)
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  49. G. Havers (2004). Religion and the Demise of Liberal Rationalism: The Foundational Crisis of the Separation of Church and State. By J. Judd Owen. [REVIEW] The European Legacy 9:396-396.
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  50. Thomas K. Hearn (1970). On Tolerance. Southern Journal of Philosophy 8 (2-3):223-231.
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