||There are four philosophical issues surrounding toleration: (1) What is it? (2) What does it require? (3) When is it required? and (4) Why is it of value? The first two are conceptual questions and often--perhaps entirely, in contemporary work--conflated. It is now assumed that whatever its complete definition, toleration requires non-interference. That was not always the case. The third question is of paramount importance in normative political work. Disagreements about how to answer this question divide liberals and other moral and political thinkers into different camps. The fourth question seems to many today to be unnecessary since everyone
proclaims to think toleration important. There are good arguments that
defenses of toleration are still needed; historically, of course, they
were extremely important.
||Historically, the most important figures discussing toleration are, arguably: Saint Augustine (Letters), Baruch Spinoza (Tractatus Theologico-Politicus), Pierre Bayle (A Philosophical Commentary), John Locke (Letters Concerning Toleration), and John Stuart Mill (On Liberty). For a recent conceptual analysis of toleration, see Cohen 2004. For a collection with a good indication of various recent debates, see Williams & Waldron 2008.
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The Concept of Toleration
- Joseph Agassi, Let a Thousand Flowers Bloom: Popper's Popular Critics.
- K. C. Anyanwu (1985). Cultural Philosophy as a Philosophy of Integration and Tolerance. International Philosophical Quarterly 25 (3):271-287.
- Bernard Bourgeois (2000). Philosophie Et Tolérance. Philosophica 65 (1):55-63.
- L. Bretherton (2004). Tolerance, Education and Hospitality: A Theological Proposal. Studies in Christian Ethics 17 (1):80-103.
- Ian Carter (2013). Are Toleration and Respect Compatible? Journal of Applied Philosophy 30 (3):195-208.
- Ian Carter & Maria Paola Ferretti (2013). Introduction. Journal of Applied Philosophy 30 (3):191-194.
- Dario Castiglione & Catriona McKinnon (2001). Introduction: Beyond Toleration? Res Publica 7 (3):223-230.
- Andrew Jason Cohen (2004). What Toleration Is. Ethics 115 (1):68-95.
- Herman de Dijn (1994). Tolerance, Loyalty to Values and Respect for the Law. Ethical Perspectives 1 (1):27-32.
- Richard Dees (2002). Review of Anna Elisabetta Galeotti, Toleration As Recognition. [REVIEW] Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews 2002 (11).
- Richard H. Dees (2004). Trust and Toleration. Routledge.
- James J. Delaney & Jeffrey Dueck (2003). A Rethinking of Contemporary Religious Tolerance. Proceedings of the American Catholic Philosophical Association 77:73-82.
- Oyuna Dorzhiguishaeva (2008). Tolerance as the Basic Category of Buddhist Ethics. Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 23:13-19.
- Enrique Dussel (2004). Deconstruction of the Concept of "Tolerance": From Intolerance to Solidarity. Constellations 11 (3):326-333.
- Derek Edyvane (2011). Tolerance and Pain. Critical Review of International Social and Political Philosophy 14 (3):405-419.
- Arnold Farr (2008). Diversity, Color-Blindness, and Other Hegemonic Discourses. Social Philosophy Today 24:91-105.
- Colin Farrelly, Neutrality, Toleration and Reasonable Agreement.
- Maria Paola Ferretti & Sune Lægaard (2013). A Multirelational Account of Toleration. Journal of Applied Philosophy 30 (3):224-238.
- Andrew Fiala (2005). Existentialism and Repressive Toleration. Studies in Practical Philosophy 5 (1):90-111.
- Andrew Fiala (2003). Stoic Tolerance. Res Publica 9 (2):149-168.
- George P. Fletcher (1993). The Commonality of Loyalty and Tolerance. Criminal Justice Ethics 12 (1):68-70.
- Rainer Forst, Toleration. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
- R. G. Frey (1977). TOLERATION by Preston King. Philosophical Books 18 (2):87-87.
- Marek Fritzhand (1979). What Is the Meaning of Tolerance at a Time of Cultural Diversity? Dialectics and Humanism 6 (4):11-14.
- Ernesto Garzon Valdes (1997). Some Remarks on the Concept of Toleration. Ratio Juris 10 (2):127-138.
- P. G. Gleis (1947). The Concept of Religious Tolerance in the Novels of Enrica Von Handel-Mazzetti. Thought 22 (3):530-532.
- Lourdes Gordillo (2008). The Principle of Toleration and Respect for Truth. Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 20:77-94.
- Jonathan Gorman (1995). For Tolerance. Philosophy Now 12:22-23.
- Leslie Green (2008). On Being Tolerated. In Matthew H. Kramer (ed.), The Legacy of H.L.A. Hart: Legal, Political, and Moral Philosophy. Oxford University Press.
- Anders Hansson (2007). The Concept of Tolerance. Theoria 73 (4):284-303.
- Eliana Herrera-Vega (2012). Explorations on the Notion of Legal Tolerance. World Futures 68 (4-5):280 - 295.
- John Horton (2011). Why the Traditional Conception of Toleration Still Matters. Critical Review of International Social and Political Philosophy 14 (3):289-305.
- John Horton & Susan Mendus (1985). Introduction. In John Horton & Susan Mendus (eds.), Aspects of Toleration: Philosophical Studies. Methuen.
- Hahn Hsu (2008). Toleration, Reason, and Virtue. Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 50:257-268.
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