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Summary The history of toleration is largely the history of liberalism.  It is not just liberalism in a narrow understanding, though, that is concerned with toleration.  Arguably all normative political theories are.  Indeed, many moral theories speak to toleration.  There are at least two sets of issues considered by the pieces in this category: how do moral theories ground a belief in the normative value of toleration and what do normative political theories require be tolerated.
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  1. Ely Aharonson (2008). Wendy Brown, Regulating Aversion: Tolerance in the Age of Identity and Empire. [REVIEW] Criminal Law and Philosophy 2 (2):201-206.
  2. Scott F. Aikin & Jason Aleksander (2013). Nicholas of Cusa's De Pace Fidei and the Meta-Exclusivism of Religious Pluralism. International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 74 (2):219-235.
    In response to the fall of Constantinople in 1453, Nicholas of Cusa wrote De pace fidei defending a commitment to religious tolerance on the basis of the notion that all diverse rites are but manifestations of one true religion. Drawing on a discussion of why Nicholas of Cusa is unable to square the two objectives of arguing for pluralistic tolerance and explaining the contents of the one true faith, we outline why theological pluralism is compromised by its own meta-exclusivism.
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  3. Sybol Cook Anderson (2009). Hegel's Theory of Recognition: From Oppression to Ethical Liberal Modernity. Continuum.
    Introduction: Redeeming recognition -- Oppression reconsidered -- Foundations of a liberal conception -- Toward a liberal conception of oppression -- Conclusion : A liberal conception of oppression -- Misrecognition as oppression -- Exploitation and disempowerment -- Cultural imperialism -- Marginalization -- Violence -- Conclusion: Misrecognition as oppression -- Overcoming oppression : the limits of toleration -- Contemporary differences : matters of toleration -- John Rawls : political liberalism -- Will Kymlicka : multicultural citizenship -- Conclusion: Accommodating differences : the limits (...)
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  4. José Román Flecha Andrés (2001). Confesión Públicade Dios Ante Los Nuevos Ídolos. Salmanticensis 48 (2):239-270.
    It is said that Europe finds itself today in a post-christian situa-tion. Further, there are many who advocate abandoning monotheism in order to get back to prechristian polytheism in the hope that the plurality of gods would favour a democratic tolerance in a pluralistic world. In this article the author firstly asks if European Christians have not gone back to adoring idols and to attempting to distinguish between them in the new forms of devotion to possessiveness, to power and to (...)
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  5. Maria Rosa Antognazza (2002). Leibniz and Religious Toleration. American Catholic Philosophical Quarterly 76 (4):601-622.
    As one might expect, throughout his life Leibniz assumed an attitude of religious toleration both ad intra (that is, toward Christians of other confessions) and ad extra (that is, toward non-Christians, notably Muslims). Focusing in particular on his epistolary exchange with the French Catholic convert Paul Pellisson-Fontanier, I argue that neither toleration ad intra nor toleration ad extra is grounded for Leibniz in indifference toward the content of revealed religion. On the contrary, Leibniz remained convinced of the objective truth of (...)
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  6. Karl-Otto Apel (1997). Plurality of the Good? The Problem of Affirmative Tolerance in a Multicultural Society From an Ethical Point of View. Ratio Juris 10 (2):199-212.
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  7. Ruben Apressyan (2012). The Principle of Toleration. Journal of Philosophical Research 37 (Supplement):223-227.
    As a moral principle toleration is universal, but only in the sense that potentially it is addressed to every rational and moral agent. The question is whether this principle is appropriate in all situations and what are those moral agents who recognize its practical actuality for them? Toleration is not an absolute ethical principle, but one among others in the context of a particular moral system. It should be given a proper place in the hierarchy of principles. Understanding toleration as (...)
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  8. D. Archard (forthcoming). Michael Walzer, On Toleration. Radical Philosophy.
  9. Richard Arneson, Liberal Neutrality on the Good: An Autopsy.
    Should government be neutral "on the question of the good life, or of what gives value to life"?1 Some political theorists propose that governmental neutrality is a core commitment of any liberalism worth the name and a requirement of justice. For them, neutrality is the appropriate generalization of the ideal of religious tolerance. The state should be neutral in matters of religion, and neutral also in all controversies concerning the nature of the good or the ways in which it is (...)
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  10. Richard J. Arneson, Value Pluralism Does Not Support Liberalism.
    Following hints in the writings of Isaiah Berlin, some political theorists hold that the thesis of value pluralism is true and that this truth provides support for political liberalism of a sort that prescribes wide guarantees of individual liberty.1 There are many different goods, and they are incommensurable. Hence, people should be left free to live their own lives as they choose so long as they don’t harm others in certain ways. In a free society there is a strong presumption (...)
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  11. Christian Arnsperger (forthcoming). John Rawls et l'engagement moral. Revue de Métaphysique et de Morale.
    Cet article analyse la manière dont l'engagement moral individuel est traité dans la théorie de la justice de John Rawls. En partant de la distinctionclé entre rationnel et raisonnable, la notion de « conformité » est décomposée en plusieurs strates. A une forme minimale de la conformité s'ajoutent des notions d'adhésion faible et d'adhésion forte. Diverses maximes de comportement individuel sont discutées, qui correspondent à différents degrés d'exigence morale. L'article s'achève sur une réflexion plus large sur le lien entre engagement (...)
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  12. Richard Ashcraft (ed.) (1991). John Locke: Critical Assessments. Routledge.
    This work is the second in the Routledge Series of Critical Assessments of Leading Political Philosophers . Each volume of the series presents a comprehensive selection of the critical literature commenting on the life and works of a major political philosopher. John Locke (1632-1704) is a key figure because his political philosophy was one of the foundations for both the American Constitution and the French Revolution. He defined government as based on a free contract between people which can be subsequently (...)
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  13. Robert Audi (forthcoming). Democracy, Secularity, and Toleration. Philosophy and Public Issues - Filosofia E Questioni Pubbliche.
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  14. Robert Audi (2011). Democratic Authority and the Separation of Church and State. OUP USA.
    Democratic states must protect the liberty of citizens and must accommodate both religious liberty and cultural diversity. This democratic imperative is one reason for the increasing secularity of most modern democracies. Religious citizens, however, commonly see a secular state as unfriendly toward religion. This book articulates principles that enable secular governments to protect liberty in a way that judiciously separates church and state and fully respects religious citizens. -/- After presenting a brief account of the relation between religion and ethics, (...)
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  15. Robert Audi (2009). Science Education, Religious Toleration, and Liberal Neutrality Toward the Good. In Harvey Siegel (ed.), The Oxford Handbook of Philosophy of Education. Oxford University Press.
  16. Daniel Augenstein (2010). Tolerance and Liberal Justice. Ratio Juris 23 (4):437-459.
    Tolerance, the mere “putting up” with disapproved behaviour and practices, is often considered a too negative and passive engagement with difference in the liberal constitutional state. In response, liberal thinkers have either discarded tolerance, or assimilated it to the moral and legal precepts of liberal justice. In contradistinction to these approaches I argue that there is something distinctive and valuable about tolerance that should not be undermined by more ambitious, rights-based models of social cooperation. I develop a conception of tolerance (...)
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  17. Mitch Avila (2011). Human Rights and Toleration in Rawls. Human Rights Review 12 (1):1-14.
    In a Society of Peoples as Rawls conceives it, human rights function as “criteria for toleration.” This paper defends the conception of human rights that appears in Rawls’ The Law of Peoples as normatively and theoretically adequate. I claim that human rights function as criteria for determining whether or not a given society or legal system can be tolerated. As such, “human rights” are not themselves basic facts or judgments or ascriptions, but rather the means by which we collectively attempt (...)
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  18. Annette Baier (2010). Reflections On How We Live. OUP Oxford.
    The pioneering moral philosopher Annette Baier presents a series of new and recent essays in ethics, broadly conceived to include both engagements with other philosophers and personal meditations on life. Baier's unique voice and insight illuminate a wide range of topics. In the public sphere, she enquires into patriotism, what we owe future people, and what toleration we should have for killing. In the private sphere, she discusses honesty, self-knowledge, hope, sympathy, and self-trust, and offers personal reflections on faces, friendship, (...)
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  19. Tom Bailey & Valentina Gentile (2012). Religion and the Limits of Liberalism. Philosophia 40 (2):175-178.
    This is the editors' preface to a special issue of Philosophia on 'Religion and Limits of Liberalism'. It begins by noting the challenges which the 'return' of religions to liberal democracies poses to the liberal commitment to respect citizens’ freedom and equality. Then, with particular reference to Rawls' theory of liberal politics, it situates the papers in relation to three different senses of liberal ‘respect’ that are challenged by contemporary religions – one understood in terms of the justification of political (...)
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  20. C. Edwin Baker (2008). Rawls, Equality, and Democracy. Philosophy and Social Criticism 34 (3):203-246.
    Part I distinguishes epistemic and choice democracy, attributing the first to the Rawls of A Theory of Justice but arguing that the second is more justifiable. Part II argues that in comparison with the difference principle, three principles — equal participation in choice democracy, no subordinating purpose, and a just wants guarantee — constitute a more rational choice in the original position; and that they better provide all the benefits claimed for the difference principle in its comparison with either average (...)
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  21. Thomas Baldwin (1985). Toleration and the Right to Freedon. In John Horton & Susan Mendus (eds.), Aspects of Toleration: Philosophical Studies. Methuen.
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  22. Peter Balint (2014). Toleration, by Andrew Jason Cohen. Australasian Journal of Philosophy 92 (4):816-817.
  23. Peter Balint (2012). Not yet Making Sense of Political Toleration. Res Publica 18 (3):259-264.
    Abstract A growing number of theorists have argued that toleration, at least in its traditional sense, is no longer applicable to liberal democratic political arrangements—especially if these political arrangements are conceived of as neutral. Peter Jones has tried make sense of political toleration while staying true to its more traditional (disapproval yet non-prevention) meaning. In this article, while I am sympathetic to his motivation, I argue that Jones’ attempt to make sense of political toleration is not successful. Content Type Journal (...)
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  24. Peter A. Balint (2010). Avoiding an Intolerant Society: Why Respect of Difference May Not Be the Best Approach. Educational Philosophy and Theory 42 (1):129-141.
    The building and maintaining of a tolerant society requires both a general policy of toleration on the behalf of the state, as well as a minimal number of acts of intolerance by individual citizens towards their fellow citizens. It is this second area of citizen-citizen relations that is of most interest for education policy. There are those who argue that the best way to achieve a tolerant society is by encouraging, or even requiring, the respect and appreciation of difference amongst (...)
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  25. Giuseppe Ballacci (2004). Cary J. Nederman: Worlds of Difference: European Discourses of Toleration, C. 1100-C. 1550. The Pennsylvania State University Press, University Park, Pennsylvania. [REVIEW] Foro Interno. Anuario de Teoría Política 4:192-194.
  26. Barry Barnes (2001). Tolerance as a Primary Virtue. Res Publica 7 (3):231-245.
    The commonly perceived tension between authentic moral and ethical action and action involving tolerance is held to be the illusory product of an unduly individualistic frame of thought. Moral and ethical actions are produced not by independent individuals but by participants in cultural traditions. And even the wholly routine continuation of a single homogeneous tradition must always and invariably involve mutual tolerance: participants must interact not as independent individuals but as tolerant members. Tolerance deserves recognition, accordingly, as a primary virtue, (...)
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  27. Philip Barnes (2006). The Misrepresentation of Religion in Modern British (Religious) Education. British Journal of Educational Studies 54 (4):395 - 411.
    The purpose of this paper is to articulate a new perspective on British multi-faith religious education that both complements and, in part, subsumes existing critiques. My argument, while controversial, is straightforward: it is that British religious education has misrepresented the nature of religion in efforts to commend itself as contributing to the social aims of education, as these are typically framed in liberal democratic societies. Contemporary multi-faith religious education is placed in context and its underlying theological and philosophical commitments identified (...)
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  28. Barnes Barry (2001). Tolerance as a Primary Virtue. Res Publica 7 (3).
  29. Waldo Beach (1947). The Basis of Tolerance in a Democratic Society. Ethics 57 (3):157-169.
  30. Richard Bellamy (1997). Toleration, Liberalism and Democracy: A Comment on Leader and Garzon Valdes. Ratio Juris 10 (2):177-186.
  31. Elena Beltrán (2012). Ciudadanía reticente y el significado de respeto. Dilemata 10:173-192.
    All of a sudden, religious awareness has started to regain a relevance it had lost among Europeans. It is not that it had disappeared from European societies, but rather that it existed at a discreet secondary level. However, Europe is less secular and more post-secular than many would like to admit. The liberal model of freedom of conscience, it is, the separation between justice, the norms of political and institutional coexistence, and the whole model of toleration is being questioned from (...)
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  32. Hagit Benbaji & David Heyd (2001). The Charitable Perspective: Forgiveness and Toleration as Supererogatory. Canadian Journal of Philosophy 31 (4):567-586.
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  33. Thomas M. Besch (2010). Diversity and the Limits of Liberal Toleration. In Duncan Ivison (ed.), The Ashgate Research Companion to Multiculturalism. Ashgate.
    To fully respond to the demands of multiculturalism, a view of toleration would need to duly respect diversity both at the level of the application of principles of toleration and at the level of the justificatory foundations that a view of toleration may appeal to. The paper examines Rainer Forst’s post-Rawlsian, ‘reason-based’ attempt to provide a view of toleration that succeeds at these two levels and so allows us to tolerate tolerantly. His account turns on the view that a constructivist (...)
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  34. M. Bessone (2013). Beyond Liberal Multicultural Toleration: A Critical Approach to Groups' Essentialism. European Journal of Political Theory 12 (3):271-287.
    The article will argue that, despite Will Kymlicka’s claims to the contrary, the concept of ‘multicultural toleration’ implicitly entails an essentialist concept of groups, which amounts to holding a negative ‘permission’, power-loaded conception of toleration and not a positive liberal ‘respect’ conception. This seems contradictory to the general goal of Kymlicka’s multiculturalism. This article will then argue that multicultural toleration is not a satisfactory concept, neither from a conceptual point of view (it is incoherent) nor from a practical point of (...)
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  35. Magali Bessone (2013). Will the Real Tolerant Racist Please Stand Up? Journal of Applied Philosophy 30 (3):209-223.
    One of the most perplexing paradoxes of toleration concerns the ‘tolerant racist’. According to most current definitions of toleration, a person is considered tolerant if, and only if, 1) he refrains from interfering with something 2) he deeply disapproves of, 3) in spite of having the power to interfere. Hence, a racist who refrains from discriminating against members of races he considers inferior despite having the power to do so, should be considered a tolerant person. Moreover, a person can apparently (...)
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  36. Magali Bessone, Gideon Calder & Federico Zuolo (forthcoming). How Groups Matter: Challenges of Toleration in Pluralistic Societies. Routledge.
    When groups feature in political philosophy, it is usually in one of three contexts: the redressing of past or current injustices suffered by ethnic or cultural minorities; the nature and scope of group rights; and questions around how institutions are supposed to treat a certain specific identity/cultural/ethnic group. What is missing from these debates is a comprehensive analysis of groups as both agents and objects of social policies. While this has been subject to much scrutiny by sociologists and social psychologists, (...)
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  37. Joseph Bien (1985). Hollinger on the Limits of Tolerance. Southwest Philosophy Review 2:158-161.
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  38. Natalie Billick (forthcoming). Repressive Tolerance: The Tyranny of the Majority. Political Theory.
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  39. Colin Bird (2013). Does Religion Deserve Our Respect? Journal of Applied Philosophy 30 (3):268-282.
    This article enumerates several different possible construals of the idea that religion is owed respect. It asks: 1. how religion might be an object of respect; 2. what sorts of respect religion might command; and 3. whose respect might be at stake in complaints about and demands for religious recognition. By distinguishing various ways in which these questions can be interpreted, the discussion aims to introduce some clarity to a notoriously controversial and knotty area of public discussion. Although the article (...)
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  40. Colin Bird (2006). An Introduction to Political Philosophy. Cambridge University Press.
    Providing a comprehensive introduction to political philosophy, this book combines discussion of historical and contemporary figures, together with numerous real-life examples. It ranges over an unusually broad range of topics in the field, including the just distribution of wealth, both within countries and globally; the nature and justification of political authority; the meaning and significance of freedom; arguments for and against democratic rule; the problem of war; and the grounds for toleration in public life. It also offers an accessible, non-technical (...)
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  41. Jeffrey P. Bishop (2004). Modern Liberalism, Female Circumcision, and the Rationality of Traditions. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 29 (4):473 – 497.
    Tolerance is at the heart of Western liberalism, permitting mutually exclusive ideas and practices to coexist peacefully with one another, without the proponents of the differing ideas and practices killing one another. Yet, nothing challenges tolerance like the practice of sunna, female circumcision, clitorectomy, or genital mutilation. In this essay, I critique the Western critics of the practices, not in order to defend these practices, but rather to show that Western liberalism itself does not offer transcultural and transtemporal principles, for (...)
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  42. Russell Blackford (2012). Excessive Tolerance? The Philosophers' Magazine 59 (59):121-122.
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  43. Michael Blake (2002). Toleration and Reciprocity: Commentary on Martha Nussbaum and Henry Shue. Politics, Philosophy and Economics 1 (3):325-335.
    Rawls's Law of Peoples has not gathered a great deal of public support. The reason for this, I suggest, is that it ignores the differences between the international and domestic realms as regards the methodology of reciprocal agreement. In the domestic realm, reciprocity produces both stability and respect for individual moral agency. In the international realm, we must choose between these two values — seeking stable relations between states, or respect for individual moral agency. Rawls's Law of Peoples ignores the (...)
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  44. James Bohman (2003). Deliberative Toleration. Political Theory 31 (6):757-779.
    Political liberals now defend what Rawls calls the "inclusive view" of public reason with the appropriate ideal of reasonable pluralism. Against the application of such a liberal conception of toleration to deliberative democracy "the open view of toleration is with no constraints" is the only regime of toleration that can be democratically justified. Recent debates about the public or nonpublic character of religious reasons provide a good test case and show why liberal deliberative theories are intolerant and fail to live (...)
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  45. James Bohman (2003). Reflexive Public Deliberation: Democracy and the Limits of Pluralism. Philosophy and Social Criticism 29 (1):85-105.
  46. J. Boler (1968). A Critique of Pure Tolerance. By R. P. Wolff, B. Moore, Jr., and H. Marcuse. Boston: Beacon Press, 1965. Pp. 117. $2.45. [REVIEW] American Journal of Jurisprudence 13 (1):163-170.
  47. Daniel J. Boorstin (1981). The Lost World of Thomas Jefferson: With a New Preface. University of Chicago Press.
    In this classic work by one of America's most distinguished historians, Daniel Boorstin enters into Thomas Jefferson's world of ideas. By analysing writings of 'the Jeffersonian Circle,' Boorstin explores concepts of God, nature, equality, toleration, education and government in order to illuminate their underlying world view. The Lost World of Thomas Jefferson demonstrates why on the 250th anniversary of his birth, this American leader's message has remained relevant to our national crises and grand concerns. "The volume is too subtle, too (...)
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  48. Bernard Botiveau (1997). Tolerance and Law: From Islamic Culture to Islamist Ideology. Ratio Juris 10 (1):61-74.
  49. François Boucher & Cécile Laborde (forthcoming). Why Tolerate Conscience? Criminal Law and Philosophy:1-21.
    In Why Tolerate Religion?, Brian Leiter argues against the special legal status of religion, claiming that religion should not be the only ground for exemptions to the law and that this form of protection should be, in principle, available for the claims of secular conscience as well. However, in the last chapter of his book, he objects to a universal regime of exemptions for both religious and secular claims of conscience, highlighting the practical and moral flaws associated with it. We (...)
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  50. Bernard Bourgeois (2000). Philosophie Et Tolérance. Philosophica 65 (1):55-63.
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