About this topic
Summary There are four philosophical issues surrounding toleration: (1) What is it? (2) What does it require? (3) When is it required? and (4) Why is it of value?  The first two are conceptual questions and often--perhaps entirely, in contemporary work--conflated.  It is now assumed that whatever its complete definition, toleration requires non-interference.  That was not always the case.  The third question is of paramount importance in normative political work.  Disagreements about how to answer this question divide liberals and other moral and political thinkers into different camps.  The fourth question seems to many today to be unnecessary since everyone proclaims to think toleration important.  There are good arguments that defenses of toleration are still needed; historically, of course, they were extremely important. 
Key works Historically, the most important figures discussing toleration are, arguably: Saint Augustine (Letters), Baruch Spinoza (Tractatus Theologico-Politicus), Pierre Bayle (A Philosophical Commentary), John Locke (Letters Concerning Toleration), and John Stuart Mill (On Liberty).  For a recent conceptual analysis of toleration, see Cohen 2004. For a collection with a good indication of various recent debates, see Williams & Waldron 2008.
Introductions Rainer Forst, Toleration
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  1. José Manuel Bermudo Avila (1999). La tolerancia (del liberalismo al pluralismo). Anales de la Cátedra Francisco Suárez 33:243-260.
    En el artículo se contraponen, argumentan y valoran dos conceptos de la tolerancia. Uno, de raíz ilustrada, compatible con la posibilidad de establecer preferencias racionales entre los modelos de comunidad política, criterios de justicia o formas de vida; se trata de una tolerancia respecto a las personas (y sus derechos a expresarse y a elegir su plan de vida) compatible con la crítica radical a sus ideas y representaciones. El otro concepto, coherente con la actual ideología del pluralismo, que afirma (...)
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  2. Alfred J. Ayer (1987). Sources of Intolerance. In Susan Mendus & David Edwards (eds.), On Toleration. Oxford University Press. 83--100.
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  3. R. Balasubramanian, Indian Council of Philosophical Research, Dr S. Radhakrishnan Institute for Advanced Study in Philosophy & National Seminar on "The Concept and Role of Tolerance in Indian Culture" (1992). Tolerance in Indian Culture. Monograph Collection (Matt - Pseudo).
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  4. Mirko Blagojevic (2006). Current Religious Changes in Serbia and Integration in Europe. Filozofija I Društvo 29:95-111.
    In the last decade and a half the process of desecularization has been undoubtedly verified in Serbia. Not only that the changes have been verified in the religious complex in general, but in traditional religious groups in particular as well. The revival of religiousness and people’s attachment to religion and church have been clearly proved in all aspects of religious life: in the areas of religious identification, doctrinaire religious beliefs and ritual religious practices. It should also be noted that in (...)
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  5. John E. Boodin (1908). Philosophical Tolerance. A Winter Revery. The Monist 18 (2):298-306.
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  6. Miran Božovič (2011). Krepostni ateizem: Bayle in Diderot. Filozofski Vestnik 32 (1).
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  7. Wendy Brown & Rainer Forst (2014). The Power of Tolerance: A Debate. Columbia University Press.
    Does it transform conflicts into productive tensions, or does it perpetuate underlying power relations? To what extent does tolerance hide its involvement with power and act as a form of depoliticization?
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  8. Juliette Carnus (1941). The Cosmological System of Pierre Bayle. Philosophy of Science 8 (4):585-597.
  9. Ivan Cifrić (2008). Cultural Homogeneization and Diversity. Synthesis Philosophica 23 (1):25-52.
    There are diverse cultures in the world – cultural diversity, as well as the tendency of eradication of cultural diversity – cultural entropy. At the same time, the domination of modern culture – the culture of homogenization – is increasing. Cultural explosion was preceded by the Neolithic revolution, after which cultural implosion followed the industrial revolution. Two theses are questioned in this paper: that cultural diversity is a value to humanity, and that homogenization of culture is an inevitable tendency in (...)
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  10. Sheila Greeve Davaney (2009). The Religious-Secular Divide: The US Case. Social Research: An International Quarterly 76 (4):1327-1332.
    This essay summarizes the themes and issues of the conference and raises further questions concerning how religion and the secular might be theorized and related.
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  11. Benjamin David (2010). C. Jean Campbell, The Commonwealth of Nature: Art and Poetic Community in the Age of Dante. University Park, Pa.: Pennsylvania State University Press, 2008. Pp. Xviii, 167; Color Frontispiece and Many Black-and-White and Color Figures. $65. [REVIEW] Speculum 85 (4):946-947.
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  12. Theo W. A. de Wit (2002). The Ups and Downs of Tolerance. Bijdragen 63 (4):387-416.
    In the Netherlands, the traditional and famous ‘culture of tolerance’ in the past few years surprisingly became associated with the laxity, half-heartedness, even negligence and indifference with regard to serious problems in a multi-ethnic society. For the time being, a polemical use of the term dominates: tolerance as an aspect of our western ‘superiority’ against barbaric fundamentalism. To regain some grip on the – at least in the Netherlands – apparently ‘hollow’, even politically and morally dubious concept of tolerance, the (...)
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  13. S. I. M. Du Plessis (1975). Dialogue and Bigotry: Inaugural Lecture Delivered in the University of Natal, Pietermaritzburg, on 21 May 1975. University of Natal Press.
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  14. P. Edwards (2003). Pierre Bayle: 1647-1706. Free Inquiry 23.
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  15. Ira Eisenstein (1942). The Ethics of Tolerance: Applied to Religious Groups in America. Philosophical Review 51:236.
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  16. Bart Engelen & Thomas Nys (2008). Tolerance: A Virtue?: Toward a Broad and Descriptive Definition of Tolerance. Philosophy in the Contemporary World 15 (1):44-54.
    This article focuses on the difficult issue of what exactly goes on when an individual tolerates something. It focuses on the problem of why an individual would ever choose to allow for some practice that he deerns unacceptable while having the power to do something about it. After distinguishing between different attitudes , this article argues that individuals can have various reasons for deciding to tolerate what they deern wrong. As such, we defend a broad conception of tolerance, which goes (...)
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  17. Thomas Faist (2010). Cultural Diversity and Social Inequalities. Social Research 77 (1):297-324.
    The article analyzes the concept of diversity, focusing on its use in the context of social and cultural changes. The relationship between assimilation, multiculturalism, and diversity is discussed, in terms of historical developments in European immigration patterns and government policies. The related topic of transnationalism is also addressed. Various uses of the term 'diversity' are critiqued, and the implications of diversity in terms of society, organizations, and individuals are discussed. Examples involving European labor markets are cited.
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  18. Marie T. Farrell (1995). Oodgeroo of Noonuccal: A Voice for the People: Some Notes and Reflections for the Year of Tolerance. Australasian Catholic Record 72 (4):426.
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  19. Don Fawkes (unknown). Of Tolerance. Analytic Teaching and Philosophical Praxis 18 (2):58-60.
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  20. Matthew Feitenitein (2000). 4 Cultural Diversity and the Limits of Liberalism1. In Noël O'Sullivan (ed.), Political Theory in Transition. Routledge. 70.
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  21. John Ferejohn (2008). Commentary: Tolerant Institutions. In Russel Hardin, Ingrid Crepell & Stephen Macedo (eds.), Toleration on Trial. Lexington Books. 73.
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  22. Elizelma Ortêncio Ferreira & Cláudio Garcia Capitão (2010). Investigação do grau de tolerância à frustração em presidiários. Aletheia 31:97-110.
    Este trabalho objetivou avaliar o tipo de reação à frustração e os sentimentos agressivos em presidiários. Verificou-se, também, a relação de dependência entre o tipo de delito (furto, roubo, sequestro, homicídio, latrocínio e outros) e o construto agressividade, por meio do teste de Frustração de R..
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  23. Abdou Filali-Ansary (2000). La Tolérance a-T-Elle Un Avenir? Philosophica 66.
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  24. George P. Fletcher (1998). 10. The Instability of Tolerance. In David Heyd (ed.), Toleration: An Elusive Virtue. Princeton University Press. 158-172.
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  25. Anna Elisabetta Galeotti (2005). Toleration as Recognition. Philosophical Quarterly 55 (219):378-380.
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  26. Elisabetta Galeotti (2015). Toleration Out of Conflicts. Review Article of Reiner Forst’s ‘Toleration in Conflicts. European Journal of Political Theory 14 (2):246-255.
    Rainer Forst's Toleration in Conflict is a significant contribution to the important topic of toleration. Its critical survey of various arguments for and around toleration is thorough and rigorous. However, although Forst's argument for the respect concept of toleration is persuasive, the claim that this is a tolerant theory of toleration located at a higher level than other arguments is perhaps less so.
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  27. Stephen Gallagher (2009). Against Tolerance. Free Inquiry 29:43-45.
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  28. Lee W. Gibbs (2012). John Hales (1582-1656). A Tolerant Man Living in an Intolerant Age. Perichoresis 10 (2):195-205.
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  29. Sorin Gog (2010). The Construction of the Religious Space in Post-Socialist Romania. Journal for the Study of Religions and Ideologies 5 (15):37-53.
    Some of the post-socialist countries of Europe experienced after the fall of communism what some called a religious revival. Anthropologists and sociologists alike were sure that they discovered serious evidence against the case of secularization theory. What unfortunately most of them failed to observe was the particular shape and form of this religious growth and the structural changes of the religious mentalities occurred in the process of transition from a closed, ideologically monopolized society, to a pluralistic one. After more than (...)
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  30. Leslie Green (2008). Tolerance and Understanding. In Matthew Kramer, Claire Grant, Ben Colburn & Antony Hatzistavrou (eds.), The Legacy of H.L.A. Hart: Legal, Political and Moral Philosophy. Oup Oxford.
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  31. G. Havers (2004). Religion and the Demise of Liberal Rationalism: The Foundational Crisis of the Separation of Church and State. By J. Judd Owen. [REVIEW] The European Legacy 9:396-396.
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  32. Thomas K. Hearn (1970). On Tolerance. Southern Journal of Philosophy 8 (2-3):223-231.
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  33. Tim Heysse & Barbara Segaert (2010). Perplexities of Tolerance: Introduction. Bijdragen 71 (4):351-357.
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  34. Catherine A. Holland (2008). Aggressive Tolerance. Theory and Event 11 (1).
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  35. John Horton (1998). 2. Toleration as a Virtue. In David Heyd (ed.), Toleration: An Elusive Virtue. Princeton University Press. 28-43.
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  36. Mark Hunyadi (2008). À l'aube du monde commun : la tolérance, mise en latence de conflits continués. Revue de Métaphysique et de Morale 2 (2):191-205.
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  37. Kristen A. Irwin (2010). The Core Mysteries: Pierre Bayle's Philosophical Fideism. Dissertation, Proquest
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  38. James M. Jacobs (2014). The Practice of Religion in Post-Secular Society. International Philosophical Quarterly 54 (1):5-23.
    This paper considers recent arguments from Jürgen Habermas and Charles Taylor that argue that even secular societies ought to tolerate religion for its practical benefits. Then, taking inspiration from Thomas Aquinas, I critique their positions as misconstruing the nature of religion in two fundamental ways. First, we must distinguish generic religion as a natural virtue from diverse species of faith that go beyond the duty to render homage to the First Cause. It will be seen that, generically, religion is integral (...)
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  39. Ramin Jahanbegloo (2007). The Clash of Intolerances. Har-Anand Publications.
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  40. Peter Jones (forthcoming). Accommodating Religion and Shifting Burdens. Criminal Law and Philosophy:1-22.
    With some qualifications, this article endorses Brian Leiter’s argument that religious accommodation should not shift burdens from believers to non-believers. It argues that religious believers should take responsibility for their beliefs and for meeting the demands of their beliefs. It then examines the implications of that argument for British law on indirect discrimination (disparate impact) as it relates to religion or belief: burden-shifting from believers to employers and providers of goods and services should be deemed acceptable only insofar as the (...)
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  41. John Kekes (2004). Reply to Horton. Philosophy 79 (2):328-330.
    ‘Reply to Horton’ gives four reasons why Horton's attack on Kekes' earlier article fails. In particular Horton fails to make the case that we have a moral obligation to do more than we already do towards relieving poverty through the taxes we already pay.
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  42. George Klosko (2008). A Response to Richard H. Dees and Anna Elisabetta Galeotti. In Russel Hardin, Ingrid Crepell & Stephen Macedo (eds.), Toleration on Trial. Lexington Books. 135.
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  43. John F. X. Knasas (2011). Thomism and Tolerance. University of Scranton Press.
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  44. Peter Koreny (2011). On Tolerance and Intolerance. Filozofia 66 (4):301-314.
    The paper deals with tolerance and intolerance on the background of the tensions existing between the moral “No” and “Yes”, between the initial rejection of the values, beliefs of the others and respecting them. An indifferent tolerance of the people incapable of saying moral “Yes” or “No” is unveiled as an attitude emptied of spiritual and moral contents. It also shows the dilemmas of morally convinced people when facing the normative request to tolerate the values and beliefs of the others. (...)
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  45. Jaakko Kuosmanen (2014). What's So Special About Persecution? Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 17 (1):129-140.
    The article focuses on examining the distinct nature of persecution. In the article I argue that on the grounds of common historical cases of persecution an account of the core components of the concept may be established. The core comprises three central elements: asymmetrical and systemic threat, severe and sustained harm, and unjust discriminatory targeting. I will conclude the paper by suggesting that none of the components alone make persecution anything distinct. However, the simultaneous occurrence of the components may be (...)
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  46. Elisabeth Labrousse (1966). Essays on Pierre Bayle and Religious Controversy. Journal of the History of Philosophy 4 (3):271-274.
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  47. Caroline Guibet Lafaye & Javier Romañach Cabrero (2010). Diversity Ethics. An Alternative to Peter Singer's Ethics. Dilemata 3.
    Contemporary moral philosophy has different approaches to provide justice and equality to groups that are traditionally discriminated on the grounds of gender, religion, age, sexual orientation, etc. On the other hand, functionally diverse (disabled) people have had a parallel approach to their discrimination, excluded from mainstream diversities. Including functional diversity and the diversity model in modern recognition and redistribution theories, as another human diversity, provides an extended ethical approach: diversity ethics. This general framework also includes other fundamental ideas for equality (...)
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  48. John Christian Laursen (2010). Pierre Bayle, el pirronismo contra la razón en el "Commentaire philosophique". Revista Latinoamericana de Filosofia 36 (1):35-58.
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  49. Hans Lenk (2000). Some Remarks Concerning Practical Humanity and the Concepts of Tolerance. Philosophica 65.
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  50. Thomas M. Lennon, Pierre Bayle. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
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1 — 50 / 1990