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  1. Matthew D. Adler, Happiness Surveys and Public Policy: What's the Use?
    This Article provides a comprehensive, critical overview of proposals to use happiness surveys for steering public policy. Happiness or “subjective well-being” surveys ask individuals to rate their present happiness, life-satisfaction, affective state, etc. A massive literature now engages in such surveys or correlates survey responses with individual attributes. And, increasingly, scholars argue for the policy relevance of happiness data: in particular, as a basis for calculating aggregates such as “gross national happiness,” or for calculating monetary equivalents for non-market goods based (...)
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  2. David Alm (2008). Consequentialism and the Autonomy of the Deontic. Utilitas 20 (2):199-216.
    I distinguish between two forms of consequentialism: reductionist and anti-reductionist. Reductionist consequentialism holds that the deontic properties of rightness and wrongness are identical with the axiological properties of optimality and suboptimality, respectively. Anti-reductionist consequentialism denies this identification, hence accepting what I call the autonomy of the deontic. In this article I ignore reductionist consequentialism. Instead I argue that anti-reductionist consequentialism is deeply problematic or even incoherent. Simply put, the main point is that the criterion of rightness of any ethical theory (...)
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  3. John Anderson (1945). Ii. The One Good. Australasian Journal of Philosophy 23 (1-3):85 – 89.
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  4. Linda F. Annis (1986). Merit Pay, Utilitarianism, and Desert. International Journal of Applied Philosophy 3 (1):33-41.
  5. David Archard (1994). For Our Own Good. Australasian Journal of Philosophy 72 (3):283 – 293.
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  6. Gustaf Arrhenius (2003). Feldman's Desert-Adjusted Utilitarianism and Population Ethics. Utilitas 15 (02):225-.
    Fred Feldman has proposed a desert-adjusted version of utilitarianism, , as a plausible population axiology. Among other things, he claims that justicism avoids Derek Parfit's . This paper explains the theory and tries to straighten out some of its ambiguities. Moreover, it is shown that it is not clear whether justicism avoids the repugnant conclusion and that it is has other counter-intuitive implications. It is concluded that justicism is not convincing as a population axiology.
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  7. Robert Audi (2009). Toward the Good. In Harvey Siegel (ed.), The Oxford Handbook of Philosophy of Education. Oxford University Press. 333.
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  8. Jovan Babić (2007). The Good Will. Theoria 50 (4):7-20.
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  9. Claudia Baracchi (2004). One Good. Graduate Faculty Philosophy Journal 25 (2):19-49.
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  10. Michael Beaty (1989). On God, the Good, and the Right. Southwest Philosophy Review 5 (2):25-35.
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  11. George Beiswanger (1950). Right Against Good. Ethics 60 (2):112-119.
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  12. Yitzhak Benbaji (2005). The Doctrine of Sufficiency: A Defence. Utilitas 17 (3):310-332.
    This article proposes an analysis of the doctrine of sufficiency. According to my reading, the doctrine's basic positive claim is ‘prioritarian’: benefiting x is of special moral importance where (and only where) x is badly off. Its negative claim is anti-egalitarian: most comparative facts expressed by statements of the type ‘x is worse off than y’ have no moral significance at all. This contradicts the ‘classical’ priority view according to which, although equality per se does not matter, whenever x is (...)
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  13. Selim Berker (2013). The Rejection of Epistemic Consequentialism. Philosophical Issues 23 (1):363-387.
    A quasi-sequel to "Epistemic Teleology and the Separateness of Propositions." Covers some of the same ground, but also extends the basic argument in an important way.
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  14. Brian Berkey (2012). Review of Gary E. Varner, Personhood, Ethics, and Animal Cognition: Situating Animals in Hare's Two-Level Utilitarianism. [REVIEW] Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews.
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  15. Greg Bognar (2012). Empirical and Armchair Ethics. Utilitas 24 (04):467-482.
    In a recent paper, Michael Otsuka and Alex Voorhoeve present a novel argument against prioritarianism. The argument takes its starting point from empirical surveys on people's preferences in health care resource allocation problems. In this article, I first question whether the empirical findings support their argument, and then I make some general points about the use of ‘empirical ethics’ in ethical theory.
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  16. E. J. Bond (1992). Theories of the Good. In Lawrence C. Becker & Charlotte B. Becker (eds.), The Encyclopedia of Ethics. Garland Publishing Inc.
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  17. Nick Bostrom (2009). Astronomical Waste: The Opportunity Cost of Delayed Technological Development. Utilitas 15 (03):308-.
    With very advanced technology, a very large population of people living happy lives could be sustained in the accessible region of the universe. For every year that development of such technologies and colonization of the universe is delayed, there is therefore an opportunity cost: a potential good, lives worth living, is not being realized. Given some plausible assumptions, this cost is extremely large. However, the lesson for utilitarians is not that we ought to maximize the pace of technological development, but (...)
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  18. Stephen G. Boyce (1991). The Good Old New Forestry. BioScience 41 (2):67-67.
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  19. Michael Bradie (2004). Without Good Reason. International Studies in Philosophy 36 (4):131-132.
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  20. Hugh Breakey (2009). The Epistemic and Informational Requirements of Utilitarianism. Utilitas 21 (1):72-99.
    A recurring objection confronting utilitarianism is that its dictates require information that lies beyond the bounds of human epistemic wherewithal. Utilitarians require reliable knowledge of the social consequences of various policies, and of people’s preferences and utilities. Agreeing partway with the sceptics, I concur that the general rules-of-thumb offered by social science do not provide sufficient justification for the utilitarian legislator to rationally recommend a particular political regime, such as liberalism. Actual data about human preference-structures and utilities is required to (...)
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  21. John Brunero (2010). Consequentialism and the Wrong Kind of Reasons: A Reply to Lang. Utilitas 22 (3):351-359.
    In his article , Gerald Lang formulates the buck-passing account of value so as to resolve the Wrong Kind of Reason Problem. I argue against his formulation of buck-passing. Specifically, I argue that his formulation of buck-passing is not compatible with consequentialism (whether direct or indirect), and so it should be rejected.
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  22. Joanna M. Burch-Brown (2014). Clues for Consequentialists. Utilitas 26 (1):105-119.
    In an influential paper, James Lenman argues that consequentialism can provide no basis for ethical guidance, because we are irredeemably ignorant of most of the consequences of our actions. If our ignorance of distant consequences is great, he says, we can have little reason to recommend one action over another on consequentialist grounds. In this article, I show that for reasons to do with statistical theory, the cluelessness objection is too pessimistic. We have good reason to believe that certain patterns (...)
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  23. Joanna M. Burch-Brown (2014). Martin Peterson, The Dimensions of Consequentialism: Ethics, Equality and Risk (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2013), Pp. Vii + 217. [REVIEW] Utilitas 26 (2):223-226.
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  24. W. G. De Burgh (1939). The Right and the Good. Mind 48 (192):491 - 497.
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  25. Zeljka Buturovic (2012). Deep Down: Consequentialist Assumptions Underlying Policy Differences. Critical Review 24 (2):269-289.
    A conditional survey establishes a preliminary case for believing that policy differences are to some extent driven by fundamental beliefs about empirical aspects of society and economics. The survey shows willingness in about a third of all respondents to shift their expressed policy preferences when asked a hypothetical question positing negative consequences of their initial preferences. This suggests that assumptions about the consequences of public policies may play as important a role in policy preferences, or a more important role, than (...)
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  26. Krister Bykvist (2003). Normative Supervenience and Consequentialism. Utilitas 15 (01):27-.
    Act-consequentialism is usually taken to be the view that we ought to perform the act that will have the best consequences. But this definition ignores the possibility of various non-maximizing forms of act-consequentialism, e.g. satisficing theories that tell us to perform the act whose consequences will be good enough. What seems crucial to act-consequentialism is not that we ought to maximize value but that the normative status of alternative actions depends solely on the values of their outcomes. The purpose of (...)
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  27. Michael Byron (2002). Consequentialist Friendship and Quasi-Instrumental Goods. Utilitas 14 (02):249-.
    Recent literature defends consequentialism against the charge that consequentialists cannot be friends. This paper argues in rebuttal that consequentialists value friends for the wrong reasons. Even if they are motivated by love and affection, consequentialists must act as if they valued their friends as merely instrumental goods, a mode of valuing I call . I conclude by suggesting the root cause of the problem of intrinsic value for consequentialism.
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  28. Todd Calder (2007). Against Consequentialist Theories of Virtue and Vice. Utilitas 19 (2):201-219.
    Consequentialist theories of virtue and vice, such as the theories of Jeremy Bentham and Julia Driver, characterize virtue and vice in terms of the consequential, or instrumental, properties of these character traits. There are two problems with theories of this sort. First they imply that, under the right circumstances, paradigmatic virtues, such as benevolence, are vices and paradigmatic vices, such as maliciousness, are virtues. This is conceptually problematic. Second, they say nothing about the intrinsic nature of the virtues and vices, (...)
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  29. Arthur L. Caplan (2010). Good, Better, or Best? In Julian Savulescu & Nick Bostrom (eds.), Human Enhancement. Oup Oxford.
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  30. Arthur L. Caplan (2009). Good, Better or Best. In Julian Savulescu & Nick Bostrom (eds.), Human Enhancement. Oup Oxford. 199--209.
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  31. Allan Carlson (2008). The “Good War”. The Chesterton Review 34 (1/2):147-161.
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  32. Erik Carlson (1997). Consequentialism, Distribution and Desert. Utilitas 9 (03):307-.
    This paper criticizes the consequentialist theory recently put forward by Fred Feldman. I argue that this theory violates two crucial requirements. Another theory, proposed by Peter Vallentyne, is similarly flawed. Feldman's basic ideas could, however, be developed into a more plausible theory. I suggest one possible way of doing this.
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  33. Miguel Catalán-González (2004). Utilitarianism and Moral Valuation of Lying. Philosophical Inquiry 26 (3):33-39.
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  34. Richard Yetter Chappell (2014). The Limits of Kindness. By Caspar Hare. [REVIEW] Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews 201403.
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  35. Tim Chappell (1992). Consequentialism and Abortion. Philosophy Now 4:17-18.
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  36. Timothy Chappell (2002). Being Good. International Philosophical Quarterly 42 (2):262-265.
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  37. Dale L. Clark (2009). Aesop's Fox: Consequentialist Virtue Meets Egocentric Bias. Philosophical Psychology 22 (6):727 – 737.
    In her book Uneasy Virtue, Julia Driver presents an account of motive or trait utilitarianism, one that has been taken as “the most detailed and thoroughly defended recent formulation” of consequential virtue ethics. On Driver's account character traits are morally virtuous if and only if they generally lead to good consequences for society. Various commentators have taken Driver to task over this account of virtue, which she terms “pure evaluational externalism.” They object that, on Driver's account of virtue, it could (...)
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  38. Dennis R. Cooley (2000). Readjusting Utility for Justice. Journal of Philosophical Research 25:363-380.
    Despite the best efforts of utilitarians, justice remains a serious problem for consequentialism. Many counterexamples have been described which show that an agent may be obligated to do a gross injustice, according to hedonic utilitarianism, just because it maximizes utility. Fred Feldman attempts to avoid this result by adjusting utility for justice.In this paper, I examine Feldman’s axiology and his normative theory of world utilitarianism, and show that, ultimately, he is not successful in his endeavor. Though Feldman’s theories may not (...)
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  39. Garrett Cullity, Brad Hooker & Tim Mulgan (2011). Intuitions and the Demands of Consequentialism. Utilitas 23 (1).
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  40. M. C. D'Arcy (1931). The Good and the Right. Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 32:171 - 206.
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  41. J. Dancy (ed.) (1997). Reading Parfit. Blackwell.
  42. Jonathan Dancy (2000). Mill's Puzzling Footnote. Utilitas 12 (02):219-.
    This paper discusses various possible interpretations of a complex footnote in Mill's Utilitarianism.
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  43. Jonathan Dancy (1998). Wiggins and Ross. Utilitas 10 (3):281-285.
    Ross's attempt to undermine the consequentialist understanding of the relation between duties and outcomes might give him greater defence against the danger that outcome-related duties will come to constitute a norm, to the disadvantage of all others.
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  44. Stephen Darwall (1998). Under Moore's Spell. Utilitas 10 (03):286-.
    As David Wiggins points out, although Ross is best known for opposing Moore's consequentialism, Ross comes very close to capitulation to Moore when he accepts, as required by beneficence, a prima facie duty to maximize the good. I argue that what lies behind this is Ross's acceptance of Moore's doctrine of agent-neutral intrinsic value, a notion that is not required by, but is indeed is in tension with, beneficence as doing good to or for others.
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  45. Arthur Ernest Davies (1907). The Good and the Bad. International Journal of Ethics 17 (2):147-163.
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  46. John W. Davis (1964). Is Good Only Good? Southern Journal of Philosophy 2 (1):3-7.
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  47. Richard Davis, The Ins and Outs of Virtue and Vice.
    According to the nineteenth century English philosopher John Stuart Mill, all human beings desire to live lives pregnant with happiness; we all long to be the recipients of liberal amounts of varied, high quality pleasures with pain making as brief an appearance in our conscious experience as possible. Happiness is the one and only thing we desire for its own sake; everything else is desirable simply as a means to securing happiness. Perhaps this is so. Mill, however, went on to (...)
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  48. Helena de Bres (2011). What's Special About the State? Utilitas 23 (2):140-160.
    any of us think that we have duties of distributive justice towards our fellow citizens that we do not have towards foreigners. Is that thought justified? This paper considers the nature of the state's relationship to distributive justice from the perspective of utilitarianism, a theory that is barely represented in contemporary philosophical debates on this question. My strategy is to mount a utilitarian case for state-specific duties of distributive justice that is similar in its basic structure to the one that (...)
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  49. W. G. de Burgh (1939). The Right and the Good. Mind 48 (192):491-497.
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  50. B. Dhar (2001). Moore's Theory Of Goodness And The Phenomenological Theories of Values: An Interface. Indian Philosophical Quarterly 28 (2):139-152.
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