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  1. Pruzhinina Avrora (2008). Sex Change as Medical and Sociocultural Problem. Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 25:5-11.
    The topic of sex change in our bisexual society touches upon not only main basis of human existence but also questions of evolution as a whole, of humankind persistence. Is sex change a humane act or do we herewith sacrifice the culture and health of human population for the sake of individual principles? Today, theproblem of sex change has turned from purely medical to a sociocultural one. It brings up a number of important and complex issues for physicians, and for (...)
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  2. Joseph A. Diorio (1981). Sex, Love, and Justice: A Problem in Moral Education. Educational Theory 31 (3-4):225-235.
  3. Rebekah Johnson (2013). Marriage and the Metaphysics of Bodily Union. Social Theory and Practice 39 (2):288-312.
    One current line of argument against the legalization of same-sex marriage, advocated primarily by the New Natural Lawyers, is that marriage is a pre-political institution that has, as an essential element, a bodily union requirement. They argue that same-sex couples cannot realize bodily union in their sexual activities and thus cannot meet the structural requirements of marriage. Accordingly, they argue that the same-sex marriage debate must be framed as a debate about what marriage is, and not, as it was in (...)
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  4. Christine Overall (1992). What's Wrong with Prostitution? Evaluating Sex Work. Signs 17 (4):705-724.
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  5. Margaret Urban Walker (1992). Feminism, Ethics, and the Question of Theory. Hypatia 7 (3):23 - 38.
    Feminist discussions of ethics in the Western philosophical tradition range from critiques of the substance of dominant moral theories to critiques of the very practice of "doing ethics" itself. I argue that these critiques really target a certain historically specific model of ethics and moral theory-a "theoretical-juridical" one. I outline an "expressive-collaborative" conception of morality and ethics that could be a politically self-conscious and reflexively critical alternative.
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Feminism: Aging
  1. Nora K. Bell (1989). Review: What Setting Limits May Mean: A Feminist Critique of Daniel Callahan's "Setting Limits". [REVIEW] Hypatia 4 (2):169 - 178.
    In Setting Limits, Daniel Callahan advances the provocative thesis that age be a limiting factor in decisions to allocate certain kinds of health services to the elderly. However, when one looks at available data, one discovers that there are many more elderly women than there are elderly men, and these older women are poorer, more apt to live alone, and less likely to have informal social and personal supports than their male counterparts. Older women, therefore, will make the heaviest demand (...)
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Feminism: Autonomy
  1. Scott Anderson (2013). On Sexual Obligation and Sexual Autonomy. Hypatia 28 (1):122-141.
    In this paper, I try to make sense of the possibility of several forms of voluntarily undertaken “sexual obligation.” The claim that there can be sexual obligations is liable to generate worries with respect to concerns for gender justice, sexual freedom, and autonomy, especially if such obligations arise in a context of unjust background conditions. This paper takes such concerns seriously but holds that, despite unjust background circumstances, some practices that give rise to ethical sexual obligations can actually ameliorate some (...)
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  2. Nancy Bauer (2001). Simone de Beauvoir, Philosophy, and Feminism. Columbia University Press.
    " Nancy Bauer begins her book by asking: "Then what kind of a problem does being a woman pose?
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  3. Françoise Baylis & Carolyn McLeod (2007). The Stem Cell Debate Continues: The Buying and Selling of Eggs for Research. Journal of Medical Ethics 33 (12):726-731.
    Now that stem cell scientists are clamouring for human eggs for cloning-based stem cell research, there is vigorous debate about the ethics of paying women for their eggs. Generally speaking, some claim that women should be paid a fair wage for their reproductive labour or tissues, while others argue against the further commodification of reproductive labour or tissues and worry about voluntariness among potential egg providers. Siding mainly with those who believe that women should be financially compensated for providing eggs (...)
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  4. Dana Belu, Sylvia Burrow & Elizabeth Soliday (2012). Introduction: Feminism, Autonomy, and Reproductive Technology. Techne 16 (1):1-2.
  5. Debra B. Bergoffen (1999). Marriage, Autonomy, and the Feminine Protest. Hypatia 14 (4):18-35.
    : This paper may be read as a reclamation project. It argues, with Simone de Beauvoir, that patriarchal marriage is both a perversion of the meaning of the couple and an institution in transition. Parting from those who have given up on marriage, I identify marriage as existing at the intersection of the ethical and the political and argue that whether or not one chooses marriage, feminists ought not abandon marriage as an institution.
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  6. Shoshana Brassfield (2012). Overcoming Objectification: A Carnal Ethics. [REVIEW] Teaching Philosophy 35 (2):217-221.
    The central argument of Ann Cahill’s Overcoming Objectification is that the concept of sexual objectification should be replaced by Cahill’s concept of derivatization in order to better capture the wrongness of degrading images and practices without depending on an objectionably narrow and disembodied conception of self. To derivatize someone is not to treat her as a non-person, but rather to treat her as a derivative person, reducing her to an aspect of another’s being. Although not perfect, Cahill’s approach advances the (...)
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  7. Sue Campbell (2002). Relational Autonomy: Feminist Perspectives on Automony, Agency, and the Social Self (Review). Hypatia 17 (2):165-168.
  8. Sue Campbell (2002). Book Review: Catriona MacKenzie and Natalie Stoljar. Relational Autonomy: Feminist Perspectives on Autonomy, Agency, and the Social Self. New York: Oxford University Press, 2000. [REVIEW] Hypatia 17 (2):165-168.
  9. Sue Campbell, Letitia Meynell & Susan Sherwin (eds.) (2009). Embodiment and Agency. Pennsylvania State University Press.
  10. Louise Collins (2010). Autonomy and Authorship: Storytelling in Children's Picture Books. Hypatia 25 (1):174 - 195.
    Diana Tietjens Meyers and Margaret Urban Walker argue that women's autonomy is impaired by mainstream representations that offer us impovenshed resources to tell our own stories. Mainstream picture books apprentice young readers in norms of representation. Two popufor picture books about child storyteüers present competing views of a child's authority to tell his or her own story. Hence, they offer rival models of the development of autonomy: neoAiberal versus relational. Feminist critics should attend to such implicit models and the hidden (...)
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  11. Victoria Davion (1993). Autonomy, Integrity, and Care. Social Theory and Practice 19 (2):161-182.
  12. Anne Donchin (2001). Understanding Autonomy Relationally: Toward a Reconfiguration of Bioethical Principles. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 26 (4):365 – 386.
    Principle-based formulations of bioethical theory have recently come under increasing scrutiny, particularly insofar as they give prominence to personal autonomy. This essay critiques the dominant conceptualization of autonomy and urges an alternative formulation freed from the individualistic assumptions that pervade the prevailing framework. Drawing on feminist perspectives, I discuss the need for a vision of patient autonomy that joins relational experiences to individuality and acknowledges the influence of patterns of power and authority on the exercise of patient agency. Deficiencies in (...)
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  13. Paula Droege (2005). Autonomy, Gender, Politics Marilyn Friedman Studies in Feminist Philosophy New York: Oxford University Press, 2003, Xiv + 272 Pp., $19.95. [REVIEW] Dialogue 44 (01):174-.
  14. Marilyn Friedman (2003). Autonomy, Gender, Politics. Oxford University Press.
    Women have historically been prevented from living autonomously by systematic injustice, subordination, and oppression. The lingering effects of these practices have prompted many feminists to view autonomy with suspicion. Here, Marilyn Friedman defends the ideal of feminist autonomy. In her eyes, behavior is autonomous if it accords with the wants, cares, values, or commitments that the actor has reaffirmed and is able to sustain in the face of opposition. By her account, autonomy is socially grounded yet also individualizing and sometimes (...)
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  15. Marilyn Friedman (1998). Romantic Love and Personal Autonomy. Midwest Studies in Philosophy 22 (1):162-181.
  16. Marilyn Friedman (1996). Women's Autonomy and Feminist Aspirations. Journal of Philosophical Research 21:331-340.
    Autonomy has risen in esteem, then fallen, only to rise again in recent theorizing about women in society and culture. In this paper, I further bolster the renewed feminist interest in autonomy. I characterize feminist social aspirations in terms of three very abstract goals and then argue that women’s individual autonomy promotes at least two of them in crucial ways. Women’s autonomy will improve the quality of the close personal relationships that pervade women’s traditional moral concems (the first goal) and (...)
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  17. Serene J. Khader (2011). Adaptive Preferences and Women's Empowerment. OUP USA.
    Women and other oppressed and deprived people sometimes collude with the forces that perpetuate injustice against them. Women's acceptance of their lesser claim on household resources like food, their positive attitudes toward clitoridectemy and infibulations, their acquiescence to violence at the hands of their husbands, and their sometimes fatalistic attitudes toward their own poverty or suffering are all examples of "adaptive preferences," wherein women participate in their own deprivation. -/- Adaptive Preferences and Women's Empowerment offers a definition of adaptive preference (...)
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  18. Catriona Mackenzie & Natalie Stoljar (eds.) (2000). Relational Autonomy: Feminist Perspectives on Automony, Agency, and the Social Self. Oxford University Press.
    This collection of original essays explores the social and relational dimensions of individual autonomy. Rejecting the feminist charge that autonomy is inherently masculinist, the contributors draw on feminist critiques of autonomy to challenge and enrich contemporary philosophical debates about agency, identity, and moral responsibility. The essays analyze the complex ways in which oppression can impair an agent's capacity for autonomy, and investigate connections, neglected by standard accounts, between autonomy and other aspects of the agent, including self-conception, self-worth, memory, and the (...)
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  19. Carolyn McLeod (2009). Rich Discussion About Reproductive Autonomy. Bioethics 23 (1):ii-iii.
    An introduction to a special issue of Bioethics edited by McLeod and called Understanding and Protecting Reproductive Autonomy.
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  20. Carolyn Mcleod & Françoise Baylis (2007). Donating Fresh Versus Frozen Embryos to Stem Cell Research: In Whose Interests? Bioethics 21 (9):465–477.
    Some stem cell researchers believe that it is easier to derive human embryonic stem cells from fresh rather than frozen embryos and they have had in vitro fertilization (IVF) clinicians invite their infertility patients to donate their fresh embryos for research use. These embryos include those that are deemed 'suitable for transfer' (i.e. to the woman's uterus) and those deemed unsuitable in this regard. This paper focuses on fresh embryos deemed suitable for transfer - hereafter 'fresh embryos'- which IVF patients (...)
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  21. Helen Meekosha (2010). The Complex Balancing Act of Choice, Autonomy, Valued Life, and Rights: Bringing a Feminist Disability Perspective to Bioethics. International Journal of Feminist Approaches to Bioethics 3 (2):1-8.
    Disabled women were absent for many years from the discipline that has become known as women and gender studies. This field of study had its origins in the late 1970s following the second wave of feminism. In the latter decades of the twentieth century, disabled women and their allies introduced the necessary task of exploring disabled women's embodiment to the wider feminist community. A wealth of research now exists that incorporates disabled women's bodies into a range of disciplines: from literature, (...)
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  22. Diana T. Meyers (ed.) (1997). Feminists Rethink the Self. Westview Press.
    How is women’s conception of self affected by the caregiving responsibilities traditionally assigned to them and by the personal vulnerabilities imposed on them? If institutions of male dominance profoundly influence women’s lives and minds, how can women form judgments about their own best interests and overcome oppression? Can feminist politics survive in face of the diversity of women’s experience, which is shaped by race, class, ethnicity, and sexual orientation, as well as by gender? Exploring such questions, leading feminist thinkers have (...)
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  23. Diana Tietjens Meyers (2008). Personal Autonomy in Society by Marina Oshana. Hypatia 23 (2):202-206.
  24. Diana Tietjens Meyers (2004). Being Yourself: Essays on Identity, Action, and Social Life. rowman & littlefield.
    A collection of some of my previously published papers with an introduction and a new chapter.
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  25. Diana Tietjens Meyers (2002). Gender in the Mirror: Cultural Imagery and Women's Agency. OUP USA.
    The cultural imagery of women is deeply ingrained in our consciousness. So deeply, in fact, that feminists see this as a fundamental threat to female autonomy because it enshrines procreative heterosexuality as well as the relations of domination and subordination between men and women. Diana Meyers' book is about this cultural imagery - and how, once it is internalized, it shapes perception, reflection, judgement, and desire. These intergral images have a deep impact not only on the individual psyche, but also (...)
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  26. Diana Tietjens Meyers (2001). Feminism and Women’s Autonomy: The Challenge of Female Genital Cutting. Metaphilosophy 31:469-491.
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  27. Diana Tietjens Meyers (2001). The Rush to Motherhood -- Pronatalist Discourse and Women’s Autonomy. Signs 26:735-773.
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  28. Diana Tietjens Meyers (2000). Intersectional Identity and the Authentic Self? Opposites Attract. In Catriona Mackenzie & Natalie Stoljar (eds.), relational autonomy. oxford university press.
  29. Anne Phillips (2011). It's My Body and I'll Do What I Like With It: Bodies as Objects and Property. Political Theory 39 (6):724 - 748.
    What, if any, is the problem with treating bodies as objects or property? Is there a defensible basis for seeing bodies as different from "other" material resources? Or is thinking the body special a kind of sentimentalism that blocks clear thinking about matters such as prostitution, surrogate motherhood, and the sale of spare kidneys? I argue that the language we use does matter, and that thinking of the body as property encourages a self/body dualism that obscures the power relations involved (...)
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  30. Baukje Prins (2008). Sympathetic Distrust: Liberalism and the Sexual Autonomy of Women. Social Theory and Practice 34 (2):243-270.
  31. Beate Rössler (2002). Problems with Autonomy. Hypatia 17 (4):143-162.
    : The article first develops an account of autonomy, explaining individual autonomy by means of three normative components and then discussing two objections. The first objection claims that autonomy has to be thought of as essentially relational; this objection is refuted. The second objection, labeled the skeptical objection, claims that we simply do not live autonomously, nor could we ever. Reference is made to novels by Iris Murdoch to present a skeptical solution to this objection.
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  32. Diana Tietjens Meyers (2000). Feminism and Women's Autonomy: The Challenge of Female Genital Cutting. Metaphilosophy 31 (5):469-491.
  33. Shelley Tremain (2013). Review of Christine Overall`s Why Have Children? The Ethical Debate. [REVIEW] Apa Newsletter on Feminism and Philosophy 12 (2).
  34. Andrea Westlund (2009). Rethinking Relational Autonomy. Hypatia 24 (4):26 - 49.
    John Christman has argued that constitutively relational accounts of autonomy, as defended by some feminist theorists, are problematically perfectionist about the human good. I argue that autonomy is constitutively relational, but not in a way that implies perfectionism: autonomy depends on a dialogical disposition to hold oneself answerable to external, critical perspectives on one's action-guiding commitments. This type of relationality carries no substantive value commitments, yet it does answer to core feminist concerns about autonomy.
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Feminism: The Body
  1. Christa Davis Acampora (2003). Body Talk: Philosophical Reflections on Sex and Gender (Review). Hypatia 18 (3):212-215.
  2. Ben Almassi (2010). Disability, Functional Diversity, and Trans/Feminism. International Journal of Feminist Approaches to Bioethics 3 (2):126-149.
    Feminist approaches to bioethics have the striking ability to usefully disrupt conversations otherwise in danger of calcifying into immovable opposing camps. Take, for instance, debates between theorists in disability studies and bioethicists who often take two different approaches to understanding disability. On one side are those such as Buchanan, Brock, Daniels, and Wikler (2000) who seek to locate the apparent functional deficiency of disability in biologically abnormal bodies. Let us call this a normal functioning approach to understanding disability. On the (...)
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  3. Anna Antonopoulos (1991). Writing the Mystic Body: Sexuality and Textuality in the Écriture-Féminine of Saint Catherine of Genoa. Hypatia 6 (3):185 - 207.
    This paper looks to evolve a discourse about the body in medieval women's mystical experience via an understanding of the life and work of Saint Catherine of Genoa as écriture-féminine. Drawing upon Catherine's resolution of binarism through the articulation of sexuality and textuality, I argue that the female mystic's experience of the body as site of struggle helps move beyond analysis of a binary experience to a politics of speaking the body directly.
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  4. Ann Ardis (1992). Presence of Mind, Presence of Body: Embodying Positionality in the Classroom. Hypatia 7 (2):167 - 176.
    This essay focuses on how we embody the language we speak: how an audience "reads" the body of a speaker as it both constructs the positionality of that speaking subject and construes that subject's discursive authority. Building on the work of Linda Brodkey and Michelle Fine, I explore what is at stake when university students harass a faculty member by accusing that teacher of not embodying authority in the proper form (body).
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  5. Mercedes Arriaga Flórez (ed.) (2006). Sin Carne: Representaciones y Simulacros Del Cuerpo Femenino: Tecnología, Comunicación y Poder. Arcibel Editores.
  6. Kim Atkins (2011). You've Changed: Sex Reassignment and Personal Identity. Edited by Laurie J. Shrage. Hypatia 26 (4):877-881.
  7. Susan E. Babbitt (2013). Humanism and Embodiment: Remarks on Cause and Effect. Hypatia 28 (4):733-748.
    I understand humanism to be the meta-ethical view that there exist discoverable (nonmoral) truths about the human condition, that is, about what it means to be human. We might think that as long as I believe I am realizing my unique human potential, I cannot be reasonably contradicted. Yet when we consider systemic oppression, this is unlikely. Systemic oppression makes dehumanizing conditions and treatment seem reasonable. In this paper, I consider the nature of understanding—drawing in particular upon recent defenses of (...)
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  8. Karen Barad (2006). Posthumanist Performativity : Toward an Understanding of How Matter Comes to Matter. In Deborah Orr (ed.), Belief, Bodies, and Being: Feminist Reflections on Embodiment. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.
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  9. Debra Bergoffen (2008). On Female Body Experience: Throwing Like a Girl and Other Essays (Review). Hypatia 23 (3):pp. 217-220.
  10. Debra Bergoffen (2008). On Female Body Experience: Throwing Like a Girl and Other Essaysby Iris Marion Young. Hypatia 23 (3):217-220.
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