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Summary This category covers the main topics that have been the focus of the free will debate and over which compatibilists and determinists have argued. Topics like determinism and God's foreknowledge have been central to the debate, insofar as they raise parallel (apparent) challenges to our capacity to exercise free will. Moral responsibility is held by many to be at stake in the free will debate and it too been at the focus of attention. Fatalism, especially logical fatalism, is no longer central but there is a rich literature from earlier centuries much of which addressed issues related to those which remain central. Debate over whether free will requires alternative possibilities has always been lively: the advent of Frankfurt-style cases has given this debate new life for the past 4 decades.
Key works For a lively and penetrating selection of recent work on foreknowledge, see Fischer 1989Sobel 1998 is a central text on a range of problems to do with fatalims and determinism. Earman 1993 contains important work on determinism.Debate over alternative possibilities was revitalized by Frankfurt 1969Widerker & McKenna 2003 collects representative papers from among the very many on this increasingly complex debate.
Introductions Zagzebski 2002;Rice 2008; Earman 2004; Fischer 2002
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  1. Rogers Albritton (2003). Freedom of Will and Freedom of Action. In Gary Watson (ed.), Proceedings and Addresses of the American Philosophical Association. Oup Oxford. 239-251.
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  2. F. T. Arecchi (2000). Determinismo E Complessitáa.
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  3. Robert Audi (1989). Practical Reasoning. Routledge.
    Practical Reasoning and Ethical Decision presents an account of practical reasoning as a process that can explain action, connect reasoning with intention, ...
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  4. Bernard Baertschi & Alexandre Mauron (2011). Genetic Determinism, Neuronal Determinism, and Determinism Tout Court. In Judy Illes & Barbara J. Sahakian (eds.), Oxford Handbook of Neuroethics. Oxford University Press. 151.
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  5. Deane-Peter Baker (2005). Divine Foreknowledge – so What? Heythrop Journal 46 (1):60–65.
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  6. H. C. Baldry (1963). Tilman Krischer: Das Problem der trilogischen Komposition und die dramaturgische Entwicklung der attischen Tragödie. (Frankfurt diss.) Pp. 125. Frankfurt: privately printed, 1960 (obtainable from Buchhandlung am Goethehaus, Am Salzhaus 3, Frankfurt a. M.). Paper, DM. 5. [REVIEW] The Classical Review 13 (01):110-.
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  7. Seth Barber (1995). Persons the Strawsonian Tradition.
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  8. Harry H. Bash (1964). Determinism and Avoidability in Sociohistorical Analysis. Ethics 74 (3):186-200.
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  9. Robert W. Beard (1967). James and the Rationality of Determinism. Journal of the History of Philosophy 5 (2):149-156.
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  10. Lawrence C. Becker (1972). Foreknowledge and Predestination. Mind 81 (321):138-141.
  11. Nuel Belnap & Michael Perloff (1992). The Way of the Agent. Studia Logica 51 (3-4):463 - 484.
    The conditional,if an agent did something, then the agent could have done otherwise, is analyzed usingstit theory, which is a logic of seeing to it that based on agents making choices in the context of branching time. The truth of the conditional is found to be a subtle matter that depends on how it is interpreted (e.g., on what otherwise refers to, and on the difference between could and might) and also on whether or not there are busy choosers that (...)
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  12. Paul Benson (1990). The Moral Importance of Free Action. Southern Journal of Philosophy 28 (1):1-18.
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  13. Joseph Berkovitz (2002). On Causal Inference in Determinism and Indeterminism. In Harald Atmanspacher & Robert C. Bishop (eds.), Between Chance and Choice: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Determinism. Thorverton Uk: Imprint Academic. 237--278.
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  14. Mark Bernstein (1988). Justification and Determinism - An Exchange. The Monist 71 (3):358-364.
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  15. William L. Bewley, Douglas L. Nelson & W. J. Brogden (1968). Single, Alternate, and Successive Practice in the Acquisition of Two and Three Serial Lists. Journal of Experimental Psychology 76 (3p1):376.
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  16. Rajeev Bhargava (1992). Determinism and Social Science. In Jayant Vishnu Narlikar, Indu Banga & Chhanda Gupta (eds.), Philosophy of Science: Perspectives From Natural and Social Sciences. Munshiram Manoharlal Publishers. 40--151.
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  17. Brand Blanshard (1958). The Case for Determinism. In Sidney Hook (ed.), Determinism and Freedom in the Age of Modern Science. Collier-Macmillan. 19--30.
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  18. Nico Den Bok (1993). Human and Divine Freedom in the Theology of Bernard of Clairvaux: A Systematic Analysis. Bijdragen 54 (3):271-295.
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  19. Richard Boyd (1972). Determinism, Laws, and Predictability in Principle. Philosophy of Science 39 (4):431-450.
    This paper examines commonly offered arguments to show that human behavior is not deterministic because it is not predictable. These arguments turn out to rest on the assumption that deterministic systems must be governed by deterministic laws, and that these give rise to predictability "in principle" of determined events. A positive account of determinism is advanced and it is shown that neither of these assumptions is true. The relation between determinism, laws, and prediction in practice is discussed as a question (...)
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  20. R. D. Bradley (1962). Determinism or Indeterminism in Microphysics. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 13 (51):193-215.
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  21. Dale Eric Brant (1996). Freedom, Infallibility and the Fixity of the Past. Dissertation, University of California, Irvine
    A study of the medieval foreknowledge problem: an apparent conflict between God's universal infallibility and human freedom. To say that God is universally infallible is to say that for every proposition, God's believing that proposition implies that it is true. Let's say that the belief implies its object. So God's belief yesterday that Jones will murder her neighbor today implies that she will murder him. Furthermore, the past is fixed, rendering propositions about the past true or false is impossible, so (...)
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  22. C. D. Broad (1937). The Philosophical Implications of Foreknowledge. Aristotelian Society Supplementary Volume 16:177 - 209.
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  23. Sarah Broadie (2001). From Necessity to Fate: A Fallacy. [REVIEW] Journal of Ethics 5 (1):21-37.
    Though clearly fallacious, the inference from determinism to fatalism (the ``Lazy Argument'''') has appealed to such minds as Aristotle and his disciple, Alexander of Aphrodisias. It is argued here (1) that determinism does entail a rather similar position, dubbed ``futilism''''; and (2) that distinctively Aristotelian determinism entails fatalism for any event to which it applies. The concept of ``fate'''' is examined along the way.
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  24. Jason W. Brown (1996). Time, Will, and Mental Process. Monograph Collection (Matt - Pseudo).
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  25. I. A. Bunting (1969). The Refutation of Determinism. Philosophical Studies 18:288-291.
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  26. Marc Burock, Determinism and Causation Examples.
    In studying causation, many examples are presented assuming that determinism holds in the world of the example such as the notoriously difficult to resolve preemptive and preventative situations. We show that for deterministic examples that this conditional preemptive situation is either (i)vacuously true, (ii)contradictory, or (iii) implies indeterminism. Along the way we formulate a specific block space-time definition of determinism, and suggest that commonsense causation theories need focus on unphysical quantities and indeterminism.
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  27. Sarah Buss (1989). The Conditions of Free Agency. Dissertation, Yale University
    In this essay I attempt to identify the conditions of morally responsible action; and from the start, I conceive morally responsible action as free action. Some philosophers argue that the causal origins of an act are irrelevant to whether it is a free act; others believe that free acts cannot be causally determined; and still others believe that a free act is an act from which the agent must be capable of refraining. I defend a view at odds with each (...)
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  28. Sarah Buss & Lee Overton (eds.) (2002). On Frankfurt's Explanation of Respect for People. Mit Press.
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  29. Jeremy Byrd (2007). Moral Responsibility and Omissions. Philosophical Quarterly 57 (226):56–67.
    Frankfurt-type examples seem to show that agents can be morally responsible for their actions and omissions even if they could not have done otherwise. Fischer and Ravizza's influential account of moral responsibility is largely based on such examples. I examine a problem with their account of responsibility in cases where we fail to act. The solution to this problem has a surprising and far reaching implication concerning the construction of successful Frankfurt-type examples. I argue that the role of the counterfactual (...)
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  30. M. C. (1956). The Artist as Creator: An Essay of Human Freedom. [REVIEW] Review of Metaphysics 10 (1):181-181.
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  31. C. A. Campbell (1962). Moral Libertarianism: A Reply to Mr. Franklin. Philosophical Quarterly 12 (49):337-347.
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  32. Joseph Michael Campbell (1992). The Logic of Freedom. Dissertation, The University of Arizona
    I take it for granted that free will is a central philosophical notion. Still, throughout Western history certain philosophers have put forth arguments which claim that no person has, or could have, free will. These arguments may be grouped into three different types. First, there are metalogical arguments which argue that since all propositions are either true or false, and since propositions do not change their truth-values, no person ever has free will. Second, there are divination arguments which claim that (...)
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  33. Tobias Chapman (1972). On a New Escape From Logical Determinism. Mind 81 (324):597-599.
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  34. Mecca Chiesa (2003). Implications of Determinism. In Kennon A. Lattal (ed.), Behavior Theory and Philosophy. Springer. 243--258.
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  35. Paul Copan (1996). Making Sense of Your Freedom. Review of Metaphysics 49 (3):651-653.
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  36. Edward Copleston (1822). Remarks Upon the Objections Made to Certain Passages in the Enquiry Concerning Necessity and Predestination. John Murray Joseph Parker.
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  37. David Copp (2008). 'Ought' Implies 'Can' and the Derivation of the Principle of Alternate Possibilities. Analysis 68 (297):67–75.
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  38. Oswald Couldrey (1922). Is Determinism Rational? Hibbert Journal 21:179.
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  39. William Lane Craig (1987). Divine Foreknowledge and Newcomb's Paradox. Philosophia 17 (3):331-350.
    Newcomb's Paradox thus serves as an illustrative vindication of the compatibility of divine foreknowledge and human freedom. A proper understanding of the counterfactual conditionals involved enables us to see that the pastness of God's knowledge serves neither to make God's beliefs counterfactually closed nor to rob us of genuine freedom. It is evident that our decisions determine God's past beliefs about those decisions and do so without invoking an objectionable backward causation. It is also clear that in the context of (...)
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  40. Roger Crisp (1991). Determinism, Blameworthiness and Deprivation. Philosophical Books 32 (3):176-178.
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  41. Thomas M. Crisp & Ted A. Warfield (2000). The Irrelevance of Indeterministic Counterexamples to Principle Beta. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 61 (1):173-185.
    Incompatibilism about freedom and causal determinism is commonly supported by appeal to versions of the well known Consequence argument. Critics of theConsequence argument have presented counterexamples to the Consequence argument’s central inference principle. The thesis of this article is that proponents of the Consequence argument can easily bypass even the best of these counterexamples.
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  42. David A. Denby (2008). Generating Possibilities. Philosophical Studies 141 (2):191 - 207.
    Our knowledge of the most basic alternative possibilities can be thought of as generated recursively from what we know about the actual world. But what are the generating principles? According to one view, they are recombinational: roughly, alternative possibilities are generated by “patching together” parts of distinct worlds or “blotting out” parts of worlds to yield new worlds. I argue that this view is inadequate. It is difficult to state in a way that is true and non-trivial, and anyway fails (...)
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  43. David Derodon & Jean Antoine Chouët (1681). Davidis Derodonis Philosophia Contracta. Sumptibus Ioannis Antonii Chouët.
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  44. D. Dieks (1980). On the Empirical Content of Determinism. Philosophy of Science 47 (1):124-130.
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  45. Jasper Doomen (2012). Determinism Determined. Appraisal 9 (2).
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  46. Phil Dowe (2002). What is Determinism?'. In Harald Atmanspacher & Robert C. Bishop (eds.), Between Chance and Choice: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Determinism. Thorverton Uk: Imprint Academic. 309--20.
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  47. J. Drever (1928). SPEARMAN, C. - The Abilities of Man. [REVIEW] Mind 37:215.
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  48. Fanny Epstein (1967). Beyond Determinism and Irrationalism. Philosophy Today 11 (1):38.
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  49. J. M. Fischer (2008). The Direct Argument: You Say Goodbye, I Say Hello. In Nick Trakakis & Daniel Cohen (eds.), Essays on Free Will and Moral Responsibility. Cambridge Scholars. 209--223.
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  50. John Martin Fischer (2002). Frankfurt-Type Examples and Semi-Compatibilism. In Robert H. Kane (ed.), The Oxford Handbook of Free Will. Oxford University Press.
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