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  1. Carol J. Adams (2000). The Sexual Politics of Meat: A Feminist-Vegetarian Critical Theory. Continuum.
    New Tenth Anniversary edition of this classic text with a new preface by the author, compares myths about meat-eating with myths about manliness, and seeks to ...
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  2. H. E. Baber (1999). Abba, Father. Faith and Philosophy 16 (3):423-432.
    Questions about the use of “inclusive language” in Christian discourse are trivial but the discussion which surrounds them raises an exceedingly important question, namely that of whether gender is theologically salient-whether Christian doctrine either reveals theologically significant differences between men and women or prescribes different roles for them. Arguably both conservative support for sex roles and allegedly progressive doctrines about the theological significance of gender, race, ethnicity and sexual orientation are contrary to the radical teaching of the Gospel that in (...)
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  3. Dan Demetriou & Michael Prideaux, Gender Exaggeration as Trans.
    Surprisingly, it follows from commonsense premises about sex and gender that there is a widely-practiced variety of transgenderism we call sex/gender “exaggerating.” Recognizing exaggeration as trans (or at least its moral equivalent) has several important consequences. One is that, since most traditional cultures endorse exaggeration, trans lifestyles (depending on where you draw the line) are usually the default. But more importantly, recognizing that gender exaggeration is trans (or its moral equivalent) reveals a number of sex- and gender-discriminatory practices and intolerant (...)
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  4. Marilyn Friedman (2006). Nancy J. Hirschmann on the Social Construction of Women's Freedom. Hypatia 21 (4):182-191.
    : Nancy J. Hirschmann presents a feminist, social constructionist account of women's freedom. Friedman's discussion of Hirschmann's account deals with (1) some conceptual problems facing a thoroughgoing social constructionism; (2) three ways to modify social constructionism to avoid those problems; and (3) an assessment of Hirschmann's version of social constructionism in light of the previous discussion.
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  5. Judith Grant (1996). Bring the Noise: Hypermasculinity in Heavy Metal and Rap. Journal of Social Philosophy 27 (2):5-31.
    “The Subliminal K i d moved in and took over bars cafes and jukeboxes of the world cities and installed radio transmitters and microphones in each bar so that the music and talk of any bar could be heard in all his bars and he had tape recorders in each bar that played and recorded at arbitrary intervals and his agents moved back and forth with portable tape recorders and brought back street sound and talk and music and poured it (...)
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  6. Sara Mills (2005). Gender and Colonial Space. Manchester University Press.
    Sara Mills offers a trenchant analysis of the complexities of social relations--including notions of class, nationality and gender--and spatial relations, landscape, topography and travel, in post-colonial contexts.
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  7. Ann Searle (1971). A Study of 'Admired People' Among Adolescents in Relation to Aggression and Sex Differences. Journal of Moral Education 1 (1):61-66.
    (1971). A study of ‘admired people’ among adolescents in relation to aggression and sex differences. Journal of Moral Education: Vol. 1, No. 1, pp. 61-66.
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  8. Jenny Slatman, Annemie Halsema & Guy Widdershoven (2010). Sex and Enhancement: A Phenomenological-Existential View. American Journal of Bioethics 10 (7):20-22.
  9. Marion Smiley (1991). Gender Justice Without Foundations. Michigan Law Review 89 (6):1574-1590.
    This article addresses the possibility of developing a critical feminist philosophy outside the bounds of foundational thinking.
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Gender and Race
  1. Linda Martín Alcoff & Eva Feder Kittay (2007). Introduction: Defining Feminist Philosophy. In Linda Alcoff & Eva Feder Kittay (eds.), The Blackwell Guide to Feminist Philosophy. Blackwell Pub..
  2. Jami L. Anderson (ed.) (2003). Race, Gender, and Sexuality: Philosophical Issues of Identity and Justice. Prentice Hall.
    This anthology of contemporary articles (and court cases provides a philosophical analysis of race, sex and gender concepts and issues. Divided into three relatively independent yet thematically linked sections, the anthology first addresses identity issues, then injustices and inequalities, and then specific social and legal issues relevant to race, sex and gender. By exposing readers to both theoretical foundations, opposing views, and "real life" applications, the anthology prepares them to make critically reasoned decisions concerning today's race, gender and sex social (...)
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  3. Maria del Guadalupe Davidson, Kathryn T. Gines & Donna-Dale L. Marcano (eds.) (2010). Convergences: Black Feminism and Continental Philosophy. SUNY Press.
    A range of themes—race and gender, sexuality, otherness, sisterhood, and agency—run throughout this collection, and the chapters constitute a collective discourse at the intersection of Black feminist thought and continental philosophy, converging on a similar set of questions and concerns. These convergences are not random or forced, but are in many ways natural and necessary: the same issues of agency, identity, alienation, and power inevitably are addressed by both camps. Never before has a group of scholars worked together to examine (...)
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  4. E. Diaz‐Leon (2013). What Is Social Construction? European Journal of Philosophy 22 (4):n/a-n/a.
    In this paper I discuss the question of what it means to say that a property is socially constructed. I focus on an influential project that many social constructivists are engaged in, namely, arguing against the inevitability of a trait, and I examine several recent characterizations of social construction, with the aim of assessing which one is more suited to the task.
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  5. Debra Jackson (2009). Utopian Fantasy and the Politics of Difference. In Luke Cuddy & John Nordlinger (eds.), World of Warcraft and Philosophy: Wrath of the Philosopher King. Open Court. 131-142.
    Although World of Warcraft utilizes ethnic and gender stereotypes in the construction of its playable characters, the structure of the gaming environment provides a modest utopian vision that is structurally just, maximizing both liberty and equality among participants in a way consistent with John Rawls's Theory of Justice. As a result, class, race, and gender are much more a matter of human (humanoid) variety, rather than a tool for hierarchically differentiation. Nevertheless, in players' engagement with the game, class, race, and (...)
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  6. Robin M. James (2007). Deconstruction, Fetishism, and the Racial Contract: On the Politics of "Faking It" in Music. CR 7 (1):45-80.
    I read Sara Kofman's work on Nietzsche, Charles Mills' _The Racial Contract_, and Kodwo Eshun's Afrofuturist musicology to argue that most condemnations of "faking it" in music rest on a racially and sexually problematic fetishization of "the real.".
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  7. Alexis Shotwell (2011). Knowing Otherwise: Race, Gender, and Implicit Understanding. Penn State.
    "Draws on philosophers, political theorists, activists, and poets to explain how unspoken and unspeakable knowledge is important to racial and gender formation; offers a usable conception of implicit understanding"--Provided by publishers.
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  8. Shannon Winnubst (2003). Vampires, Anxieties, and Dreams: Race and Sex in the Contemporary United States. Hypatia 18 (3):1-20.
    : Drawing on several feminist and anti-racist theorists, I use the trope of the vampire to unravel how whiteness, maleness, and heterosexuality feed on the same set of disavowals—of the body, of the Other, of fluidity, of dependency itself. I then turn to Jewelle Gomez's The Gilda Stories (1991) for a counternarrative that, along with Donna Haraway's reading of vampires (1997), retools concepts of kinship and self that undergird racism, sexism, and heterosexism in contemporary U.S. culture.
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Gender and Multiculturalism
  1. Suchorita Chattopadhyay (2012). Ashapurna Devi’s “Women” – Emerging Identities in Colonial and Postcolonial Bengal. ARGUMENT 2 (1):75-95.
    Ashapurna Devi, a prominent Bengali woman novelist (1909–1995) focused on women’s creativity and enlightenment during the colonial and postcolonial period in Bengal, India. She herself displayed immense will power, tenacity and an indomitable spirit which enabled her to eke out a prominent place for herself in the world of creative writing. Her life spanned both colonial India and independent India and these diverse experiences shaped her mind and persona and helped her to portray the emerging face of the enlightened Bengali (...)
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  2. Deborah L. Siegel (1997). The Legacy of the Personal: Generating Theory in Feminism's Third Wave. Hypatia 12 (3):46-75.
    This essay focuses on the repeated rhetorical moves through which the third wave autobiographical subject seeks to be real and to speak as part of a collective voice from the next feminist generation. Given that postmodernist, postructuralist, and multiculturalist critiques have shaped the form and the content of third wave expressions of the personal, the study is ultimately concerned with the possibilities and limitations of such theoretical analysis for a third wave of feminist praxis.
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  3. Elena Sokol (2012). Diverse Voices: Czech Women’s Writing in the Post-Communist Era. ARGUMENT 2 (1):37-57.
    This essay offers an overview of the diversity of women’s prose writing that emerged on the Czech cultural scene in the post-communist era. To that end it briefly characterizes the work of eight Czech women authors who were born within the first two decades after World War II and began to create during the post-1968 era of ‘normalization’. In this broad sense they belong to a single generation. With rare exception their work was not officially published in their homeland until (...)
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  4. Rasmus Grønfeldt Winther, Free to Universalize or Bound by Culture? Multicultural and Public Philosophy: A White Paper.
    Multiculturalism requires sustained and serious philosophical reflection, which in turn requires public outreach and communication. This piece briefly outlines concerns raised by the philosophy of multiculturalism and, conversely, multiculturalism in philosophy, which ultimately force us to reconsider the philosopher’s own role and responsibility. I conclude with a provocative suggestion of philosophy as /public diplomacy/. (As this is intended to be a piece for a general audience, secondary literature is only referred to in the conclusion. References gladly provided upon request.).
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Gender Identity
  1. Stephanie Adair (2011). Unity and Difference: A Critical Appraisal of Polarizing Gender Identities. Hypatia 27 (3):847 - 863.
    In The Phenomenology of Spirit, Hegel draws out the interdependency of unity and difference. In order to have a unity, there must be differences that compose it, as a unity unifies different elements. At the same time, in unifying these elements, they must not cease to be different from one another, as that would reduce the unity to a simple singularity.In this paper, I take up this interdependency of unity and difference, applying it to gender identities. I follow the psychoanalytically (...)
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  2. Ana Mariella Bacigalupo (2003). Rethinking Identity and Feminism: Contributions of Mapuche Women And. Hypatia 18 (2).
    : I analyze how machi discourse and practice of gender and identity contribute to feminist debates about gendered indigenous Others, and the effects that Western notions of Self and Other and feminist rhetoric have on Mapuche women and machi: people who heal with herbal remedies and the help of spirits. Machi juggling of different worlds offers a particular understanding of the way identity and gender are constituted and of the relationship between Self and Other, theory and practice, subject and object, (...)
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  3. Suchorita Chattopadhyay (2012). Ashapurna Devi’s “Women” – Emerging Identities in Colonial and Postcolonial Bengal. ARGUMENT 2 (1):75-95.
    Ashapurna Devi, a prominent Bengali woman novelist (1909–1995) focused on women’s creativity and enlightenment during the colonial and postcolonial period in Bengal, India. She herself displayed immense will power, tenacity and an indomitable spirit which enabled her to eke out a prominent place for herself in the world of creative writing. Her life spanned both colonial India and independent India and these diverse experiences shaped her mind and persona and helped her to portray the emerging face of the enlightened Bengali (...)
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  4. Christine James (1996). Reconceptualizing Masculinity: Review Essay. disClosure 1996 (Reason Incorporated):74-83.
    Recent feminist and postmodern thought has critiqued traditional conceptions of masculinity, describing the effect that the distinctive masculinity of the "man of reason" has had on the history of philosophy, on consciousness, and on the academy. A common characteristic of the recent literature on masculinity is that it reflects the historical and cultural context in which it is written -- a context of binary, hierarchical dualisms which involve certain symbolic associations. These dualisms, such as Man-Woman, masculine-feminine, and reason-emotion, arguably find (...)
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  5. Alice MacLachlan & Susanne Sreedhar (2012). Complicating Out: The Case of Queer Femmes. In Kelby Harrison & Dennis Cooley (eds.), Passing/Out: Sexual Identity Veiled and Revealed. Ashgate. 43-74.
    We take up questions of passing/outing as they arise for those with queer femme identities. We argue that for persons with female-identified bodies and queer, feminine (‘femme’) gender identities, the possibilities above may not exist as distinct options: for example, what it means to ‘pass’ or ‘cover’ is not always distinguishable – conceptually or in practice – from living authentically and resisting heteronormative identification: i.e. the conditions of being ‘out’. In some ways, these conflations privilege queer femmes; in others, femmes (...)
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  6. Prasita Mukherjee (2012). Revolutionizing Agency: Sameness and Difference in the Representation of Women by Rokeya Sakhawat Hossain and Mahasweta Devi. ARGUMENT 2 (1):117-127.
    In this paper the sameness and difference between two distinguished Indian authors, Rokeya Sakhawat Hossain (1880–1932) and Mahasweta Devi (b. 1926), representing two generations almost a century apart, will be under analysis in order to trace the generational transformation in women’s writing in India, especially Bengal. Situated in the colonial and postcolonial frames of history, Hossain and Mahasweta Devi may be contextualized differently. At the same time their subjects are also differently categorized; the former is not particularly concerned with subalterns (...)
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Maleness and Masculinity
  1. Christine di Stefano (forthcoming). Configurations of Masculinity: A Feminist Perspective on Modern. Political Theory.
  2. Christine Di Stefano (1991). Configurations of Masculinity: A Feminist Perspective on Modern Political Theory. Cornell University Press.
  3. Tom Digby (1998). Do Feminists Hate Men?: Feminism, Antifeminism, and Gender Oppositionality. Journal of Social Philosophy 29 (2):15-31.
  4. F. M. Dolan (2006). Book Review: Manhood and American Political Culture in the Cold War. [REVIEW] Political Theory 34 (6):821-824.
  5. Christine James (1997). Feminism and Masculinity: Reconceptualizing the Dichotomy of Reason and Emotion. International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy 17 (1/2):129-152.
    In the context of feminist and postmodern thought, traditional conceptions of masculinity and what it means to be a “Real Man” have been critiqued. In Genevieve Lloyd's The Man of Reason, this critique takes the form of exposing the effect that the distinctive masculinity of the “man of reason” has had on the history of philosophy. One major feature of the masculine-feminine dichotomy will emerge as a key notion for understanding the rest of the paper: the dichotomy of reason-feeling, a (...)
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  6. Christine James (1996). Reconceptualizing Masculinity: Review Essay. disClosure 1996 (Reason Incorporated):74-83.
    Recent feminist and postmodern thought has critiqued traditional conceptions of masculinity, describing the effect that the distinctive masculinity of the "man of reason" has had on the history of philosophy, on consciousness, and on the academy. A common characteristic of the recent literature on masculinity is that it reflects the historical and cultural context in which it is written -- a context of binary, hierarchical dualisms which involve certain symbolic associations. These dualisms, such as Man-Woman, masculine-feminine, and reason-emotion, arguably find (...)
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  7. Hugh LaFollette (1992). Real Men. In Larry May & Robert Strikwerda (eds.), Masculinity. Rowman and Littlefield. 59--74.
    "Ah, for the good old days, when men were men and women were women." Men who express such sentiments long for the world where homosexuals were ensconced in their closets and women were sexy, demure, and subservient. That is a world well lost -- though not as lost as I would like. More than a few men still practice misogyny and homophobia. The defects of such attitudes are obvious. My concern here is not to document these defects but to ask (...)
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  8. Mika LaVaque-Manty & Mika Le Vaque-Manty (2006). Dueling for Equality: Masculine Honor and the Modern Politics of Dignity. Political Theory 34 (6):715 - 740.
    This essay argues that aristocratic values and social practices were deployed in the transition to modernity, where equal dignity replaced positional honor as the ground on which an individual's political status rests. The essay focuses on dueling, one of the most important practices for the maintenance of aristocratic honor, at the moments of transition, primarily in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. The author argues that the practice has resources for an egalitarian refashioning. This is because it is a system for (...)
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  9. Larry May & Robert Strikwerda (eds.) (1992). Rethinking Masculinity: Philosophical Explorations in Light of Feminism. Rowman and Littlefield.
    This fascinating collection of articles offers thoughtful reflections on issues of masculinity too often neglected in feminist philosophy.
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  10. Moshe Negbi (1995). Male and Female in Theophrastus's Botanical Works. Journal of the History of Biology 28 (2):317 - 332.
  11. Mark R. Reiff (2003). The Politics of Masochism. Inquiry 46 (1):29 – 63.
    This essay explores why people sometimes act against their economic interests, and, more particularly, why people sometimes knowingly and intentionally support economic inequality even though they are disadvantaged by it, a phenomenon I call masochistic inegalitarianism. The essay argues that such behavior is an inherent and widespread feature of human nature, and that this has important though previously overlooked practical and theoretical implications for any conception of distributive justice. On the practical side, masochistic inegalitarianism suggests that any theory of distributive (...)
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  12. Robert Strikwerda & Larry May (1992). Male Friendship and Intimacy. Hypatia 7 (2):110 - 125.
    Our primary focus is the concept of intimacy, especially in the context of adult American male relationships. We begin with an examination of comradeship, a nonintimate form of friendship, then develop an account of the nature and value of intimacy in friendship. We follow this with discussions of obstacles to intimacy and of Aristotle's views. In the final section, we discuss the process of men attaining intimacy.
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Women in Philosophy
  1. Toni Adleberg, Morgan Thompson & Eddy Nahmias (forthcoming). Do Men and Women Have Different Philosophical Intuitions? Further Data. Philosophical Psychology:1-27.
    To address the underrepresentation of women in philosophy effectively, we must understand the causes of the loss of women after their initial philosophy classes. In this paper we challenge one of the few explanations that has focused on why women might leave philosophy at early stages. Wesley Buckwalter and Stephen Stich (2014) offer some evidence that women have different intuitions than men about philosophical thought experiments. We present some concerns about their evidence and we discuss our own study, in which (...)
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  2. Linda Martín Alcoff & Eva Feder Kittay (2007). Introduction: Defining Feminist Philosophy. In Linda Alcoff & Eva Feder Kittay (eds.), The Blackwell Guide to Feminist Philosophy. Blackwell Pub..
  3. Anita Allen, Anika Maaza Mann, Donna-Dale L. Marcano, Michele Moody-Adams & Jacqueline Scott (2008). Situated Black Women's Voices in/on the Profession of Philosophy. Hypatia 23 (2):160-189.
  4. Marije Altorf (2011). After Cursing the Library: Iris Murdoch and the (In)Visibility of Women in Philosophy. Hypatia 26 (2):384-402.
    This article offers a critical reading of three major biographies of the British novelist and philosopher Iris Murdoch. It considers in particular how a limited concern for gender issues has hampered their portrayals of Murdoch as a creator of images and ideas. The biographies are then contrasted to a biographical sketch constructed from Murdoch's philosophical writing. The assessment of the biographies is set against the larger background of the relation between women and philosophy. In doing so, the paper offers a (...)
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  5. Louise Antony (2012). Different Voices or Perfect Storm: Why Are There So Few Women in Philosophy? Journal of Social Philosophy 43 (3):227-255.
  6. Babette Babich (2010). COMMENT-Hey! Can't You Smile! Women and Status in Philosophy. Radical Philosophy 160:36.
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  7. Alison Bailey (2005). Book Review: Naomi Zack.Women of Color and Philosophy. Malden, Mass.: Blackwell Publishers, 2000. [REVIEW] Hypatia 20 (1):220-225.
    Naomi Zack’s unique and important collection, Women of Color and Philosophy, brings together for the first time the voices of twelve philosophers who are women of color. She begins with the premise that the work of women of color who do philosophy in academe, but who do not write exclusively on issues of race, ethnicity, and gender, merits a collection of its own. It’s rare that women of color pursue philosophy in academic contexts; Zack counts at most thirty among the (...)
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  8. Yann Benétreau-Dupin & Guillaume Beaulac (forthcoming). Fair Numbers: What Data Can and Cannot Tell Us About the Underrepresentation of Women in Philosophy. Ergo.
    The low representation of women in philosophy (<30%) in English-speaking countries has generated much discussion, both in academic circles and the public sphere. It is sometimes suggested (Haslanger, 2009) that unconscious biases, acting at every level in the field, may be grounded in gendered schemas of philosophers and the discipline more widely and that actions to make philosophy a more welcoming place for women should address such schemas. However, existing data are too limited to fully warrant such an explanation, which (...)
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  9. Ophelia Benson (2013). Women in Philosophy. The Philosophers' Magazine 62 (62):19-20.
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  10. Rosi Braidotti (1991). Patterns of Dissonance: A Study of Women in Contemporary Philosophy. Routledge.
  11. Samantha Brennan & Rob Corless, Creating a Warmer Environment for Women in the Mathematical Sciences and in Philosophy.
    Speaking from our experience as department chairs in fields in which women are traditionally underrepresented, we offer reflections and advice on how one might move beyond the chilly climate and create a warmer environment for women students and faculty members.
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