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  1. Wayne Allen (1999). Eric Voegelin on the Genealogy of Race. International Philosophical Quarterly 39 (3):317-337.
  2. Luvell Anderson, Sally Haslanger & Rae Langton (2012). Language and Race. In Gillian Russell & Delia Graff Fara (eds.), The Routledge Companion to Philosophy of Language. Routledge.
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  3. Barbara S. Andrew (2000). Beauvoir and The Second Sex: Feminism, Race, and the Origins of Existentialism (Review). Journal of Speculative Philosophy 14 (2):156-160.
  4. Meg Armstrong (1996). "The Effects of Blackness": Gender, Race, and the Sublime in Aesthetic Theories of Burke and Kant. Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism 54 (3):213-236.
  5. Karla C. Holloway (2006). Response to Open Peer Commentaries on “Accidental Communities: Race, Emergency Medicine, and the Problem of PolyHeme”: The “R” Word: Bioethics and a (Dis)Regard of Race. American Journal of Bioethics 6 (3):W46-W48.
  6. Christine Clarke (2010). Fuelling the Machine: Slave Trade and the Industrial Revolution. Constellations 1 (2).
    Some have contested the Industrial Revolution’s status as a climactic event bringing social and political upheaval. However, the abolishment of slavery, the destruction of traditional ways of life, and the rise of class-consciousness confirm the climactic nature of this period. In analyzing the dramatic changes in the social organization of British society, this paper aims to reclaim the title of the Industrial Revolution as just that--revolutionary.
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  7. Jay N. Cohn (2006). The Use of Race and Ethnicity in Medicine: Lessons From the African-American Heart Failure Trial. Journal of Law, Medicine Andlt;Html_ent Glyph= 34 (3):552-554.
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  8. Frank C. Dukepoo (1998). Commentary on “Scientific Limitations and Ethical Ramifications of a Non-Representative Human Genome Project: African American Responses” (F. Jackson). [REVIEW] Science and Engineering Ethics 4 (2):171-180.
  9. Michele Goodwin (2008). Review of L. Prograis and E. Pellegrino, Eds., African American Bioethics: Culture, Race, and Identity. [REVIEW] American Journal of Bioethics 8 (11):52-54.
  10. Christopher Hom (2008). The Semantics of Racial Epithets. Journal of Philosophy 105 (8):416-440.
    (forthcoming, Journal of Philosophy) - PDF Racial epithets are derogatory expressions, understood to convey contempt toward their targets. But what do they actually mean, if anything? While the prevailing view is that epithets are to be explained pragmatically, I argue that a careful consideration of the data strongly supports a particular semantic theory. I call this view Combinatorial Externalism (CE). CE holds that epithets express complex properties that are determined by the discriminatory practices and stereotypes of their corresponding racist institutions. (...)
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  11. Fatimah Jackson (1998). Scientific Limitations and Ethical Ramifications of a Non-Representative Human Genome Project: African American Response. [REVIEW] Science and Engineering Ethics 4 (2):155-170.
    The Human Genome Project (HGP) represents a massive merging of science and technology in the name of all humanity. While the disease aspects of HGP-generated data have received the greatest publicity and are the strongest rationale for the project, it should be remembered that the HGP has, as its goal the sequencing of all 100,000 human genes and the accurate depiction of the ancestral and functional relationships among these genes. The HGP will thus be constructing the molecular taxonomic norm for (...)
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  12. I. I. I. McClendon (2004). On the Nature of Whiteness and the Ontology of Race: Toward a Dialectical Materialist Analysis. In George Yancy (ed.), What White Looks Like: African-American Philosophers on the Whiteness Question. Routledge.
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  13. John H. McClendon (2004). Philosophy of Language and the African American Experience: Are There Metaphilosophical Implications? Journal of Speculative Philosophy 18 (4):305-310.
  14. Wanda S. Pillow (2007). Searching for Sacajawea: Whitened Reproductions and Endarkened Representations. Hypatia 22 (2):1-19.
    : Pillow's aim is to demonstrate how representations of Sacajawea have shifted in writings about the Lewis and Clark expedition in ways that support manifest destiny and white colonial projects. This essay begins with a general account of Sacajawea. The next section uses two novels (one hundred years apart) to make the case that shifts in the representation of this important historical figure serve similar purposes. There is some attention to white suffragist representations, but the central contrast is between manifest (...)
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  15. Dorothy E. Roberts (2008). Is Race-Based Medicine Good for Us?: African American Approaches to Race, Biomedicine, and Equality. Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 36 (3):537-545.
  16. Laura A. Siminoff & Christina M. Saunders Sturm (2000). African-American Reluctance to Donate: Beliefs and Attitudes About Organ Donation and Implications for Policy. Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 10 (1):59-74.
    : This paper reviews current and suggested policies designed to increase organ donation in the United States and indicates the problems inherent to these approaches for increasing organ donation by African Americans. Data from a population-based study assessing attitudes and beliefs about organ donation among white and African-American respondents are presented and discussed. We pose the question of whether it is reasonable to maintain the existing system or whether we should institute a system that uses policies based on the attitudes (...)
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  17. K. Smith & J. Russell (1997). Ethical Issues Experienced by HIV-Infected African-American Women. Nursing Ethics 4 (5):394-402.
    The epidemic of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) has led to many ethical problems. Most studies have focused on the ethical issues faced by nurses who provide care to persons with AIDS (PWA), rather than the ethical issues faced by PWAs themselves. The purpose of this study, therefore, was to explore the ethical issues faced by five HIV/AIDS-infected African-American women. An analysis of interview data revealed that these women deal with four broad categories of ethical issues: (...)
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  18. James Wong (2001). Race, Class, Gender, and Sexuality. Dialogue 40 (2):426-428.
  19. Naomi Zack (1995). Mixed Black and White Race and Public Policy. Hypatia 10 (1):120 - 132.
    The American folk concept of race assumes the factual existence of races. However, biological science does not furnish empirical support for this assumption. Public policy derived from nineteenth century slave-owning patriarchy is the only foundation of the "one-drop rule" for black and white racial inheritance. In principle, Americans who are both black and white have a right to identify themselves racially. In fact, recent demographic changes and multiracial academic scholarship support this right.
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Critical Race Theory
  1. Linda Martín Alcoff (2003). Latino/as, Asian Americans, and the Black–White Binary. Journal of Ethics 7 (1):5-27.
    This paper aims to contribute toward coalitionbuilding by showing that, even if we try tobuild coalition around what might look like ourmost obvious common concern – reducing racism –the dominant discourse of racial politics inthe United States inhibits an understanding ofhow racism operates vis-à-vis Latino/as andAsian Americans, and thus proves more of anobstacle to coalition building than an aid. Theblack/white paradigm, which operates to governracial classifications and racial politics inthe U.S., takes race in the U.S. to consist ofonly two racial (...)
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  2. Andrew Altman (1995). Book Review:Words That Wound: Critical Race Theory, Assaultive Speech, and the First Amendment. Mari J. Matsuda. [REVIEW] Ethics 106 (1):211-.
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  3. Yoko Arisaka, Asian Women: Invisibility, Locations, and Claims to Philosophy.
    “Asian women” is an ambiguous category; it seems to indicate a racial as well as a cultural designation. The number of articles or books on being Asian or Asian-American is on the rise in other disciplines, but in comparison to the material on black or Hispanic identities, Asians are largely missing from the field of philosophy of race. Things Asian in philosophy are generally reserved for those who study Asian philosophy or comparative philosophy, but that focus usually excludes reflections on (...)
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  4. Janet Borgerson & Jonathan Schroeder (2002). Ethical Issues of Global Marketing: Avoiding Bad Faith in Visual Representation. European Journal of Marketing 36 (5/6):570-594.
    This paper examines visual representation from a distinctive, interdisciplinary perspective that draws on ethics, visual studies and critical race theory. Suggests ways to clarify complex issues of representational ethics in marketing communications and marketing representations, suggesting an analysis that makes identity creation central to societal marketing concerns. Analyzes representations of the exotic Other in disparate marketing campaigns, drawing upon tourist promotions, advertisements, and mundane objects in material culture. Moreover, music is an important force in marketing communication: visual representations in music (...)
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  5. Tommy J. Curry (2011). On Derelict and Method. Radical Philosophy Review 14 (2):139-164.
    African-American/Africana philosophy has made a name for itself as a critical perspective on the inadequacies of European philosophical thought. While this polemical mode has certainly contributed to the questioning of and debates over the universalism of white philosophy, it has nonetheless left Africana philosophy dependent on these criticisms to justify its existence as “philosophical.” This practice has the effect of not only distracting Black philosophers from understanding the thought of their ancestors, but formulates the practice of Africana philosophy as “racial (...)
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  6. Tommy J. Curry (2010). Concerning the Underspecialization of Race Theory in American Philosophy: How the Exclusion of Black Sources Affects the Field. The Pluralist 5 (1):44-64.
    Despite the recent rise in articles by American philosophers willing to deal with race, the sophistication of American philosophy's conceptualizations of American racism continues to lag behind other liberal arts fields committed to similar endeavors. Whereas other fields like American studies, history, sociology, and Black studies have found the foundational works of Black scholars essential to "truly" understanding the complexities of racism, American philosophy-driven by the refusal of white philosophers to acknowledge and incorporate the foundational works of Black scholars at (...)
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  7. Tommy J. Curry (2009). From Rousseau's Theory of Natural Equality to Firmin's Resistance to the Historical Inequality of Races. Clr James Journal 15 (1):135-163.
  8. Kathryn T. Gines (2012). Reflections on the Legacy and Future of the Continental Tradition with Regard to the Critical Philosophy of Race. Southern Journal of Philosophy 50 (2):329-344.
    The legacy and future of continental philosophy with regard to the critical philosophy of race can be seen in prominent canonical philosophical figures, the scholarship of contemporary philosophers, and recent edited collections and book series. The following reflections highlight some (though certainly not all) of the contacts and overlaps between a select number of continental philosophers and the critical philosophy of race. In particular, I consider how the continental tradition has contributed to the development of the critical philosophy of race (...)
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  9. Charles W. Mills (2010). Realizing (Through Racializing) Pogge. In Alison M. Jaggar (ed.), Thomas Pogge and His Critics. Polity.
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  10. Mechthild Nagel (2008). What If Habermas Went Native? peace studies journal 1:1-12.
  11. Cynthia R. Nielsen (2012). Resistance is Not Futile: Frederick Douglass on Panoptic Plantations and the Un-Making of Docile Bodies and Enslaved Souls. Philosophy and Literature 35 (2):251-268.
    Frederick Douglass, in his first autobiography, Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, describes how his sociopolitical identity was scripted by the white other and how his spatiotemporal existence was likewise constrained through constant surveillance and disciplinary dispositifs. Even so, Douglass was able to assert his humanity through creative acts of resistance. In this essay, I highlight the ways in which Douglass refused to accept the other-imposed narrative, demonstrating with his life the truth of his being—a human being unwilling to (...)
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  12. Laurence Parker & David O. Stovall (2004). Actions Following Words: Critical Race Theory Connects to Critical Pedagogy. Educational Philosophy and Theory 36 (2):167–182.
  13. Gaile Pohlhaus (2009). Understanding Across Difference and Analogical Thinking in Simpson's The Unfinished Project. Journal for Peace and Justice Studies 19 (1):37-49.
  14. Jeanne M. Powers (2007). The Relevance of Critical Race Theory to Educational Theory and Practice. Journal of Philosophy of Education 41 (1):151–166.
  15. Naomi Seiler (2003). Identifying Racial Privilege: Lessons From Critical Race Theory and the Law. American Journal of Bioethics 3 (2):24 – 25.
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  16. Michael Staudigl (2012). Racism: On the Phenomenology of Embodied Desocialization. [REVIEW] Continental Philosophy Review 45 (1):23-39.
    This paper addresses racism from a phenomenological viewpoint. Its main task is, ultimately, to show that racism as a process of “negative socialization” does not amount to a contingent deficiency that simply disappears under the conditions of a fully integrated society. In other words, I suspect that racism does not only indicate a lack of integration, solidarity, responsibility, recognition, etc.; rather, that it is, in its extraordinary negativity, a socially constitutive phenomenon per se . After suggesting phenomenology’s potential to tackle (...)
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  17. Paul C. Taylor (2004). What's the Use of Calling Du Bois a Pragmatist? Metaphilosophy 35 (1-2):99-114.
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  18. Paul C. Taylor (2004). Silence and Sympathy: Dewey's Whiteness. In George Yancy (ed.), What White Looks Like: African-American Philosophers on the Whiteness Question. Routledge.
  19. Paul C. Taylor & Ronald Robles Sundstrom (2010). Introduction. Journal of Social Philosophy 41 (3):237-243.
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  20. Cynthia Willett (2014). Going to Bed White and Waking Up Arab: On Xenophobia, Affect Theories of Laughter, and the Social Contagion of the Comic Stage. Critical Philosophy of Race 2 (1):84-105.
    Like lynching and other mass hysterias, xenophobia exemplifies a contagious, collective wave of energy and hedonic quality that can point toward a troubling unpredictability at the core of political and social systems. While earlier studies of mass hysteria and popular discourse assume that cooler heads (aka rational individuals with their logic) could and should regain control over those emotions that are deemed irrational, and that boundaries are assumed healthy only when intact, affect studies pose individuals as nodes of biosocial networks (...)
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Epistemologies of Ignorance
  1. Ben Almassi (2013). A Defense of Ignorance: Its Value for Knowers and Roles in Feminist and Social Epistemologies. By Cynthia Townley. Lanham, Md.: Lexington Books, 2011. [REVIEW] Hypatia 28 (1):215-217.
  2. Alison Bailey (forthcoming). 'White Talk' as a Barrier to Understanding Whiteness. In George Yancy (ed.), What's It Like to Be a White Problem? Lexington Books.
    My project is to explain why the question ‘How does it feel to be a white problem?’ cannot be answered in the fluttering grammar of white talk. The whiteness of white talk lies not only in its having emerged from white mouths, but also in its evasiveness—in its attempt to suppress fear and anxiety, and its consequential [if unintended] reinscription and legitimation of racist oppression. I White talk is designed, indeed scripted, for the purposes of evading, rejecting, and remaining ignorant (...)
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  3. Alison Bailey (2007). Strategic Ignorance. In Shannon Sullivan & Nancy Tuana (eds.), Race and Epistemologies of Ignorance. State Univ of New York Pr. 77--94.
    I want to explore strategic expressions of ignorance against the background of Charles W. Mills's account of epistemologies of ignorance in The Racial Contract (1997). My project has two interrelated goals. I want to show how Mills's discussion is restricted by his decision to frame ignorance within the language and logic of social contract theory. And, I want to explain why Maria Lugones's work on purity is useful in reframing ignorance in ways that both expand our understandings of ignorance and (...)
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  4. Annaleigh Curtis (2013). Review of The Epistemology of Resistance: Gender and Racial Oppression, Epistemic Injustice, and Resistant Imaginations. [REVIEW] Hypatia.
  5. Kristie Dotson (2011). Tracking Epistemic Violence, Tracking Practices of Silencing. Hypatia 26 (2):236-257.
    Too often, identifying practices of silencing is a seemingly impossible exercise. Here I claim that attempting to give a conceptual reading of the epistemic violence present when silencing occurs can help distinguish the different ways members of oppressed groups are silenced with respect to testimony. I offer an account of epistemic violence as the failure, owing to pernicious ignorance, of hearers to meet the vulnerabilities of speakers in linguistic exchanges. Ultimately, I illustrate that by focusing on the ways in which (...)
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  6. Kim Q. Hall (2012). “Not Much to Praise in Such Seeking and Finding”: Evolutionary Psychology, the Biological Turn in the Humanities, and the Epistemology of Ignorance. Hypatia 27 (1):28-49.
    This paper critiques the rise of scientific approaches to central questions in the humanities, specifically questions about human nature, ethics, identity, and experience. In particular, I look at how an increasing number of philosophers are turning to evolutionary psychology and neuroscience as sources of answers to philosophical problems. This approach constitutes what I term a biological turn in the humanities. I argue that the biological turn, especially its reliance on evolutionary psychology, is best understood as an epistemology of ignorance that (...)
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  7. Melissa M. Kozma & Jeanine Weekes Schroer (forthcoming). Purposeful Nonsense, Intersectionality, and the Mission to Save Black Babies. In Namita Goswami, Maeve O'Donavan & Lisa Yount (eds.), Why Race and Gender Still Matter: An Intersectional Approach. Pickering & Chatto Ltd.
    The competing expressions of ideology flooding the contemporary political landscape have taken a turn toward the absurd. The Radiance Foundation’s recent anti-abortion campaign targeting African-American women, including a series of billboards bearing the slogan “The most dangerous place for an African-American child is in the womb”, is just one example of political "discourse" that is both infuriating and confounding. Discourse with these features – problematic intelligibility, disinterest in the truth, and inflammatory rhetoric – has become increasingly common in politics, the (...)
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  8. Charles W. Mills (1998). Blackness Visible: Essays on Philosophy and Race. Cornell University Press.
    Charles Mills makes visible in the world of mainstream philosophy some of the crucial issues of the black experience.
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  9. Michael J. Monahan (2014). The Concept of Privilege. South African Journal of Philosophy 33 (1):73-83.
    In this essay, I examine the use of the concept of privilege within the critical theoretical discourse on oppression and liberation (with a particular focus on white privilege and antiracism in the USA). In order to fulfill the rhetorical aims of liberation, concepts for privilege must meet what I term the ‘boundary condition’, which demarcates the boundary between a privileged elite and the rest of society, and the ‘ignorance condition’, which establishes that the elite status and the advantages it confers (...)
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  10. Anna Mudde (2013). Implicit Understanding and Social Ontologies. Phaenex 8 (1):259-266.
    This paper is part of a book symposium on Alexis Shotwell's Knowing Otherwise: Race, Gender, and Implicit Understanding (Penn State Press, 2011).
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  11. Peter Rickman (2005). The Epistemology of Ignorance. Philosophy Now 51:28-29.
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