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  1. Martin Berg (2010). Queer. Liber.
  2. Claudia Card (1990). Why Homophobia? Hypatia 5 (3):110-117.
  3. Anne M. Edwards (1997). Homosexuality. Teaching Philosophy 20 (4):437-440.
  4. Thomas K. Hubbard (2009). The Paradox of “Natural” Heterosexuality with “Unnatural” Women. Classical World 102 (3):249-258.
  5. M. Lambert (2004). A Sourcebook for Homosexuality T. K. Hubbard (Ed.): Homosexuality in Greece and Rome. A Sourcebook of Basic Documents . Pp. XVII + 558, Ills. Berkeley, Los Angeles, and London: University of California Press, 2003. Paper, Us$34.95/£24.95 (Cased, Us$75/£52). Isbn: 0-520-23430-8 (0-520-22381-0 Hbk). [REVIEW] The Classical Review 54 (02):439-.
  6. Christina Matta (2005). Ambiguous Bodies and Deviant Sexualities: Hermaphrodites, Homosexuality, and Surgery in the United States, 1850-1904. Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 48 (1):74-83.
  7. Christine Overall (1991). AIDS and Women: The (Hetero)Sexual Politics of HIV Infection. In Christine Overall & William Zion (eds.), Perspectives On AIDS: Ethical and Social Issues. Oxford University Press.
  8. Paul Robinson (1999). Freud and Homosexuality. Constellations 6 (1):80-84.
  9. Vernon A. Rosario (ed.) (1997). Science and Homosexualities. Routledge.
    Science and Homosexualities is the first anthology by historians of science to examine European and American scientific research on sexual orientation since the coining of the word "homosexual" almost 150 years ago. This collection is particularly timely given the enormous scientific and popular interest in biological studies of homosexuality, and the importance given such studies in current legal, legislative and cultural debates concerning gay civil rights. However, scientific and popular literature discussing the biology of sexual orientation have been short-sighted in (...)
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  10. Michael Ruse (1990). Homosexuality: A Philosophical Inquiry. Blackwell.
Genetics and Sexual Orientation
  1. Sean Brady (2012). John Addington Symonds (1840-1893) and Homosexuality: A Critical Edition of Sources. Palgrave Macmillan.
    This volume is an indispensable reference for a wide range of scholars working across multidisciplinary fields of inquiry that focus on British and continental histories of medicine and sexuality, gender history and studies of nineteenth ...
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  2. Andreas De Block & Pieter Adriaens (2004). Darwinizing Sexual Ambivalence: A New Evolutionary Hypothesis of Male Homosexuality. Philosophical Psychology 17 (1):59 – 76.
    At first sight, homosexuality has little to do with reproduction. Nevertheless, many neo-Darwinian theoreticians think that human homosexuality may have had a procreative value, since it enabled the close kin of homosexuals to have more viable offspring than individuals lacking the support of homosexual siblings. In this article, however, we will defend an alternative hypothesis - originally put forward by Freud in "A phylogenetic phantasy" - namely that homosexuality evolved as a means to strengthen social bonds. Consequently, from an evolutionary (...)
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  3. Christopher Horvath (2007). Biological Explanations of Human Sexuality: The Genetic Basis of Sexual Orientation. In David L. Hull & Michael Ruse (eds.), The Cambridge Companion to the Philosophy of Biology. Cambridge University Press.
  4. Yi Jiang, Patricia Costello, Fang Fang, Miner Huang & Sheng He (2006). A Gender- and Sexual Orientation-Dependent Spatial Attentional Effect of Invisible Images. Pnas 103 (45):17048 -17052.
  5. Noretta Koertge (ed.) (1981). The Nature and Causes of Homosexuality: A Philosophic and Scientific Inquiry. Haworth Press.
    For a balanced discussion of the main social, medical, and philosophical aspects of homosexuality, here is the ideal book. Written by philosophers of science, each comprehensive chapter takes a critical look at research on the etiology of homosexuality. Read Philosophy and Homosexuality and examine the evidence for both the sociobiological and hormonal explanations of homosexuality and study the definitions of sexual orientation and how they have affected research.
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  6. Helga Kuhse & Peter Singer (1998). From the Editors: Choosing the Sex, Race and Sexual Orientation of Our Children. Bioethics 12 (1):iii–v.
  7. M. MacCulloch (1980). Biological Aspects of Homosexuality. Journal of Medical Ethics 6 (3):133-138.
  8. Janice McLaughlin (2010). Where's the Harm? : Challenging Bioethical Support of Prenatal Selection for Sexual Orientation. In Jackie Leach Scully, Laurel Baldwin-Ragaven & Petya Fitzpatrick (eds.), Feminist Bioethics: At the Center, on the Margins. Johns Hopkins University Press.
  9. Timothy F. Murphy (1995). Abortion and the Ethics of Genetic Sexual Orientation Research. Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 4 (03):340-.
  10. Charles Weijer, Queer Science: The Use and Abuse of Research Into Homosexuality.
Innateness of Sexual Orientation
  1. Daryl Bem, Exotic Becomes Erotic: A Political Postscript.
    This article is a postscript to Bem's (1996) theory of sexual orientation, which claims that an individual's sexual orientation is more directly the result of childhood experiences than of inborn biological factors. The possibility that the theory provides a successful strategy for preventing gender-nonconforming children from becoming homosexual adults is considered and rejected. So, too, is the thesis that biological explanations of homosexuality are more likely than experience-based explanations to promote gay-positive attitudes and practices.
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  2. Daryl Bem, Exotic Becomes Erotic: Interpreting the Biological Correlates of Sexual Orientation.
    Although biological findings currently dominate the research literature on the de- terminants of sexual orientation, biological theorizing has not yet spelled out a developmental path by which any of the various biological correlates so far iden- tified might lead to a particular sexual orientation. The Exotic-Becomes-Erotic (EBE) theory of sexual orientation (Bem, 1996) attempts to do just that, by sug- gesting how biological variables might interact with experiential and sociocultural factors to influence an individual’s sexual orientation. Evidence for the theory (...)
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  3. Sean Brady (2012). John Addington Symonds (1840-1893) and Homosexuality: A Critical Edition of Sources. Palgrave Macmillan.
    This volume is an indispensable reference for a wide range of scholars working across multidisciplinary fields of inquiry that focus on British and continental histories of medicine and sexuality, gender history and studies of nineteenth ...
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  4. Ann Burlein (2005). The Productive Power of Ambiguity: Rethinking Homosexuality Through the Virtual and Developmental Systems Theory. Hypatia 20 (1):21-53.
  5. Robert J. Cramer, Frank D. Golom, Charles T. LoPresto & Shalene M. Kirkley (2008). Weighing the Evidence: Empirical Assessment and Ethical Implications of Conversion Therapy. Ethics and Behavior 18 (1):93 – 114.
    The American Psychological Association's (APA's) as well as other professional organizations' (e.g., American Psychiatric Association) removal of homosexuality as a mental disorder represented a paradigmatic shift in thinking about exual orientation. Since then, APA (2000) disseminated guidelines for working with lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) clients, and a variety of scholars and researchers alike have advocated affirmative therapeutic interventions with LGB individuals. Despite these efforts, the controversy over treating individuals with LGB orientations using nonaffirmative techniques continues. In this discussion, the (...)
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  6. Dena S. Davis (2008). Religion, Genetics, and Sexual Orientation: The Jewish Tradition. Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 18 (2):pp. 125-148.
    This paper probes the implications of a genetic basis for sexual orientation for traditional branches of Judaism, which are struggling with how accepting to be of noncelibate gays and lesbians in their communities. The paper looks at the current attitudes toward homosexuality across the different branches of Judaism; social and cultural factors that work against acceptance; attitudes toward science in Jewish culture; and the likelihood that scientific evidence that sexual orientation is at least partly genetically determined will influence Jewish scholars' (...)
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  7. Christopher Horvath (2007). Biological Explanations of Human Sexuality: The Genetic Basis of Sexual Orientation. In David L. Hull & Michael Ruse (eds.), The Cambridge Companion to the Philosophy of Biology. Cambridge University Press.
  8. Yi Jiang, Patricia Costello, Fang Fang, Miner Huang & Sheng He (2006). A Gender- and Sexual Orientation-Dependent Spatial Attentional Effect of Invisible Images. Pnas 103 (45):17048 -17052.
  9. Noretta Koertge (ed.) (1981). The Nature and Causes of Homosexuality: A Philosophic and Scientific Inquiry. Haworth Press.
    For a balanced discussion of the main social, medical, and philosophical aspects of homosexuality, here is the ideal book. Written by philosophers of science, each comprehensive chapter takes a critical look at research on the etiology of homosexuality. Read Philosophy and Homosexuality and examine the evidence for both the sociobiological and hormonal explanations of homosexuality and study the definitions of sexual orientation and how they have affected research.
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  10. R. C. Lyle (1975). Deviant Sexual Behaviour: Modification and Assessment. Journal of Medical Ethics 1 (4):197-198.
  11. M. MacCulloch (1980). Biological Aspects of Homosexuality. Journal of Medical Ethics 6 (3):133-138.
Sexual Orientation and Choice
  1. Cheshire Calhoun (1996). Book Review:Lesbian Choices. Claudia Card. [REVIEW] Ethics 106 (4):862-.
  2. Robert J. Cramer, Frank D. Golom, Charles T. LoPresto & Shalene M. Kirkley (2008). Weighing the Evidence: Empirical Assessment and Ethical Implications of Conversion Therapy. Ethics and Behavior 18 (1):93 – 114.
    The American Psychological Association's (APA's) as well as other professional organizations' (e.g., American Psychiatric Association) removal of homosexuality as a mental disorder represented a paradigmatic shift in thinking about exual orientation. Since then, APA (2000) disseminated guidelines for working with lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) clients, and a variety of scholars and researchers alike have advocated affirmative therapeutic interventions with LGB individuals. Despite these efforts, the controversy over treating individuals with LGB orientations using nonaffirmative techniques continues. In this discussion, the (...)
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  3. Candice Delmas (2014). Three Harms of 'Conversion' Therapy. AJOB Neuroscience 5 (1):22-23.
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  4. Peter Higgins (2005). Sexual Disorientation: Moral Implications of Gender Norms. In Lisa Gurley, Claudia Leeb & Anna Aloisia Moser (eds.), Feminists Contest Politics and Philosophy. PIE - Peter Lang.
    This paper argues that participating exclusively or predominantly in heterosexual romantic or sexual relationships is prima facie morally impermissible. It holds that this conclusion follows from three premises: (1) gender norms are on-balance harmful; (2) conforming to harmful social norms is prima facie morally impermissible; and (3) participating exclusively or predominantly in heterosexual romantic or sexual relationships is a way of conforming to gender norms.
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  5. Noretta Koertge (ed.) (1981). The Nature and Causes of Homosexuality: A Philosophic and Scientific Inquiry. Haworth Press.
    For a balanced discussion of the main social, medical, and philosophical aspects of homosexuality, here is the ideal book. Written by philosophers of science, each comprehensive chapter takes a critical look at research on the etiology of homosexuality. Read Philosophy and Homosexuality and examine the evidence for both the sociobiological and hormonal explanations of homosexuality and study the definitions of sexual orientation and how they have affected research.
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Outing and Sexual Orientation
  1. Jami L. Anderson (2003). A Unique Propensity to Engage in Homosexual Acts. In Race, Gender, and Sexuality: Philosophical Issues of Identity and Justice.
    After stating "I am gay" Navy Lieutenant Paul G. Thomasson was honorably discharged from the military. In Thomasson v. Perry (1996), the United States Court of Appeals for the Fourth District affirmed Thomasson's discharge. Thomasson is now considered the leading case evaluating the U.S. military's "don't ask, don't tell" policy. In this paper, I show that the court's analysis of the Department of Defense policy rests of two unarticulated and undefended assumptions about sexuality. The first is that an act of (...)
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  2. Ronald J. Broach (1998). Does Human Dignity Require Outing Homosexuals? Journal of Social Philosophy 29 (2):32-45.
  3. Raja Halwani (2002). Outing and Virtue Ethics. Journal of Applied Philosophy 19 (2):141–154.
    The paper argues that the two dominant approaches towards the moral issues surrounding outing are too weak to handle the latter’s complexity and would benefit from being made part of a broader and richer framework, namely, that of virtue ethics. One dominant approach begins by arguing that people do not have the right to privacy in matters of sexual orientation (not behaviour), and so outing gay people does not violate such a right. It con- tinues by arguing that living a (...)
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  4. Raja Halwani, Gary Jaeger, James S. Stramel, Richard Nunan, William S. Wilkerson & Timothy F. Murphy (2008). What is Gay and Lesbian Philosophy? Metaphilosophy 39 (4-5):433-471.
    Abstract: This essay explores recent trends and major issues related to gay and lesbian philosophy in ethics (including issues concerning the morality of homosexuality, the natural function of sex, and outing and coming out); religion (covering past and present debates about the status of homosexuality and how biblical and qur'anic passages have been interpreted by both sides of the debate); the law (especially a discussion of the debates surrounding sodomy laws, same-sex marriage and its impact on transsexuals, and whether the (...)
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  5. Gary Hicks & Hillary Warren (1998). Whose Benefit? Gay and Lesbian Journalists Discuss Outing, the Individual, and the Community. Journal of Mass Media Ethics 13 (1):14 – 25.
    Through interviews with lesbian and gay journalists in Texas, the authors consider ethical decision making surrounding the phenomenon of outing. Outing is defined as the unauthorized mediated identification of gay and lesbian public figures who are not public about their sexual identih. This article discusses theoretical issues of ethics as they relate to the phenomenon of outing and applies that framework to the analysis of the interviews and a forum. The research found that in individual interviews journalists were more likely (...)
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  6. Alice MacLachlan (2012). Closet Doors and Stage Lights. Social Theory and Practice 38 (2):302-332.
    This paper makes an ethical and a conceptual case against any purported duty to come out of the closet. While there are recognizable goods associated with coming out, namely, leading an authentic life and resisting oppression, these goods generate a set of imperfect duties that are defeasible in a wide range of circumstances, and are only sometimes fulfilled by coming out. Second, practices of coming out depend on a ‘lump’ picture of sexuality and on an insufficiently subtle account of responsible (...)
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Topics in the Philosophy of Sexual Orientation, Misc
  1. Susan E. Babbitt (2005). Stories From the South: A Question of Logic. Hypatia 20 (3):1-21.
    : In this paper, I argue that stories about difference do not promote critical self and social understanding; rather, on the contrary, it is the way we understand ourselves that makes some stories relevantly different. I discuss the uncritical reception of a story about homosexuality in Cuba, urging attention to generalizations explaining judgments of importance. I suggest that some stories from the South will never be relevant to discussions about human flourishing until we critically examine ideas about freedom and democracy, (...)
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  2. Babette Babich (2006). Gay Science: Science and Wissenschaft, Leidenschaft and Music. In Keith Ansell-Pearson (ed.), Gay Science: Science and Wissenschaft, Leidenschaft and Music. Blackwell.
    On Nietzsche, science, the oral tradition -- or the troubadours and ancient Greek music drama.
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  3. Babette E. Babich (2005). The Science of Words or Philology: Music in The Birth of Tragedy and the Alchemy of Love in The Gay Science. Rivista di Estetica 45 (28):47-78.
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  4. Sara Beardsworth (2005). Freud's Oedipus and Kristeva's Narcissus: Three Heterogeneities. Hypatia 20 (1):54-77.
    : The paper shows that three heterogeneities in Freud and Kristeva (unconscious/conscious, semiotic/symbolic, and imaginary/symbolic) expose the historical emergence, significance, and demise of psychic structures that present obstacles to our progressive political thinking. The oedipal and narcissistic structures of subjectivity represent the persistence of two past, bad forms of authority: paternal law and maternal authority. Contemporary psychoanalysis reveals a humankind going through the loss of this past in a process that opens up a different future of sexual difference in Western (...)
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  5. David Bell & Gill Valentine (eds.) (1994). Mapping Desire: Geographies of Sexualities. Routledge.
    Discover the truth about sex in the city (and the country). Mapping Desire explores the places and spaces of sexuality from body to community, from the "cottage" to the Barrio, from Boston to Jakarta, from home to cyberspace. Mapping Desire is the first book to explore sexualities from a geographical perspective. The nature of place and notions of space are of increasing centrality to cultural and social theory. Mapping Desires presents the rich and diverse world of contemporary sexuality, exploring how (...)
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  6. Thom Brooks (2009). The Problem with Polygamy. Philosophical Topics 37 (2):109-22.
    Polygamy is a hotly contested practice and open to widespread misunderstandings. This practice is defined as a relationship between either one husband and multiple wives or one wife and multiple husbands. Today, 'polygamy' almost exclusively takes the form of one husband with multiple wives. In this article, my focus will centre on limited defences of polygamy offered recently by Chesire Calhoun and Martha Nussbaum. I will argue that these defences are unconvincing. The problem with polygamy is primarily that it is (...)
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  7. Stephen M. Engel (2001). The Unfinished Revolution: Social Movement Theory and the Gay and Lesbian Movement. Cambridge University Press.
    The Unfinished Revolution compares the post-Second World War histories of the American and British gay and lesbian movements with an eye toward understanding how distinct political institutional environments affect the development, strategies, goals, and outcomes of a social movement. Stephen M. Engel utilizes an electic mix of source materials ranging from the theories of Mancur Olson and Michel Foucault to Supreme Court rulings and film and television dialogue. The two case study chapters function as brief historical sketches to elucidate further (...)
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  8. Ami Harbin, Brenda Beagan & Lisa Goldberg (2012). Discomfort, Judgment, and Health Care for Queers. Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 9 (2):149-160.
    This paper draws on findings from qualitative interviews with queer and trans patients and with physicians providing care to queer and trans patients in Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada, to explore how routine practices of health care can perpetuate or challenge the marginalization of queers. One of the most common “measures” of improved cultural competence in health care practice is self-reported increases in confidence and comfort, though it seems unlikely that an increase in physician comfort levels with queer and trans patients (...)
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